Insufficient insulin release plays a crucial role in the development of unhealthy status in patients with obesity; the present study aimed to classify these patients by the indices for insulin resistance and insulin release. After the indices from OGTT were assessed to achieve high differentiability and low redundancy in classifying patients, HOMA-IR and IGI30min were chosen to classify the patients using K-means clustering method. A total of 249 non-diabetic patients with obesity were classified into four groups. In Group 1, 19 patients were characteristic of high insulin resistance and high insulin release, as well as well-controlled glucose levels, the highest BMI, the youngest age, and the highest early phase release of insulin. In Group 2, 38 patients were unhealthiest in terms of high insulin resistance, reduced insulin release and IGT status. Group 3 consisted of 63 patients that were healthiest with low insulin resistance and high insulin release. In Group 4, 46 IGT patients and 14 IFG patients were identified among 129 patients that showed low insulin resistance, low insulin release, moderate obesity and older age. These concurrent impotent insulin release, older age, and moderate obesity indicated decreasing obesity with increasing age and reduced insulin release. The classification of patients with obesity using K-means clustering method by HOMA-IR and IGI30min provides more information about the development of obesity and unhealthy status. The patients with distinct insulin resistance and insulin release should be followed up, especially for those with reduced or even absent insulin response to glucose stimulation.
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Li Li, Qifa Song, and Xi Yang
Louise Færch, Anders Juul, Ulrik Pedersen-Bjergaard, and Birger Thorsteinsson
GH is implicated in the counter-regulatory response to hypoglycemia. We tested whether IGF1 levels are associated with occurrence of severe hypoglycemic events in patients with type 1 diabetes and whether the IGF1 concentration is influenced by glycemic control.
A total of 228 outpatients with type 1 diabetes were included in a post hoc analysis of a 1-year observational study on severe hypoglycemia. Serum total IGF1 was measured at entry into the study. The occurrence of severe episodes of hypoglycemia, mild symptomatic, and biochemical as well as hypoglycemia awareness status was assessed. Also patients were included in a multiple regression analysis to investigate the role of HbA1c in the IGF1 concentration.
IGF1 levels were associated with neither severe hypoglycemia in the entire cohort (P=0.30) nor in any gender nor when confining the analysis to those with long-standing diabetes (>20 years) (n=112, P=0.68) and those with both long-standing diabetes and undetectable C-peptide (n=51, P=0.067). Levels of IGF1 were associated with neither mild symptomatic hypoglycemia (P=0.24) nor biochemical hypoglycemia (0.089) nor hypoglycemia awareness (P=0.16). At a multiple regression analysis, HbA1c was negatively associated with IGF1 (P=0.001).
In type 1 diabetes, circulating IGF1 levels are negatively associated with glycemic control. However, IGF1 levels were not associated with occurrence of hypoglycemia or hypoglycemia awareness in these patients.
Jakob Høgild Langdahl, Anja Lisbeth Frederiksen, John Vissing, Morten Frost, Knud Bonnet Yderstræde, and Per Heden Andersen
This case–control study aimed to examine impairments in glucose metabolism in non-diabetic carriers of the mitochondrial mutation m.3243A>G by evaluating insulin secretion capacity and sensitivity.
Glucose metabolism was investigated in 23 non-diabetic m.3243A>G carriers and age-, sex- and BMI-matched healthy controls with an extended 4-h oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Insulin sensitivity index and acute insulin response were estimated on the basis of the OGTT. This was accompanied by examination of body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), maximum aerobic capacity and a Recent Physical Activity Questionnaire (RPAQ).
Fasting p-glucose, s-insulin and s-c-peptide levels did not differ between m.3243A>G carriers and controls. Insulin sensitivity index (BIGTT-S1) was significantly lower in the m.3243A>G carriers, but there was no difference in the acute insulin response between groups. P-lactate levels were higher in carriers throughout the OGTT. VO2max, but not BMI, waist and hip circumferences, lean and fat body mass%, MET or grip strength, was lower in mutation carriers. BIGTT-S1 remained lower in mutation carriers after adjustment for multiple confounding factors including VO2max in regression analyses.
Glucose metabolism in m.3243A>G carriers was characterized by reduced insulin sensitivity, which could represent the earliest phase in the pathogenesis of m.3243A>G-associated diabetes.
Xiaolei Hu and Fengling Chen
Insulin has been used for diabetes therapy and has achieved significant therapeutic effect. In recent years, the use of purified and recombinant human insulin preparations has markedly reduced, but not completely suppressed, the incidence of insulin antibodies (IAs). IAs induced by exogenous insulin in diabetic patients is associated with clinical events, which is named exogenous insulin antibody syndrome (EIAS). The present review is based on our research and summarizes the characterization of IAs, the factors affecting IA development, the clinical significance of IAs and the treatments for EIAS.
Julia Otten, Andreas Stomby, Maria Waling, Elin Chorell, Mats Ryberg, Michael Svensson, Jens Juul Holst, and Tommy Olsson
Glucagon and amino acids may be regulated in a feedback loop called the liver-alpha-cell axis with alanine or glutamine as suggested signal molecules. We assessed this concept in individuals with type 2 diabetes in the fasting state, after ingestion of a protein-rich meal, and during weight loss. Moreover, we investigated if postprandial glucagon secretion and hepatic insulin sensitivity were related.
This is a secondary analysis of a 12-week weight-loss trial (Paleolithic diet ± exercise) in 29 individuals with type 2 diabetes. Before and after the intervention, plasma glucagon and amino acids were measured in the fasting state and during 180 min after a protein-rich mixed meal. Hepatic insulin sensitivity was measured using the hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp with [6,6-2H2]glucose as a tracer.
The postprandial increase of plasma glucagon was associated with the postprandial increase of alanine and several other amino acids but not glutamine. In the fasted state and after the meal, glucagon levels were negatively correlated with hepatic insulin sensitivity (rS = −0.51/r = −0.58, respectively; both P < 0.05). Improved hepatic insulin sensitivity with weight loss was correlated with decreased postprandial glucagon response (r = −0.78; P < 0.001).
Several amino acids, notably alanine, but not glutamine could be key signals to the alpha cell to increase glucagon secretion. Amino acids may be part of a feedback mechanism as glucagon increases endogenous glucose production and ureagenesis in the liver. Moreover, postprandial glucagon secretion seems to be tightly related to hepatic insulin sensitivity.
Tao Yuan, Lanping Jiang, Chen Chen, Xiaoyan Peng, Min Nie, Xuemei Li, Xiaoping Xing, Xuewang Li, and Limeng Chen
Impaired glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity have been reported in patients with Gitelman syndrome (GS), but insulin secretion and the related mechanisms are not well understood.
Design and methods
The serum glucose levels, insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity were evaluated in patients with GS (n = 28), patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) and healthy individuals (n = 20 in both groups) using an oral glucose tolerance test. Serum and urine sodium, potassium and creatinine levels were measured at 0, 30, 60, 120 and 180 min after an oral glucose load was administered.
The areas under the serum glucose curves were higher in the GS patients than those in the healthy controls (17.4 ± 5.1 mmol·h/L vs 14.5 ± 2.8 mmol·h/L, P = 0.02) but lower than those in the DM patients (24.8 ± 5.3 mmol·h/L, P < 0.001). The areas under the serum insulin curves and the insulin secretion indexes in GS patients were higher than those in DM patients and lower than those in healthy subjects. The insulin secretion-sensitivity index of GS patients was between that of healthy subjects and DM patients, but the insulin sensitivity indices were not different among the three groups. After one hour of glucose administration, the serum potassium level significantly decreased from baseline, and the urinary potassium-to-creatinine ratio increased gradually and peaked at 2 h.
Glucose metabolism and insulin secretion were impaired in GS patients, but insulin sensitivity was comparable between GS patients and patients with type 2 DM. After administration of an oral glucose load, the plasma potassium level decreased in GS patients due to the increased excretion of potassium in the urine.
Melony C Fortuin-de Smidt, Amy E Mendham, Jon Hauksson, Ali Alhamud, Darko Stefanovski, Olah Hakim, Jeroen Swart, Louise M Goff, Steven E Kahn, Tommy Olsson, and Julia H Goedecke
The role of ectopic fat, insulin secretion and clearance in the preservation ofβ-cell function in black African women with obesity who typically present with hyperinsulinaemia is not clear. We aim to examine the associations between disposition index (DI, an estimate of β-cell function), insulin secretion and clearance and ectopic fat deposition. This is a cross-sectional study of 43 black South African women (age 20–35 years) with obesity (BMI 30–40 kg/m2) and without type 2 diabetes that measured the following: DI, insulin sensitivity (SI), acute insulin response (AIRg), insulin secretion rate (ISR), hepatic insulin extraction and peripheral insulin clearance (frequently sampled i.v. glucose tolerance test); pancreatic and hepatic fat, visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and abdominal s.c. adipose tissue (aSAT) volume (MRI), intra-myocellular (IMCL) and extra-myocellular fat content (EMCL) (magnetic resonance spectroscopy). DI correlated positively with peripheral insulin clearance (β 55.80, P = 0.002). Higher DI was associated with lower VAT, pancreatic fat and soleus fat, but VAT explained most of the variance in DI (32%). Additionally, higher first phase ISR (P = 0.033) and lower hepatic insulin extraction (P = 0.022) were associated with lower VAT, independent from SI, rather than with ectopic fat. In conclusion, peripheral insulin clearance emerged as an important correlate of DI. However, VAT was the main determinant of a lower DI above ectopic fat depots. Importantly, VAT, but not ectopic fat, is associated with both lower insulin secretion and higher hepatic insulin extraction. Prevention of VAT accumulation in young black African women should, therefore, be an important target for beta cell preservation.
Kim K B Clemmensen, Jonas S Quist, Dorte Vistisen, Daniel R Witte, Anna Jonsson, Oluf Pedersen, Torben Hansen, Jens J Holst, Torsten Lauritzen, Marit E Jørgensen, Signe Torekov, and Kristine Færch
Fasting duration has been associated with lower fasting blood glucose levels, but higher 2-h post-load levels, and research has indicated an adverse effect of ‘weekend behavior’ on human metabolism. We investigated associations of fasting duration and weekday of examination with glucose, insulin, glucagon and incretin responses to an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). This cross-sectional study is based on data from the ADDITION-PRO study, where 2082 individuals attended a health examination including an OGTT. Linear regression analysis was applied to study the associations of overnight fasting duration and day of the week with glucose, insulin, glucagon, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) responses to an OGTT. We found that a 1 h longer fasting duration was associated with 1.7% (95% CI: 0.8,2.5) higher 2-h glucose levels, as well as a 3.0% (95% CI: 1.3,4.7) higher GIP and 2.3% (95% CI: 0.3,4.4) higher GLP-1 response. Fasting insulin levels were 20.6% (95% CI: 11.2,30.7) higher on Mondays compared to the other weekdays, with similar fasting glucose levels (1.7%, 95% CI: 0.0,3.4). In this study, longer overnight fasting duration was associated with a worsening of glucose tolerance and increased incretin response to oral glucose. We found higher fasting insulin levels on Mondays compared to the other days of the week, potentially indicating a worsened glucose regulation after the weekend.
Doron Weinstein, Rive Sarfstein, Zvi Laron, and Haim Werner
Hyperinsulinemia is a major complication associated with the development of insulin resistance. In addition to its normal spectrum of metabolic effects, insulin can act as a growth factor and has the ability to promote mitogenic activity. Thus, hyperinsulinemia is regarded as a potentially important cancer risk factor among diabetic patients. However, the mechanisms of action of insulin in the specific context of prostate cancer (PCa) and, in particular, the specific receptor that mediates its actions have not been elucidated yet. The aims of this study were to investigate whether insulin can directly induce mitogenic activities in PCa-derived cell lines and to examine the mechanisms responsible for these actions. To this end, we used several PCa-derived cell lines, representing early and advanced stages of the disease. Our results indicated that insulin induces cell proliferation in a dose-dependent fashion in the LNCaP, C4-2, and P69 cell lines. We also demonstrated that insulin enabled LNCaP and C4-2 cells to progress through the cell cycle. Immunoprecipitation assays revealed that insulin activated the insulin receptor (INSR), but not the IGF1 receptor (IGF1R). In addition, INSR was able to compensate for and mediate IGF1 mitogenic signals following IGF1R inhibition. In conclusion, insulin exhibits direct mitogenic activities in PCa cells, which are mediated exclusively through the INSR. Further research is needed to fully dissect the molecular mechanisms underlying the biological actions of insulin in PCa.
Leanne Hodson and Fredrik Karpe
In health, the liver is metabolically flexible over the course of the day, as it undertakes a multitude of physiological processes including the regulation of intrahepatic and systemic glucose and lipid levels. The liver is the first organ to receive insulin and through a cascade of complex metabolic processes, insulin not only plays a key role in the intrahepatic regulation of glucose and lipid metabolism, but also in the regulation of systemic glucose and lipid concentrations. Thus, when intrahepatic insulin signalling becomes aberrant then this may lead to perturbations in intrahepatic metabolic processes that have the potential to impact on metabolic health. For example, obesity is associated with intrahepatic fat accumulation (known as nonalcoholic liver disease (NAFLD)) and hyperinsulinaemia, the latter as a result of insulin hypersecretion or impaired hepatic insulin extraction. Although insulin signalling directly alters intra- and extrahepatic metabolism, the regulation of hepatic glucose and fatty acid metabolism is also indirectly driven by substrate availability. Here we discuss the direct and indirect effects of insulin on intrahepatic processes such as the synthesis of fatty acids and peripherally regulating the flux of fatty acids to the liver; processes that may play a role in the development of insulin resistance and/or intrahepatocellular triacylglycerol (IHTAG) accumulation in humans.