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Open access

Lasse Oinonen, Antti Tikkakoski, Jenni Koskela, Arttu Eräranta, Mika Kähönen, Onni Niemelä, Jukka Mustonen, and Ilkka Pörsti

Parathyroid hormone has been related with the risk of hypertension, but the matter remains controversial. We examined the association of parathyroid hormone with central blood pressure and its determinants in 622 normotensive or never-treated hypertensive subjects aged 19–72 years without diabetes, cardiovascular or renal disease, or cardiovascular medications. The methods were whole-body impedance cardiography and analyses of pulse wave and heart rate variability. Cardiovascular function was examined in sex-specific tertiles of plasma parathyroid hormone (mean concentrations 3.0, 4.3 and 6.5 pmol/L, respectively) during head-up tilt. Explanatory factors for haemodynamics were further investigated using linear regression analyses. Mean age was 45.0 (s.d. 11.7) years, BMI 26.8 (4.4) kg/m2, seated office blood pressure 141/90 (21/12) mmHg, and 309 subjects (49.7%) were male. Only five participants had elevated plasma parathyroid hormone and calcium concentrations. Highest tertile of parathyroid hormone presented with higher supine and upright aortic diastolic blood pressure (P < 0.01) and augmentation index (P < 0.01), and higher upright systemic vascular resistance (P < 0.05) than the lowest tertile. The tertiles did not present with differences in pulse wave velocity, cardiac output, or measures of heart rate variability. In linear regression analyses, parathyroid hormone was an independent explanatory factor for aortic systolic (P = 0.005) and diastolic (P = 0.002) blood pressure, augmentation index (P = 0.002), and systemic vascular resistance (P = 0.031). To conclude, parathyroid hormone was directly related to central blood pressure, wave reflection, and systemic vascular resistance in subjects without cardiovascular comorbidities and medications. Thus, parathyroid hormone may play a role in the pathophysiology of primary hypertension.

Open access

Farzaneh Rohani, Mohammad Reza Alai, Sedighe Moradi, and Davoud Amirkashani

Background

This study was conducted to find out whether boys with constitutional delay in growth and puberty (CDGP) could attain their target height and predicted adult height (PAH) in adulthood or not.

Methods

After measuring the height, weight, pubertal stage, parental height and bone age data of the patients at their first presentation were extracted from the files and their height and weight were measured at the end of the study, wrist X-Ray was performed in order to determine the bone age. PAH was calculated using Bayley–Pinneau method and target height was estimated by mid parental height. Final or near final heights of the patients were measured and compared with the target height and PAH.

Results

The mean age at presentation and the end of study was 15.2 ± 0.95, 20 ± 0.75 years respectively. Mean of bone age at the beginning of study was 12.97 ± 1 years and at the end of study were 17.6 ± 0.58 years. Mean of delayed bone age was 2.2 ± 0.82 years. Mean of the primary measured heights was 150.16 ± 7 cm (138–160 cm). Mean of final or near final heights was 165.7 ± 2.89 cm (161–170.5 cm). Final or near final heights in our subjects were smaller than either their PAH (165.7 ± 2.89 vs 170.7 ± 5.17) (P value <0.005) or target height (165.7 ± 2.89 vs 171.8 ± 4.65) (P value <0.0001).

Conclusion

Most patients with CDGP do not reach their target height or predicted adult height; they are usually shorter than their parents and general population. Such patients need to be followed up until they reach their final height and, in some cases, adjunctive medical treatment might be indicated.

Open access

Thomas Reinehr, Martin Carlsson, Dionisios Chrysis, and Cecilia Camacho-Hübner

Background

The precision of adult height prediction by bone age determination in children with idiopathic growth hormone deficiency (IGHD) is unknown.

Methods

The near adult height (NAH) of patients with IGHD in the KIGS database was compared retrospectively to adult height prediction calculated by the Bayley–Pinneau (BP) prediction based on bone age by Greulich–Pyle (GP) in 315 children and based on the Tanner-Whitehouse 2 (TW2) method in 121 children. Multiple linear regression analyses adjusted for age at GH start, age at puberty, mean dose and years of of GH treatment, and maximum GH peak in stimulation test were calculated.

Results

The mean underestimation of adult height based on the BP method was at baseline 4.1 ± 0.7 cm in girls and 6.1 ± 0.6 cm in boys, at 1 year of GH treatment 2.5 ± 0.5 cm in girls and 0.9 ± 0.4 cm in boys, while at last bone age determination adult height was overestimated in mean by 0.4 ± 0.6 cm in girls and 3.8 ± 0.5 cm in boys. The mean underestimation of adult height based on the TW2 method was at baseline 5.3 ± 2.0 cm in girls and 7.9 ± 0.8 cm in boys, at 1 year of GH treatment adult height was overestimated in girls 0.1 ± 0.6 cm in girls and underestimated 4.1 ± 0.4 cm in boys, while at last bone age determination adult height was overestimated in mean by 3.1 ± 1.5 cm in girls and 3.6 ± 0.8 cm in boys.

Conclusions

Height prediction by BP and TW2 at onset of GH treatment underestimates adult height in prepubertal IGHD children, while in mean 6 years after onset of GH treatment these prediction methods overestimated adult height.

Open access

Enrique Soto-Pedre, Paul J Newey, John S Bevan, and Graham P Leese

Purpose

High serum prolactin concentrations have been associated with adverse health outcomes in some but not all studies. This study aimed to examine the morbidity and all-cause mortality associated with hyperprolactinaemia.

Methods

A population-based matched cohort study in Tayside (Scotland, UK) from 1988 to 2014 was performed. Record-linkage technology was used to identify patients with hyperprolactinaemia that were compared to an age–sex-matched cohort of patients free of hyperprolactinaemia. The number of deaths and incident admissions with diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, cancer, breast cancer, bone fractures and infectious conditions were compared by the survival analysis.

Results

Patients with hyperprolactinaemia related to pituitary tumours had no increased risk of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, bone fractures, all-cause cancer or breast cancer. Whilst no increased mortality was observed in patients with pituitary microadenomas (HR = 1.65, 95% CI: 0.79–3.44), other subgroups including those with pituitary macroadenomas and drug-induced and idiopathic hyperprolactinaemia demonstrated an increased risk of death. Individuals with drug-induced hyperprolactinaemia also demonstrated increased risks of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, infectious disease and bone fracture. However, these increased risks were not associated with the degree of serum prolactin elevation (P trend > 0.3). No increased risk of cancer was observed in any subgroup.

Conclusions

No excess morbidity was observed in patients with raised prolactin due to pituitary tumours. Although the increased morbidity and mortality associated with defined patient subgroups are unlikely to be directly related to the elevation in serum prolactin, hyperprolactinaemia might act as a biomarker for the presence of some increased disease risk in these patients.

Open access

M Ahmid, C G Perry, S F Ahmed, and M G Shaikh

Until quite recently, the management of children with growth hormone deficiency (GHD) had focussed on the use of recombinant human GH (rhGH) therapy to normalise final adult height. However, research over the past two decades that has demonstrated deficits in bone health and cardiac function, as well as impaired quality of life in adults with childhood-onset GHD (CO-GHD), has questioned this practice. Some of these studies suggested that there may be short-term benefits of rhGH in certain group of adolescents with GHD during transition, although the impact of GHD and replacement during the transition period has not been adequately investigated and its long-term benefits remain unclear. GH therapy remains expensive and well-designed long-term studies are needed to determine the cost effectiveness and clinical benefit of ongoing rhGH during transition and further into adulthood. In the absence of compelling data to justify widespread continuation of rhGH into adult life, there are several questions related to its use that remain unanswered. This paper reviews the effects of growth hormone deficiency on bone health, cardiovascular function, metabolic profile and quality of life during transition and young adulthood.

Open access

Imane Benabbad, Myriam Rosilio, Maité Tauber, Emmanuel Paris, Anne Paulsen, Lovisa Berggren, Hiren Patel, Jean-Claude Carel, and the Phoenix Study Group

Objective

There is a scarcity of data from randomised controlled trials on the association of growth hormone (GH) with gonadotrophin-releasing hormone agonists in idiopathic short stature (ISS), although this off-label use is common. We aimed to test whether delaying pubertal progression could increase near-adult height (NAH) in GH-treated patients with ISS.

Methods

Patients with ISS at puberty onset were randomised to GH with leuprorelin (combination, n = 46) or GH alone (n = 45). NAH standard deviation score (SDS) was the primary outcome measure. The French regulatory authority requested premature discontinuation of study treatments after approximately 2.4 years; patients from France were followed for safety.

Results

Mean (s.d.) baseline height SDS was −2.5 (0.5) in both groups, increasing at 2 years to −2.3 (0.6) with combination and −1.8 (0.7) with GH alone. NAH SDS was −1.8 (0.5) with combination (n = 19) and −1.9 (0.8) with GH alone (n = 16). Treatment-emergent adverse events and bone fractures occurred more frequently with combination than GH alone.

Conclusion

Due to premature discontinuation of treatments, statistical comparison of NAH SDS between the two cohorts was not possible. During the first 2–3 years of treatment, patients treated with the combination grew more slowly than those receiving GH alone. However, mean NAH SDS was similar in the two groups. No new GH-related safety concerns were revealed. A potentially deleterious effect of combined treatment on bone fracture incidence was identified.

Open access

Caroline Nguyen, Elisabeth Celestin, Delphine Chambolle, Agnès Linglart, Martin Biosse Duplan, Catherine Chaussain, and Lisa Friedlander

Introduction. X-linked hypophosphatemia (XLH) is a rare, hereditary, and lifelong phosphate wasting disorder characterized by rickets in childhood and impaired teeth mineralization. In the oral cavity, spontaneous abscesses can often occur without any clinical signs of alteration of the causal tooth. The objective of our study was to evaluate the oral care pathway and the oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) of patients followed in an expert oral medicine department located within a Parisian hospital and working in close collaboration with an endocrinology department expert in this pathology. Methods. This study employed a qualitative descriptive design including semi-structured interviews using guiding themes. Results. Twenty-one patients were included in the study. The topics brought up exceeded the initial objectives as the patients mostly addressed the alteration of their oral health-related and general quality of life; a very chaotic oral health care pathway with oral health professionals not aware of their pathology; consequences on their social, professional, and school integration. Patients declared the importance of having a multidisciplinary team around them, including medical and dental professionals. Conclusions. The variety of manifestations in patients with XLH necessitates a high coordination of multidisciplinary patient care to optimize quality of life and reduce disease burden. Oral health care pathways are very chaotic for patients who have difficulty finding professionals with sufficient knowledge of the disease. OHRQoL is therefore diminished. This situation improves when patients enter a coordinated care network.

Open access

Agnieszka Pazderska, Yaasir Mamoojee, Satish Artham, Margaret Miller, Stephen G Ball, Tim Cheetham, and Richard Quinton

We present herein our 20-year experience of pubertal induction in apubertal older (median age 56 years; range 38.4–69.5) men with congenital hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism (n = 7) using a simple fixed-dose and fixed-interval intramuscular testosterone that we originally pioneered in relation to achieving virilisation of natal female transgender men. This regime was effective and well tolerated, resulting in complete virilisation by around 1 year after treatment initiation. No physical or psychological adverse effects were encountered in this group of potentially vulnerable individuals. There were no abnormal excursions of laboratory parameters and extended follow-up beyond the first year of treatment revealed remarkable improvements in bone density. We highlight advantages to both patients and physicians of this regime in testosterone-naïve older men with congenital hypogonadism and discourage the over-rigid application to such patients of treatment algorithms derived from paediatric practice in relation to the evaluation and management in younger teenagers with delayed puberty of uncertain cause.

Open access

Ping Li, Fei Cheng, and Lei Xiu

Objective

This study sought to determine the effect of the recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) treatment of Turner syndrome (TS) on height outcome.

Methods

We searched in MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. A literature search identified 640 records. After screening and full-text assessment, 11 records were included in the systematic review. Methodological quality was assessed using the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool. RevMan 5.3 software was used for meta-analysis. We also assessed the quality of evidence with the GRADE system.

Results

Compared with controls, rhGH therapy led to increased final height (MD = 7.22 cm, 95% CI 5.27–9.18, P < 0.001, I2 = 4%; P = 0.18), height standard deviation (HtSDS) (SMD = 1.22, 95% CI 0.88–1.56, P < 0.001, I2 = 49%; P = 0.14) and height velocity (HV) (MD 2.68 cm/year; 95% CI 2.34, 3.02; P < 0.001, I2 = 0%; P = 0.72). There was a small increase in bone age (SMD 0.32 years; 95% CI 0.1, 0.54; P = 0.004, I2 = 73%; P = 0.02) after rhGH therapy for 12 months. What is more, the rhGH/oxandrolone combination therapy suggested greater final height (MD 2.46 cm; 95% CI 0.73, 4.18; P = 0.005, I2 = 32%; P = 0.22), increase and faster HV (SMD 1.67 cm/year; 95% CI 1.03, 2.31; P < 0.03, I2 = 80%; P < 0.001), with no significant increase in HtSDS and bone maturation compared with rhGH therapy alone.

Conclusions

For TS patients, rhGH alone or with concomitant use of oxandrolone treatment had advantages on final height.

Open access

Vickie Braithwaite, Kerry S Jones, Shima Assar, Inez Schoenmakers, and Ann Prentice

Elevated C-terminal fibroblast growth factor 23 (C-FGF23) concentrations have been reported in Gambian children with and without putative Ca-deficiency rickets. The aims of this study were to investigate whether i) elevated C-FGF23 concentrations in Gambian children persist long term; ii) they are associated with higher intact FGF23 concentrations (I-FGF23), poor iron status and shorter 25-hydroxyvitamin D half-life (25OHD-t 1/2); and iii) the persistence and predictors of elevated FGF23 concentrations differ between children with and without a history of rickets. Children (8–16 years, n=64) with a history of rickets and a C-FGF23 concentration >125 RU/ml (bone deformity (BD), n=20) and local community children with a previously measured elevated C-FGF23 concentration (LC+, n=20) or a previously measured C-FGF23 concentration within the normal range (LC−, n=24) participated. BD children had no remaining signs of bone deformities. C-FGF23 concentration had normalised in BD children, but remained elevated in LC+ children. All the children had I-FGF23 concentration within the normal range, but I-FGF23 concentration was higher and iron status poorer in LC+ children. 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D was the strongest negative predictor of I-FGF23 concentration (R 2=18%; P=0.0006) and soluble transferrin receptor was the strongest positive predictor of C-FGF23 concentration (R 2=33%; P≤0.0001). C-FGF23 and I-FGF23 concentrations were poorly correlated with each other (R 2=5.3%; P=0.07). 25OHD-t 1/2 was shorter in BD children than in LC− children (mean (s.d.): 24.5 (6.1) and 31.5 (11.5) days respectively; P=0.05). This study demonstrated that elevated C-FGF23 concentrations normalised over time in Gambian children with a history of rickets but not in local children, suggesting a different aetiology; that children with resolved rickets had a shorter 25OHD-t 1/2, suggesting a long-standing increased expenditure of 25OHD, and that iron deficiency is a predictor of elevated C-FGF23 concentrations in both groups of Gambian children.