Autoimmune Addison’s disease (AAD) is defined as primary adrenal insufficiency due to immune-mediated destruction of the adrenal cortex. This destruction of steroid-producing cells has historically been thought of as an irreversible process, with linear progression from an ACTH-driven compensated phase to overt adrenal insufficiency requiring lifelong glucocorticoid replacement. However, a growing body of evidence suggests that this process may be more heterogeneous than previously thought, with potential for complete or partial recovery of glucocorticoid secretion. Although patients with persistent mineralocorticoid deficiency despite preserved or recovered glucocorticoid function are anecdotally mentioned, few well-documented cases have been reported to date. We present three patients in the United Kingdom who further challenge the long-standing hypothesis that AAD is a progressive, irreversible disease process. We describe one patient with a 4-year history of mineralocorticoid-only Addison’s disease, a patient with spontaneous recovery of adrenal function and one patient with clinical features of adrenal insufficiency despite significant residual cortisol function. All three patients show varying degrees of mineralocorticoid deficiency, suggesting that recovery of zona fasciculata function in the adrenal cortex may occur independently to that of the zona glomerulosa. We outline the current evidence for heterogeneity in the natural history of AAD and discuss possible mechanisms for the recovery of adrenal function.
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Sophie Howarth, Luca Giovanelli, Catherine Napier, and Simon H Pearce
Tatiana V Novoselova, Peter J King, Leonardo Guasti, Louise A Metherell, Adrian J L Clark, and Li F Chan
The melanocortin-2-receptor (MC2R), also known as the ACTH receptor, is a critical component of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis. The importance of MC2R in adrenal physiology is exemplified by the condition familial glucocorticoid deficiency (FGD), a potentially fatal disease characterised by isolated cortisol deficiency. MC2R mutations cause ~25% of cases. The discovery of a MC2R accessory protein MRAP, mutations of which account for ~20% of FGD, has provided insight into MC2R trafficking and signalling. MRAP is a single transmembrane domain accessory protein highly expressed in the adrenal gland and essential for MC2R expression and function. Mouse models helped elucidate the action of ACTH. The Mc2r-knockout (Mc2r − / − ) mice was the first mouse model developed to have adrenal insufficiency with deficiencies in glucocorticoid, mineralocorticoid and catecholamines. We recently reported the generation of the Mrap − / − mice which better mimics the human FGD phenotype with isolated glucocorticoid deficiency alone. The adrenal glands of adult Mrap − / − mice were grossly dysmorphic with a thickened capsule, deranged zonation and deranged WNT4/beta-catenin and sonic hedgehog (SHH) pathway signalling. Collectively, these mouse models of FGD highlight the importance of ACTH and MRAP in adrenal progenitor cell regulation, cortex maintenance and zonation.
Thomas Reinehr, Alexandra Kulle, Juliane Rothermel, Caroline Knop-Schmenn, Nina Lass, Christina Bosse, and Paul-Martin Holterhus
The underlying mechanisms of polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) are not fully understood yet. The aim of the study was to get functional insights into the regulation of steroid hormones in PCOS by steroid metabolomics.
This is a longitudinal study of changes of steroid hormones in 40 obese girls aged 13–16 years (50% with PCOS) participating in a 1-year lifestyle intervention. Girls with and without PCOS were matched to age, BMI and change of weight status.
We measured progesterone, 17-hydroxyprogesterone, 17-hydroxyprogenolon, 11-deoxycorticosterone, 21-deoxycorticosterone, deoxycorticosterone, corticosterone, 11-deoxycortisol, cortisol, cortisone, androstenedione, testosterone, dehydroepiandrostendione-sulfate (DHEA-S), estrone and estradiol by LC–MS/MS steroid profiling at baseline and one year later.
At baseline, obese PCOS girls demonstrated significantly higher androstenedione and testosterone concentrations compared to obese girls without PCOS, whereas the other steroid hormones including glucocorticoids, mineralocorticoids, estrogens and precursors of androgens did not differ significantly. Weight loss in obese PCOS girls was associated with a significant decrease of testosterone, androstenedione, DHEA-S, cortisol and corticosterone concentrations. Weight loss in obese non-PCOS girls was associated with a significant decrease of DHEA-S, cortisol and corticosterone concentrations, whereas no significant changes of testosterone and androstenedione concentrations could be observed. Without weight loss, no significant changes of steroid hormones were measured except an increase of estradiol in obese PCOS girls without weight loss.
The key steroid hormones in obese adolescents with PCOS are androstenedione and testosterone, whereas glucocorticoids, mineralocorticoids, estrogens and precursors of androgens did not differ between obese girls with and without PCOS.
Aneta Gawlik, Michael Shmoish, Michaela F Hartmann, Stefan A Wudy, Zbigniew Olczak, Katarzyna Gruszczynska, and Ze’ev Hochberg
Analysis of steroids by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) defines a subject’s steroidal fingerprint. Here, we compare the steroidal fingerprints of obese children with or without liver disease to identify the ‘steroid metabolomic signature’ of childhood nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.
Urinary samples of 85 children aged 8.5–18.0 years with BMI >97% were quantified for 31 steroid metabolites by GC-MS. The fingerprints of 21 children with liver disease (L1) as assessed by sonographic steatosis (L1L), elevated alanine aminotransferases (L1A) or both (L1AL), were compared to 64 children without markers of liver disease (L0). The steroidal signature of the liver disease was generated as the difference in profiles of L1 against L0 groups.
L1 comparing to L0 presented higher fasting triglycerides (P = 0.004), insulin (P = 0.002), INS/GLU (P = 0.003), HOMA-IR (P = 0.002), GGTP (P = 0.006), AST/SGOT (P = 0.002), postprandial glucose (P = 0.001) and insulin (P = 0.011). L1AL showed highest level of T-cholesterol and triglycerides (P = 0.029; P = 0.044). Fasting insulin, postprandial glucose, INS/GLU and HOMA-IR were highest in L1L and L1AL (P = 0.001; P = 0.017; P = 0.001; P = 0.001). The liver disease steroidal signature was marked by lower DHEA and its metabolites, higher glucocorticoids (mostly tetrahydrocortisone) and lower mineralocorticoid metabolites than L0. L1 patients showed higher 5α-reductase and 21-hydroxylase activity (the highest in L1A and L1AL) and lower activity of 11βHSD1 than L0 (P = 0.041, P = 0.009, P = 0.019).
The ‘steroid metabolomic signature’ of liver disease in childhood obesity provides a new approach to the diagnosis and further understanding of its metabolic consequences. It reflects the derangements of steroid metabolism in NAFLD that includes enhanced glucocorticoids and deranged androgens and mineralocorticoids.
Fidéline Bonnet-Serrano, Maxime Barat, Anna Vaczlavik, Anne Jouinot, Lucas Bouys, Christelle Laguillier-Morizot, Corinne Zientek, Catherine Simonneau, Etienne Larger, Laurence Guignat, Lionel Groussin, Guillaume Assié, Jean Guibourdenche, Ioannis Nicolis, Marie-Claude Menet, and Jérôme Bertherat
Large response of steroid precursors, including 17-hydroxyprogesterone, to adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) has been described in adrenocortical tumors, suggesting the existence of intra-tumoral enzymatic deficiencies. This study aimed to compare steroidogenesis enzymes activity in unilateral and bilateral benign tumors using serum steroid profiling in liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in the basal state and after ACTH 1-24 stimulation.
Design and methods
A serum profile of seven consecutive adrenal steroids was determined in LC-MS/MS in the basal state (T0) and after ACTH 1-24 stimulation (T60) in 35 patients with bilateral adrenocortical tumors (BL), 38 patients with unilateral tumors (UL) and 37 control subjects (CT). Response amplitude of each individual steroid was evaluated by T60/T0 ratio, whereas enzymatic activity was assessed by the downstream/upstream steroid ratio. Adrenal volume was quantified by a semi-automatic segmentation method.
For the seven steroids assayed, the amplitude of response to ACTH was higher in BL than in UL and in CT. The difference between BL and UL persisted even after matching patients on adrenal volume. On glucocorticoids pathway, enzymatic activity of CYP11B1 was significantly decreased in BL (78.3 (43.1-199.4)) in comparison to both UL (122.7 (13.8-228.4), P = 0.0002) and CT (186.8 (42.1-1236.3), P < 0.0001). On mineralocorticoids and androgens pathways, the enzymatic activity of CYP11B2 and CYP17A1-17,20 lyase was also lower in BL than UL and CT.
Decreased activity of distal steroidogenesis enzymes CYP11B1, CYP11B2 and CYP17A1-17,20 lyase, responsible for an explosive response to ACTH of upstream precursors in bilateral tumors, limits the synthesis of bioactive steroids, in particular cortisol, despite the increase in adrenal mass.
Activity of distal steroidogenesis enzymes (CYP11B1, CYP11B2 and CYP17A1 on glucocorticoids, mineralocorticoids and androgens pathways, respectively) is decreased in adrenocortical benign tumors. This decrease is more pronounced in bilateral lesions and seems to depend more on the nature of the lesion than on the increase in adrenal volume. It is responsible for the explosive response to ACTH of steroid precursors located upstream of these enzymes. It probably allows bioactive steroids, particularly cortisol, to stay in the normal range for a long time despite the increase in adrenal mass.
Avinaash Maharaj, Ruth Kwong, Jack Williams, Christopher Smith, Helen Storr, Ruth Krone, Debora Braslavsky, Maria Clemente, Nanik Ram, Indraneel Banerjee, Semra Çetinkaya, Federica Buonocore, Tülay Güran, John C Achermann, Louise Metherell, and Rathi Prasad
Sphingosine-1-phosphate lyase (SGPL1) insufficiency syndrome (SPLIS) is an autosomal recessive multi-system disorder, which mainly incorporates steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome and primary adrenal insufficiency. Other variable endocrine manifestations are described. In this study, we aimed to comprehensively annotate the endocrinopathies associated with pathogenic SGPL1 variants and assess for genotype–phenotype correlations by retrospectively reviewing the reports of endocrine disease within our patient cohort and all published cases in the wider literature up to February 2022. Glucocorticoid insufficiency in early childhood is the most common endocrine manifestation affecting 64% of the 50 patients reported with SPLIS, and a third of these individuals have additional mineralocorticoid deficiency. While most individuals also have nephrotic syndrome, SGPL1 variants also account for isolated adrenal insufficiency at presentation. Primary gonadal insufficiency, manifesting with microphallus and cryptorchidism, is reported in less than one-third of affected boys, all with concomitant adrenal disease. Mild primary hypothyroidism affects approximately a third of patients. There is paucity of data on the impact of SGPL1 deficiency on growth, and pubertal development, limited by the early and high mortality rate (approximately 50%). There is no clear genotype–phenotype correlation overall in the syndrome, with variable disease penetrance within individual kindreds. However, with regards to endocrine phenotype, the most prevalent disease variant p.R222Q (affecting 22%) is most consistently associated with isolated glucocorticoid deficiency. To conclude, SPLIS is associated with significant multiple endocrine disorders. While endocrinopathy in the syndrome generally presents in infancy, late-onset disease also occurs. Screening for these is therefore warranted both at diagnosis and through follow-up.
Heike Hoyer-Kuhn, Angela Huebner, Anette Richter-Unruh, Markus Bettendorf, Tilman Rohrer, Klaus Kapelari, Stefan Riedl, Klaus Mohnike, Helmuth-Günther Dörr, Friedrich-Wilhelm Roehl, Katharina Fink, Reinhard W Holl, and Joachim Woelfle
Treatment of classic congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is necessary to compensate for glucocorticoid/mineralocorticoid deficiencies and to suppress androgen excess. Hydrocortisone (HC) is preferred in growing children with classic CAH but recommendations regarding dosage/administration are inconsistent. The aim of this study was to evaluate HC dosing in children with CAH in relation to chronological age, sex, and phenotype based on a multicenter CAH registry.
The CAH registry was initiated in 1997 by the AQUAPE in Germany. On December 31st 2018, data from 1571 patients were included.
A custom-made electronic health record software is used at the participating centers. Pseudonymized data are transferred for central analysis. Parameters were selected based on current guidelines. Descriptive analyses and linear regression models were implemented with SAS 9.4.
We identified 1288 patients on exclusive treatment with hydrocortisone three times daily (604 boys; median age 7.2 years; 817 salt-wasting phenotype, 471 simple-virilizing phenotype). The mean (lower-upper quartiles) daily HC dose (mg/m² body surface area) was 19.4 (18.9–19.8) for patients <3 months (n = 329), 15.0 (14.6–15.3) for age ≥3–12 months (n = 463), 14.0 (13.7–14.3) for age 1–5.9 years (n = 745), 14.2 (14.0–14.5) for age 6 years to puberty entry (n = 669), and 14.9 (14.6–15.2) during puberty to 18 years (n = 801). Fludrocortisone was administered in 74.1% of patients with a median daily dosage of 88.8 µg.
Our analyses showed that still a high proportion of children are treated with HC doses higher than recommended. This evaluation provides comprehensive information on nationwide hydrocortisone substitution dosages in children with CAH underlining the benefit of systematic data within a registry to assess daily practice.
Anne-Sophie C A M Koning, Philippe C Habets, Marit Bogaards, Jan Kroon, Hanneke M van Santen, Judith M de Bont, and Onno C Meijer
Synthetic glucocorticoids like dexamethasone can cause severe neuropsychiatric effects. They preferentially bind to the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) over the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR). High dosages result in strong GR activation but likely also result in lower MR activation based on GR-mediated negative feedback on cortisol levels. Therefore, reduced MR activity may contribute to dexamethasone-induced neuropsychiatric symptoms.
In this single case study, we evaluate whether dexamethasone leads to reduced MR activation in the human brain. Brain tissue of an 8-year-old brain tumor patient was used, who suffered chronically from dexamethasone-induced neuropsychiatric symptoms and deceased only hours after a high dose of dexamethasone.
Main outcome measures
The efficacy of dexamethasone to induce MR activity was determined in HEK293T cells using a reporter construct. Subcellular localization of GR and MR was assessed in paraffin-embedded hippocampal tissue from the patient and two controls. In hippocampal tissue from the patient and eight controls, mRNA of MR/GR target genes was measured.
In vitro, dexamethasone stimulated MR with low efficacy and low potency. Immunofluorescence showed the presence of both GR and MR in the hippocampal cell nuclei after dexamethasone exposure. The putative MR target gene JDP2 was consistently expressed at relatively low levels in the dexamethasone-treated brain samples. Gene expression showed substantial variation in MR/GR target gene expression in two different hippocampus tissue blocks from the same patient.
Dexamethasone may induce MR nuclear translocation in the human brain. Conclusions on in vivo effects on gene expression in the brain await the availability of more tissue of dexamethasone-treated patients.
Huifei Sophia Zheng, Jeffrey G Daniel, Julia M Salamat, Laci Mackay, Chad D Foradori, Robert J Kemppainen, Satyanarayana R Pondugula, Ya-Xiong Tao, and Chen-Che Jeff Huang
Glucocorticoids have short- and long-term effects on adrenal gland function and development. RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) was performed to identify early transcriptomic responses to the synthetic glucocorticoid, dexamethasone (Dex), in vitro and in vivo. In total, 1711 genes were differentially expressed in the adrenal glands of the 1-h Dex-treated mice. Among them, only 113 were also considered differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in murine adrenocortical Y-1 cells treated with Dex for 1 h. Gene ontology analysis showed that the upregulated DEGs in the adrenal gland of the 1-h Dex-treated mice were highly associated with the development of neuronal cells, suggesting the adrenal medulla had a rapid response to Dex. Interestingly, only 4.3% of Dex-responsive genes in the Y-1 cell line under Dex treatment for 1 h were differentially expressed under Dex treatment for 24 h. The heatmaps revealed that most early responsive DEGs in Y-1 cells during 1 h of treatment exhibited a transient response. The expression of these genes under treatment for 24 h returned to basal levels similar to that during control treatment. In summary, this research compared the rapid transcriptomic effects of Dex stimulation in vivo and in vitro. Notably, adrenocortical Y-1 cells had a transient early response to Dex treatment. Furthermore, the DEGs had a minimal overlap in the 1-h Dex-treated group in vivo and in vitro.
Hiren Patt, Katrin Koehler, Sailesh Lodha, Swati Jadhav, Chaitanya Yerawar, Angela Huebner, Kunal Thakkar, Sneha Arya, Sandhya Nair, Manjunath Goroshi, Hosahithlu Ganesh, Vijaya Sarathi, Anurag Lila, Tushar Bandgar, and Nalini Shah
To study genotype–phenotype spectrum of triple A syndrome (TAS).
Retrospective chart analysis of Indian TAS patients (cohort 1, n = 8) and review of genotyped TAS cases reported in world literature (cohort 2, n = 133, 68 publications).
Median age at presentation was 4.75 years (range: 4–10) and 5 years (range: 1–42) for cohorts 1 and 2, respectively. Alacrima, adrenal insufficiency (AI), achalasia and neurological dysfunction (ND) were seen in 8/8, 8/8, 7/8 and 4/8 patients in cohort 1, and in 99, 91, 93 and 79% patients in cohort 2, respectively. In both cohorts, alacrima was present since birth while AI and achalasia manifested before ND. Mineralocorticoid deficiency (MC) was uncommon (absent in cohort 1, 12.5% in cohort 2). In cohort 1, splice-site mutation in exon 1 (p.G14Vfs*45) was commonest, followed by a deletion in exon 8 (p.S255Vfs*36). Out of 65 mutations in cohort 2, 14 were recurrent and five exhibited regional clustering. AI was more prevalent, more often a presenting feature, and was diagnosed at younger age in T group (those with truncating mutations) as compared to NT (non-truncating mutations) group. ND was more prevalent, more common a presenting feature, with later age at onset in NT as compared to T group.
Clinical profile of our patients is similar to that of patients worldwide. Alacrima is the earliest and most consistent finding. MC deficiency is uncommon. Some recurrent mutations show regional clustering. p.G14Vfs*45 and p.S255Vfs*36 account for majority of AAAS mutations in our cohort. Phenotype of T group differs from that of NT group and merits future research.