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Open access

Chun-feng Lu, Xiao-qin Ge, Yan Wang, Jian-bin Su, Xue-qin Wang, Dong-mei Zhang, Feng Xu, Wang-shu Liu, and Min Su

Background

Prolonged heart rate-corrected QT (QTc) interval may reflect poor prognosis of patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Serum adenosine deaminase (ADA) levels are related to hyperglycemia, insulin resistance (IR) and inflammation, which may participate in diabetic complications. We investigated the association of serum ADA levels with prolonged QTc interval in a large-scale sample of patients with T2D.

Methods

In this cross-sectional study, a total of 492 patients with T2D were recruited. Serum ADA levels were determined by venous blood during fasting. QTc interval was estimated from resting 12-lead ECGs, and prolonged QTc interval was defined as QTc > 440 ms.

Results

In this study, the prevalence of prolonged QTc interval was 22.8%. Serum ADA levels were positively associated with QTc interval (r = 0.324, P < 0.0001). The proportion of participants with prolonged QTc interval increased significantly from 9.2% in the first tertile (T1) to 24.7% in the second tertile (T2) and 39.0% in the third tertile (T3) of ADA (P for trend < 0.001). After adjusting for other possible risk factors by multiple linear regression analysis, serum ADA level was still significantly associated with QTc interval (β = 0.217, t = 3.400, P < 0.01). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that female (OR 5.084, CI 2.379–10.864, P < 0.001), insulin-sensitizers treatment (OR 4.229, CI 1.290–13.860, P = 0.017) and ADA (OR 1.212, CI 1.094–1.343, P < 0.001) were independent contributors to prolonged QTc interval.

Conclusions

Serum ADA levels were independently associated with prolonged QTc interval in patients with T2D.

Open access

M Boering, P R van Dijk, S J J Logtenberg, K H Groenier, B H R Wolffenbuttel, R O B Gans, N Kleefstra, and H J G Bilo

Aims

Elevated sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) concentrations have been described in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), probably due to low portal insulin concentrations. We aimed to investigate whether the route of insulin administration, continuous intraperitoneal insulin infusion (CIPII), or subcutaneous (SC), influences SHBG concentrations among T1DM patients.

Methods

Post hoc analysis of SHBG in samples derived from a randomized, open-labeled crossover trial was carried out in 20 T1DM patients: 50% males, mean age 43 (±13) years, diabetes duration 23 (±11) years, and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) 8.7 (±1.1) (72 (±12) mmol/mol). As secondary outcomes, testosterone, 17-β-estradiol, luteinizing hormone (LH), and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) were analyzed.

Results

Estimated mean change in SHBG was −10.3nmol/L (95% CI: −17.4, −3.2) during CIPII and 3.7nmol/L (95% CI: −12.0, 4.6) during SC insulin treatment. Taking the effect of treatment order into account, the difference in SHBG between therapies was −6.6nmol/L (95% CI: −17.5, 4.3); −12.7nmol/L (95% CI: −25.1, −0.4) for males and −1.7nmol/L (95% CI: −24.6, 21.1) for females, respectively. Among males, SHBG and testosterone concentrations changed significantly during CIPII; −15.8nmol/L (95% CI: −24.2, −7.5) and −8.3nmol/L (95% CI: −14.4, −2.2), respectively. The difference between CIPII and SC insulin treatment was also significant for change in FSH 1.2U/L (95% CI: 0.1, 2.2) among males.

Conclusions

SHBG concentrations decreased significantly during CIPII treatment. Moreover, the difference in change between CIPII and SC insulin therapy was significant for SHBG and FSH among males. These findings support the hypothesis that portal insulin administration influences circulating SHBG and sex steroids.

Open access

Hong Wang, Jie Cao, Jian-bin Su, Xue-qin Wang, Dong-mei Zhang, and Xiao-hua Wang

Background

Antithrombin 3 (AT3) is a physiological inhibitor of thrombin, and serum AT3 activity was found to decrease at the status of type 2 diabetes (T2D). T2D was presented with an increased risk of thrombotic complications at the background of impaired insulin sensitivity. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between insulin sensitivity indices and serum AT3 activity in patients with T2D.

Methods

We conducted a cross-sectional study in patients with T2D who consented to participate in the study at the Endocrinology Department of Affiliated 2 Hospital of Nantong University from January 2015 to June 2018. All patients received serum AT3 activity test and 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Basal and systemic insulin sensitivity were assessed by homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and Matsuda index (ISIMatsuda), respectively, from the OGTT. And other relevant clinical data were also collected.

Results

Total of 1612 patients with T2D were enrolled in the study, with a mean age of 58.67 ± 13.09 years and a median diabetes duration of 6 years (interquartile range, 1–10 years). Across ascending quartiles of serum AT3 activity, HOMA-IR progressively decreased, while ISIMatsuda progressively increased (all P for trend < 0.001). Moreover, serum AT3 activity was negatively correlated with HOMA-IR (r = −0.189, P < 0.001) and positively correlated with ISIMatsuda (r = 0.221, P < 0.001). After adjusting for other metabolic risk factors, hemostatic parameters and glucose-lowering therapies by multivariate linear regression analysis, HOMA-IR (β = −0.185, t = −5.960, P < 0.001) and ISIMatsuda (β = 0.197, t = 6.632, P < 0.001) remained independently associated with the serum AT3 activity in patients with T2D, respectively.

Conclusions

Reduced basal and systemic insulin sensitivity are associated with decreased serum AT3 activity in patients with T2D.

Open access

Nese Cinar and Alper Gurlek

Adipose tissue secretes a variety of active biological substances, called adipocytokines, that act in an autocrine, paracrine, and endocrine manner. They have roles in appetite control, thermogenesis, and thyroid and reproductive functions. All these molecules may lead to local and generalized inflammation, mediating obesity-associated vascular disorders including hypertension, diabetes, atherosclerosis, and insulin resistance. Thyroid dysfunction is associated with changes in body weight, thermogenesis, and energy expenditure. The connections between cardiovascular risk factors such as dyslipidemia, impaired glucose tolerance, insulin resistance, atherosclerosis, and thyroid dysfunction have been reported in several studies. The adipocytokines serve as causative or protective factors in the development of these disorders in the states of thyroid dysfunction. Abnormal levels of adipocytokines (adiponectin (ADP), leptin, resistin, vaspin, and visfatin) in hypo- and hyperthyroidism have been reported with controversial results. This review aims to update the implication of novel adipokines ADP, vaspin, and visfatin in thyroid dysfunction.

Open access

Helga Schultz, Svend Aage Engelholm, Eva Harder, Ulrik Pedersen-Bjergaard, and Peter Lommer Kristensen

Background

The risk of developing diabetes mellitus (DM) during treatment with high-dose glucocorticoids is unknown and monitoring of glucose is random in many settings.

Objective

To determine incidence of and risk factors for induction of DM during high-dose glucocorticoid therapy of metastatic spinal cord compression (MSCC) in patients referred to radiotherapy. Furthermore, to describe the time course of development of DM.

Subjects and methods

140 patients were recruited (131 were included in the analysis) with MSCC receiving high-dose glucocorticoid ≥100 mg prednisolone per day were included in a prospective, observational cohort study. The primary endpoint was development of DM defined by two or more plasma glucose values ≥11.1 mmol/L. Plasma glucose was monitored on a daily basis for 12 days during radiotherapy.

Results

Fifty-six of the patients (43%; 95% CI 35–52%) were diagnosed with DM based on plasma glucose measurements during the study period. Sixteen patients, 12% (95% CI 6–18%), were treated with insulin. At multivariate analysis, only high baseline HbA1c predicted the development of insulin-treated DM. An HbA1c-value <39 mmol/mol was associated with a negative predictive value of 96% for not developing DM needing treatment with insulin. The diagnosis of diabetes with need for insulin treatment was made within 7 days in 14 of the 16 (88%; 95% CI 72–100%) patients.

Conclusion

The risk of developing DM during treatment with high-dose glucocorticoids in patients with MSCC referred to radiotherapy is high in the first treatment week. Only referral HbA1c predicts the development of DM.

Open access

Borros Arneth

Background

The origin of autoimmune disease type 1 diabetes is still unknown.

Aim

This study assessed the activation of CD4+ and CD8+ T-lymphocytes by human insulin and human glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) in patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) and healthy volunteers.

Materials and methods

The expression of CD69, a marker of T-lymphocyte activity, was determined in whole blood samples by flow cytometry after 12 h of incubation with or without insulin or GAD. The analysis included samples from 12 type 1 DM patients, 14 type 2 DM patients and 12 healthy volunteers.

Results

Significant increases in the number of activated CD4+ and CD8+ T-lymphocytes following pre-incubation of whole blood samples with human insulin or GAD were observed in samples from patients with type 1 DM, whereas no activation of these cells was detected in samples from either type 2 DM patients or healthy subjects.

Discussion

These results indicated that latent pre-activation of CD4+ and CD8+ T-lymphocytes in response to insulin or GAD epitopes occurred in type 1 DM patients.

Conclusion

These findings suggest that pre-immunization against insulin and/or GAD might be associated with the development of type 1 DM. Alternatively, these results might reflect a non-specific, bystander autoimmune response.

Open access

C L Bodinham, L Smith, E L Thomas, J D Bell, J R Swann, A Costabile, D Russell-Jones, A M Umpleby, and M D Robertson

Resistant starch (RS) has been shown to beneficially affect insulin sensitivity in healthy individuals and those with metabolic syndrome, but its effects on human type 2 diabetes (T2DM) are unknown. This study aimed to determine the effects of increased RS consumption on insulin sensitivity and glucose control and changes in postprandial metabolites and body fat in T2DM. Seventeen individuals with well-controlled T2DM (HbA1c 46.6±2 mmol/mol) consumed, in a random order, either 40 g of type 2 RS (HAM-RS2) or a placebo, daily for 12 weeks with a 12-week washout period in between. At the end of each intervention period, participants attended for three metabolic investigations: a two-step euglycemic–hyperinsulinemic clamp combined with an infusion of [6,6-2H2] glucose, a meal tolerance test (MTT) with arterio-venous sampling across the forearm, and whole-body imaging. HAM-RS2 resulted in significantly lower postprandial glucose concentrations (P=0.045) and a trend for greater glucose uptake across the forearm muscle (P=0.077); however, there was no effect of HAM-RS2 on hepatic or peripheral insulin sensitivity, or on HbA1c. Fasting non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentrations were significantly lower (P=0.004) and NEFA suppression was greater during the clamp with HAM-RS2 (P=0.001). Fasting triglyceride (TG) concentrations and soleus intramuscular TG concentrations were significantly higher following the consumption of HAM-RS2 (P=0.039 and P=0.027 respectively). Although fasting GLP1 concentrations were significantly lower following HAM-RS2 consumption (P=0.049), postprandial GLP1 excursions during the MTT were significantly greater (P=0.009). HAM-RS2 did not improve tissue insulin sensitivity in well-controlled T2DM, but demonstrated beneficial effects on meal handling, possibly due to higher postprandial GLP1.

Open access

Xiuzhen Hou, Junfeng Zhang, Hehong Ma, Ming Li, and Pei Wang

Background

Oxidative stress leads to insulin resistance and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). The nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)/heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) signaling is an important anti-oxidative stress pathway, which can be activated by hypoxia-reoxygenation (H/R) treatment. We aimed to demonstrate the effects of H/R treatment on GDM symptoms as well as reproductive outcomes.

Methods

Pregnant C57BL/KsJ db/+ mice were used as a genetic GDM model. Plasma insulin and other biochemical indexes of plasma, insulin sensitivity, glucose intolerance, blood glucose and liver biochemical indexes were evaluated. Protein abundance of HO-1 and Nrf2 were assessed with Western blot.

Results

H/R treatment markedly ameliorated β-cell insufficiency and glucose intolerance, suppressed oxidative stress in vivo, stimulated the activities of anti-oxidant enzymes, and led to improved reproductive outcomes. The beneficial effects of H/R treatment were mechanistically mediated via the restoration of Nrf2/HO-1 anti-oxidant signaling pathway in the liver of GDM mice.

Conclusion

Our study, for the first time, suggests that H/R treatment is a potentially novel therapeutic approach against GDM symptoms, by activating the Nrf2/HO-1 signaling pathway and inhibiting oxidative stress.

Open access

Ping Gu, Yuege Lin, Qi Wan, Dongming Su, and Qun Shu

Background

Increased insulin production and secretion by pancreatic β-cells are important for ensuring the high insulin demand during gestation. However, the underlying mechanism of β-cell adaptation during gestation or gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) remains unclear. Oxytocin is an important physiological hormone in gestation and delivery, and it also contributes to the maintenance of β-cell function. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of oxytocin in β-cell adaptation during pregnancy.

Methods

The relationship between the blood oxytocin level and pancreatic β-cell function in patients with GDM and healthy pregnant women was investigated. Gestating and non-gestating mice were used to evaluate the in vivo effect of oxytocin signal on β-cells during pregnancy. In vitro experiments were performed on INS-1 insulinoma cells.

Results

The blood oxytocin levels were lower in patients with GDM than in healthy pregnant women and were associated with impaired pancreatic β-cell function. Acute administration of oxytocin increased insulin secretion in both gestating and non-gestating mice. A 3-week oxytocin treatment promoted the proliferation of pancreatic β-cells and increased the β-cell mass in gestating but not non-gestating mice. Antagonism of oxytocin receptors by atosiban impaired insulin secretion and induced GDM in gestating but not non-gestating mice. Oxytocin enhanced glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, activated the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway, and promoted cell proliferation in INS-1 cells.

Conclusions

These findings provide strong evidence that oxytocin is needed for β-cell adaptation during pregnancy to maintain β-cell function, and the lack of oxytocin could be associated with the risk of GDM.

Open access

Yael Sofer, Nava Nevo, Michal Vechoropoulos, Gabi Shefer, Etty Osher, Nathan Landis, Karen Tordjman, Geoffrey L Hammond, and Naftali Stern

Background

Sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) is the main transporter of sex hormones in most vertebrates. Low SHBG levels have been linked to increased risk for diabetes and metabolic syndrome. Polymorphisms of the SHBG gene linked to low SHBG protein levels also strongly predicted increased risk of type 2 diabetes, thus raising the possibility that SHBG may play a role in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and diabetes.

Aim

To examine whether expression of human SHBG in mice may ameliorate the development of diabetes and metabolic syndrome in response to a high-fat diet (HFD).

Methods

Transgene mice expressing a human SHBG transgene (SHBG+) (N = 10/11; males/females) and their wild type littermates (N = 12/8; males/females) were fed HFD for 4.5 months.

Results

HFD induced comparable obesity in control and SHBG+ mice. Male transgenes had higher muscle mass after 2–3.5 months HFD (0.43 ± 0.028 (n = 4) vs 0.38 ± 0.053 g (n = 7), P = 0.05). Fasting blood glucose, as well as insulin or HOMA-IR, was not different in transgenic vs wild-type males after 4–5 months HFD. Female transgenes had higher fasting glucose (152 ± 29 (n = 7) vs 115 ± 27 mg/dL, P = 0.01 (n = 8)), but mean insulin and HOMA-IR were not different. Likewise, insulin tolerance test and intra-peritoneal glucose tolerance test (GTT) were not different. Finally, SHBG+ mice were not different from controls in terms of liver enzymes, serum triglyceride levels and blood pressure.

Conclusion

In mice with diet-induced obesity, human SHBG did not protect against development of obesity or dysglycemia.