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Open access

Jian Ding, Yan Kang, Yuqin Fan, and Qi Chen

Objective

Preeclampsia (PE) is a complication affecting pregnant women worldwide, which usually manifests as severe maternal hypertension. Resveratrol (RESV), a naturally existing polyphenol, is known to exhibit beneficial effects in cardiovascular disease including hypertension. We evaluated the outcome of treatment combining oral nifedipine (NIFE) and RESV against PE.

Design and methods

Using a randomized group assignment, 400 PE patients were enrolled and received oral treatments of either NIFE + RESV or NIFE + placebo. Primary endpoints were defined as time to control blood pressure and time before a new hypertensive crisis. Secondary endpoints were defined as the number of doses needed to control blood pressure, maternal and neonatal adverse effects.

Results

Compared with the NIFE + placebo group, the time needed to control blood pressure was significantly reduced in NIFE + RESV group, while time before a new hypertensive crisis was greatly delayed in NIFE + RESV group. The number of treatment doses needed to control blood pressure was also categorically lower in NIFE + RESV group. No differences in maternal or neonatal adverse effects were observed between the two treatment groups.

Conclusion

Our data support the potential of RESV as a safe and effective adjuvant of oral NIFE to attenuate hypertensive symptoms among PE patients.

Open access

Elena Izkhakov, Joseph Meyerovitch, Micha Barchana, Yacov Shacham, Naftali Stern, and Lital Keinan-Boker

Objective

Thyroid cancer (TC) survivors may be at risk of subsequent cardiovascular and cerebrovascular (CaV&CeV) morbidity. The 2009 American Thyroid Association (ATA) guidelines recommended less aggressive treatment for low-risk TC patients. The aim of this study was to assess the atherosclerotic CaV&CeV outcome of Israeli TC survivors compared to individuals with no thyroid disease, and the atherosclerotic CaV&CeV outcome before (2000–2008) and after (2009–2011) implementation of the 2009 ATA guidelines.

Methods

All members of the largest Israeli healthcare organization who were diagnosed with TC from 1/2000 to 12/2014 (study group) and age- and sex-matched members with no thyroid disease (controls) were included. Adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated using Cox proportional hazards models.

Results

The mean follow-up was 7.6 ± 4.2 and 7.8 ± 4.1 years for the study (n = 5,677, 79% women) and control (n = 23,962) groups, respectively. The former had an increased risk of new atherosclerotic CaV&CeV events (adjusted HR 1.26, 95% CI 1.15–1.39). The 5-year incidence of CaV&CeV was lower (adjusted HR 0.49, 95% CI 0.38–0.62) from 2009 to 2011 compared to 2000 to 2008, but remained higher in the study group than in the control group (adjusted HR 1.5, 95% CI 1.14–1.69).

Conclusions

This large Israeli population-based cohort study showed greater atherosclerotic CaV&CeV morbidity in TC survivors compared to individuals with no thyroid diseases. There was a trend toward a decreased 5-year incidence of atherosclerotic CaV&CeV events among TC survivors following the implementation of the 2009 ATA guidelines, but it remained higher compared to the general population.

Open access

Xiaomei Zhang, Zhangrong Xu, Xingwu Ran, and Linong Ji

Background

Lower extremity arterial disease (LEAD) is highly prevalent in people with diabetes in China, but half of cases are underdiagnosed due to diversities of clinical presentations and complexities of diagnosis approaches. The purpose of this study was to develop a risk score model for LEAD to facilitate early screening among type 2 diabetes (T2DM) patients.

Methods

A total of 8313 participants with T2DM from the China DIA-LEAD study, a multicenter, cross-sectional epidemiological study, were selected as the training dataset to develop a risk score model for LEAD by logistic regression. The area under receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) and bootstrapping were utilized for internal validation. A dataset of 287 participants consecutively enrolled from a teaching hospital between July 2017 and November 2017 was used as external validation for the risk score model.

Results

A total of 931 (11.2%) participants were diagnosed as LEAD in the training dataset. Factors including age, current smoking, duration of diabetes, blood pressure control, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, estimated glomerular filtration rate, and coexistence of cardio and/or cerebrovascular disease correlated with LEAD in logistic regression analysis and resulted in a weighed risk score model of 0–13. A score of ≥5 was found to be the optimal cut-off for discriminating moderate–high risk participants with AUC of 0.786 (95% CI: 0.778–0.795). The bootstrapping validation showed that the AUC was 0.784. Similar performance of the risk score model was observed in the validation dataset with AUC of 0.731 (95% CI: 0.651–0.811). The prevalence of LEAD was 3.4, 12.1, and 27.6% in the low risk (total score 0–4), moderate risk (total score 5–8), and high risk (total score 9–13) groups of LEAD in the training dataset, respectively, which were 4.3, 19.6, and 30.2% in the validation dataset.

Conclusion

The weighed risk score model for LEAD could reliably discriminate the presence of LEAD in Chinese with T2DM aged over 50 years, which may be helpful for a precise risk assessment and early diagnosis of LEAD.

Open access

Siphiwe N Dlamini, Zané Lombard, Lisa K Micklesfield, Nigel Crowther, Shane A Norris, Tracy Snyman, Andrew A Crawford, Brian R Walker, and Julia H Goedecke

Circulating glucocorticoids are associated with metabolic syndrome and related cardiometabolic risk factors in non-Africans. This study investigated these associations in Africans, whose metabolic phenotype reportedly differs from Europeans. Adiposity, blood pressure, glycaemia, insulin resistance, and lipid profile, were measured in 316 African men and 788 African women living in Soweto, Johannesburg. The 2009 harmonized criteria were used to define metabolic syndrome. Serum glucocorticoids were measured using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Cortisol was associated with greater odds presenting with metabolic syndrome (odds ratio (95% CI) =1.50 (1.04, 2.17) and higher systolic (beta coefficient, β (95% CI) =0.04 (0.01, 0.08)) and diastolic (0.05 (0.02, 0.09)) blood pressure, but higher HDL (0.10 (0.02, 0.19)) and lower LDL (−0.14 (−0.24, −0.03)) cholesterol concentrations, in the combined sample of men and women. In contrast, corticosterone was only associated with higher insulin sensitivity (Matsuda index; 0.22 (0.03, 0.41)), but this was not independent of BMI. Sex-specific associations were observed, such that both cortisol and corticosterone were associated with higher fasting glucose (standardized β (95% CI): 0.24 (0.12, 0.36) for cortisol and 0.12 (0.01, 0.23) for corticosterone) and HbA1c (0.13 (0.01, 0.25) for cortisol and 0.12 (0.01, 0.24) for corticosterone) in men only, but lower HbA1c (0.10 (−0.20, −0.01) for cortisol and −0.09 (−0.18, −0.03) for corticosterone) in women only. Our study reports for the first time that associations between circulating glucocorticoid concentrations and key cardiometabolic risk factors exhibit both glucocorticoid- and sex-specificity in Africans.

Open access

Gunjan Garg, Garima Kachhawa, Rekha Ramot, Rajesh Khadgawat, Nikhil Tandon, V Sreenivas, Alka Kriplani, and N Gupta

To assess the effect of vitamin D supplementation on parameters of insulin sensitivity/resistance (IS/IR) and insulin secretion in subjects with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). A prospective double-blind randomized control trial was conducted to assess the effect of vitamin D on insulin kinetics in women with PCOS. The trial was conducted in a tertiary care research hospital. A total of 36 subjects with PCOS, aged 18–35 years, were included in this study. Vitamin D3 4000 IU/day versus placebo was given once a month for 6 months and both groups received metformin. IS (by whole-body IS index or Matsuda index), IR (by homeostasis model assessment IR (HOMA-IR)), and insulin secretion (by insulinogenic index; II30) were the main outcome measures. Secondary outcome included blood pressure (BP), lipid profile, disposition index (DI), and vascular stiffness. Out of 36 subjects who consented, 32 completed the study. Subjects were randomized into two groups: group A (n=15; metformin and vitamin D 4000 IU/day) or group B (n=17; metformin and placebo). Oral glucose tolerance tests with 75 g glucose were carried out at baseline and 6 months after supplementation. Hypovitaminosis D was observed in 93.8% of all subjects with mean serum 25 hydroxy vitamin D level of 7.30±4.45 ng/ml. After 6 months of vitamin D supplementation, there was no significant difference in any of the parameters of IS/IR (area under curve (AUC)–glucose, AUC–insulin, insulin:glucose ratio, HOMA-IR, Matsuda index, insulinogenic index, and DI), II30, and cardiovascular risk factors between the two groups. Supplementation of vitamin D, at a dose of 4000 IU/day for 6 months, did not have any significant effect on parameters of IS/IR and insulin secretion in subjects with PCOS.

Open access

Malin Nylander, Signe Frøssing, Caroline Kistorp, Jens Faber, and Sven O Skouby

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in later life. We aimed to study the effect of liraglutide intervention on markers of VTE and CVD risk, in PCOS. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial, 72 overweight and/or insulin-resistant women with PCOS were randomized, in a 2:1 ratio, to liraglutide or placebo 1.8 mg/day. Endpoints included between-group difference in change (baseline to follow-up) in plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 levels and in thrombin generation test parameters: endogenous thrombin potential, peak thrombin concentration, lag time and time to peak. Mean weight loss was 5.2 kg (95% CI 3.0–7.5 kg, P < 0.001) in the liraglutide group compared with placebo. We detected no effect on endogenous thrombin potential in either group. In the liraglutide group, peak thrombin concentration decreased by 16.71 nmol/L (95% CI 2.32–31.11, P < 0.05) and lag time and time to peak increased by 0.13 min (95% CI 0.01–0.25, P < 0.05) and 0.38 min (95% CI 0.09–0.68, P < 0.05), respectively, but there were no between-group differences. There was a trend toward 12% (95% CI 0–23, P = 0.05) decreased plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 in the liraglutide group, and there was a trend toward 16% (95% CI −4 to 32, P = 0.10) reduction, compared with placebo. In overweight women with PCOS, liraglutide intervention caused an approximate 5% weight loss. In addition, liraglutide affected thrombin generation, although not significantly differently from placebo. A concomitant trend toward improved fibrinolysis indicates a possible reduction of the baseline thrombogenic potential. The findings point toward beneficial effects of liraglutide on markers of VTE and CVD risk, which should be further pursued in larger studies.

Open access

Paola Parra Ramírez, Patricia Martín Rojas-Marcos, Miguel Paja Fano, Marga González Boillos, Eider Pascual-Corrales, Ana García-Cano, Jorge Gabriel Ruiz-Sanchez, Almudena Vicente, Emilia Gomez-Hoyos, Rui Ferreira, Iñigo García Sanz, Mònica Recasens, Begoña Pla Peris, Rebeca Barahona San Millan, María José Picón César, Patricia Díaz Guardiola, Juan Jesús García González, Carolina Perdomo, Laura Manjón, Rogelio Garcia-Centeno, Juan Carlos Percovich, Ángel Rebollo Román, Paola Gracia Gimeno, Cristina Robles Lázaro, Manuel Morales, Felicia Hanzu, and Marta Araujo-Castro

Objective: To compare the presentation and evolution of primary aldosteronism (PA) in elderly (≥65 years) and young patients (<65 years).

Methods: A retrospective multicenter study performed in 20 Spanish hospitals of PA patients in follow-up between 2018-2021.

Results: 352 patients with PA <65 years and 88 patients ≥65 years were included. Older PA patients had a two-fold higher prevalence of type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, and cerebrovascular disease, but these differences disappeared after adjusting by hypertension duration. At diagnosis, diastolic blood pressure was lower than in young patients (83.3±11.54 vs 91.6±14.46 mmHg, P<0.0001). No differences in the rate of overall correctly cannulation (56.5% vs 42.3%, P=0.206) or the diagnosis of unilaterality (76.9% vs 62.5%, P=0.325) in the adrenal venous sampling (AVS) was observed between elderly and young groups. However, there was a lower proportion of PA patients who underwent adrenalectomy in the elderly group than in the younger group (22.7% (n=20) vs 37.5% (n=132), P=0.009). Nevertheless, no differences in the rate of postsurgical biochemical (100% (n=14) vs 92.8% (n=90), P=0.299) and hypertension cure (38.6% (n=51) vs 25.0% (n=5), P=0.239) were observed between both groups.

Conclusion: Older patients with PA have a worse cardiometabolic profile than young patients with PA, that it is related with a longer duration of the hypertension. However, the results of the AVS, and adrenalectomy are similar in both groups. Therefore, the management of elderly patients with PA should be based not only on age, but rather on the overall medical, physical, social, and mental characteristic of the patients.

Open access

Nafiye Helvaci, Erdem Karabulut, Ahmet Ugur Demir, and Bulent Okan Yildiz

Background and Objective

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) has been reported to be associated with the development of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). The objective of this meta-analysis is to assess the relationship between PCOS and OSA.

Methods

A literature search was conducted to identify studies linking PCOS with the risk of OSA. Studies in which the presence of OSA was confirmed with overnight polysomnography were included. Random effects models were used to calculate pooled relative risks.

Results

Eight studies conducted in adults and five studies conducted in adolescents were identified. The pooled OSA prevalence was 0.22 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.08–0.40) in PCOS patients. The pooled prevalence of OSA was higher in adults (0.32, 95% CI: 0.13–0.55) than adolescents (0.08, 95% CI: 0.00–0.30). Risk of OSA was significantly increased in adult patients with PCOS (odds ratio (OR) 9.74, 95% CI: 2.76–34.41). Risk of OSA was not significantly increased in adolescents (OR: 4.54, 95% CI:0.56–36.43).

Conclusions

These findings demonstrate a significant association between PCOS and OSA in adult patients. Considering the increased risk for long-term cardiometabolic disorders associated with both PCOS and OSA, it is important to diagnose and treat OSA in patients with PCOS.

Open access

Maria Lola Evia-Viscarra, Edel Rafael Rodea-Montero, Evelia Apolinar-Jiménez, and Silvia Quintana-Vargas

The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS) and its components in obese Mexican adolescents and to compare the clinical, anthropometric, and biochemical characteristics between patients with and without MS by sex. We conducted a cross-sectional study with a sample of 110 obese adolescents (boys and girls) from 8 to 16 years old (BMI ≥95th percentile), who were recruited in the pediatric obesity clinic of a third-level care hospital. A frequency analysis was used to estimate the prevalence of MS and its components, and the assessments were compared between the sexes and between the groups with and without MS using the Kruskal–Wallis test. The prevalence of MS was 62%. In order of prevalence, the following components of MS were observed in the sample: abdominal obesity (88%), high triglycerides (TG) (85%), low HDL-C (60%), hypertension (35%), and hyperglycemia (5%). In the groups with MS, hypertension (P<0.001), waist circumference (P=0.003), and TG (P=0.012) were significantly higher, and HDL-C (P<0.001) was significantly lower. In conclusion the prevalence of MS and its components is high among obese Mexican-Hispanic children. These findings show the importance of preventing and treating obesity in the early stages of life in order to decrease the incidence rates of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Open access

Alice S Ryan, John C McLenithan, and Gretchen M Zietowski

The purpose of this study is to compare central obesity, insulin sensitivity, and cardiovascular disease risk factors between premenopausal and postmenopausal women with a history of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), controls, and women with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Subjects were 73 overweight/obese and sedentary women who had a history of GDM (n=31) and were either premenopausal (n=11, 44±1 years, X±s.e.m.), postmenopausal (n=20, 58±1 years), or without a history of GDM as healthy postmenopausal controls (n=27, 57±1 years) or postmenopausal with T2DM (n=16, 59±1 years). The premenopausal GDM women had higher maximal oxygen uptake and lower visceral fat than the other three groups (P<0.05). BMI, %body fat, subcutaneous abdominal fat, and intramuscular fat did not differ significantly among the four groups. Glucose utilization (M, 3 h 40 mU/m2 per min hyperinsulinemic–euglycemic clamps) was 27% higher (P=0.05) in pre- than postmenopausal GDM and was not different between premenopausal GDM and postmenopausal controls. M was 28% lower (P=0.06) in postmenopausal GDM than controls and was not significantly different between postmenopausal GDM and T2DM groups. Thus, despite being younger and more physically fit, premenopausal women with prior GDM display similar central obesity, glucose, and metabolic profiles as postmenopausal controls. Postmenopausal women with prior GDM are more insulin resistant than controls of similar age, adiposity, and fitness levels and display comparable glucose utilization rates as similar as women with T2DM suggesting that a prior history of GDM may be an early manifestation of increased risk of later T2DM.