Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) affects 18–22% of women at reproductive age. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis evaluating the expected benefits of lifestyle (exercise plus diet) interventions on the reproductive endocrine profile in women with PCOS. Potential studies were identified by systematically searching PubMed, CINAHL and the Cochrane Controlled Trials Registry (1966–April 30, 2013) systematically using key concepts of PCOS. Significant improvements were seen in women receiving lifestyle intervention vs usual care in follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) levels, mean difference (MD) 0.39 IU/l (95% CI 0.09 to 0.70, P=0.01), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) levels, MD 2.37 nmol/l (95% CI 1.27 to 3.47, P<0.0001), total testosterone levels, MD −0.13 nmol/l (95% CI −0.22 to −0.03, P=0.008), androstenedione levels, MD −0.09 ng/dl (95% CI −0.15 to −0.03, P=0.005), free androgen index (FAI) levels, MD −1.64 (95% CI −2.94 to −0.35, P=0.01) and Ferriman–Gallwey (FG) score, MD −1.01 (95% CI −1.54 to −0.48, P=0.0002). Significant improvements were also observed in women who received exercise-alone intervention vs usual care in FSH levels, MD 0.42 IU/l (95% CI 0.11 to 0.73, P=0.009), SHBG levels, MD 3.42 nmol/l (95% CI 0.11 to 6.73, P=0.04), total testosterone levels, MD −0.16 nmol/l (95% CI −0.29 to −0.04, P=0.01), androstenedione levels, MD −0.09 ng/dl (95% CI −0.16 to −0.03, P=0.004) and FG score, MD −1.13 (95% CI −1.88 to −0.38, P=0.003). Our analyses suggest that lifestyle (diet and exercise) intervention improves levels of FSH, SHBG, total testosterone, androstenedione and FAI, and FG score in women with PCOS.
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Liza Haqq, James McFarlane, Gudrun Dieberg, and Neil Smart
Clara Lundetoft Clausen, Trine Holm Johannsen, Niels Erik Skakkebæk, Hanne Frederiksen, Camilla Koch Ryrsø, Arnold Matovu Dungu, Maria Hein Hegelund, Daniel Faurholt-Jepsen, Rikke Krogh-Madsen, Birgitte Lindegaard, Allan Linneberg, Line Lund Kårhus, Anders Juul, and Thomas Benfield
To explore pituitary–gonadal hormone concentrations and assess their association with inflammation, severe respiratory failure, and mortality in hospitalized men and women with COVID-19, and compare these to hormone concentrations in hospitalized patients with bacterial community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and influenza virus CAP and to concentrations in a reference group of healthy individuals.
Serum concentrations of testosterone, estrone sulfate, luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were measured within 4 days of admission. Associations were assessed by logistic regression analysis in patients with COVID-19, and results were reported as odds ratio with 95% CI per two-fold reduction after adjustment for age, comorbidities, days to sample collection, and IL-6 concentrations.
In total, 278 patients with COVID-19, 21 with influenza virus CAP, and 76 with bacterial CAP were included. Testosterone concentrations were suppressed in men hospitalized with COVID-19, bacterial and influenza virus CAP, and moderately suppressed in women. Reductions in testosterone (OR: 3.43 (1.14–10.30), P = 0.028) and LH (OR: 2.51 (1.28–4.92), P = 0.008) were associated with higher odds of mehanical ventilation (MV) in men with COVID-19. In women with COVID-19, reductions in LH (OR: 3.34 (1.02–10-90), P = 0.046) and FSH (OR: 2.52 (1.01–6.27), P = 0.047) were associated with higher odds of MV.
Low testosterone and LH concentrations were predictive of severe respiratory failure in men with COVID-19, whereas low concentrations of LH and FSH were predictive of severe respiratory failure in women with COVID-19.
Bruno Donadille, Muriel Houang, Irène Netchine, Jean-Pierre Siffroi, and Sophie Christin-Maitre
Human 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase deficiency (3b-HSD) is a very rare form of congenital adrenal hyperplasia resulting from HSD3B2 gene mutations. The estimated prevalence is less than 1/1,000,000 at birth. It leads to steroidogenesis impairment in both adrenals and gonads. Few data are available concerning adult testicular function in such patients. We had the opportunity to study gonadal axis and testicular function in a 46,XY adult patient, carrying a HSD3B2 mutation. He presented at birth a neonatal salt-wasting syndrome. He had a micropenis, a perineal hypospadias and two intrascrotal testes. HSD3B2 gene sequencing revealed a 687del27 homozygous mutation. The patient achieved normal puberty at the age of 15 years. Transition from the paediatric department occurred at the age of 19 years. His hormonal profile under hydrocortisone and fludrocortisone treatments revealed normal serum levels of 17OH-pregnenolone, as well as SDHEA, ACTH, total testosterone, inhibin B and AMH. Pelvic ultrasound identified two scrotal testes of 21 mL each, without any testicular adrenal rest tumours. His adult spermatic characteristics were normal, according to WHO 2010 criteria, with a sperm concentration of 57.6 million/mL (N > 15), 21% of typical forms (N > 4%). Sperm vitality was subnormal (41%; N > 58%). This patient, in contrast to previous reports, presents subnormal sperm parameters and therefore potential male fertility in a 24-years-old patient with severe 3b-HSD deficiency. This case should improve counselling about fertility of male patients carrying HSD3B2 mutation.
Yao Chen and Shu-ying Fang
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a heterogenous endocrine disorder with typical symptoms of oligomenorrhoea, hyperandrogenism, hirsutism, obesity, insulin resistance and increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Extensive evidence indicates that PCOS is a genetic disease and numerous biochemical pathways have been linked with its pathogenesis. A number of genes from these pathways have been investigated, which include those involved with steroid hormone biosynthesis and metabolism, action of gonadotropin and gonadal hormones, folliculogenesis, obesity and energy regulation, insulin secretion and action and many others. In this review, we summarize the historical and recent findings in genetic polymorphisms of PCOS from the relevant publications and outline some genetic polymorphisms that are potentially associated with the risk of PCOS. This information could uncover candidate genes associating with PCOS, which will be valuable for the development of novel diagnostic and treatment platforms for PCOS patients.
Veronica Kieffer, Kate Davies, Christine Gibson, Morag Middleton, Jean Munday, Shashana Shalet, Lisa Shepherd, and Phillip Yeoh
This competency framework was developed by a working group of endocrine specialist nurses with the support of the Society for Endocrinology to enhance the clinical care that adults with an endocrine disorder receive. Nurses should be able to demonstrate that they are functioning at an optimal level in order for patients to receive appropriate care. By formulating a competency framework from which an adult endocrine nurse specialist can work, it is envisaged that their development as professional practitioners can be enhanced. This is the second edition of the Competency Framework for Adult Endocrine Nursing. It introduces four new competencies on benign adrenal tumours, hypo- and hyperparathyroidism, osteoporosis and polycystic ovary syndrome. The authors and the Society for Endocrinology welcome constructive feedback on the document, both nationally and internationally, in anticipation that further developments and ideas can be incorporated into future versions.
Sebastião Freitas de Medeiros, Cinthia Marenza Ormond, Matheus Antônio Souto de Medeiros, Nayara de Souza Santos, Camila Regis Banhara, and Márcia Marly Winck Yamamoto
To examine the anthropometric, and metabolic connections of 17-hydroxypregnenolone in the normo- and hyperandrogenemic polycystic ovary syndrome phenotypes.
Materials and methods
This cohort study was conducted at the Julio Muller University Hospital, Cuiabá, Brazil, between January 2014 and July 2016, and 91 normal cycling healthy women, 46 normoandrogenemic and 147 hyperandrogenemic, patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) were enrolled according to the Rotterdam criteria. Several anthropometric, biochemical and hormonal parameters were properly verified and correlated with 17-hydroxypregnenolone (17-OHPE) concentrations.
17-OHPE was higher in hyperandrogenemic PCOS than in normoandrogenemic PCOS and in control groups (P = 0.032 and P < 0.001, respectively). In healthy controls, 17-OHPE was positively associated with glucose, free estrogen index, DHEAS and negatively associated with compounds S. In normoandrogenemic PCOS patients, 17-OHPE presented positive correlations with VAI, LAP, cortisol, insulin and HOMA-IR. In the hyperandrogenemic group, 17-OHPE presented significant negative correlations with most anthropometric parameters, HOMA-IR, HOMA %B, estradiol, free estrogen index (FEI), C-peptide, and TG levels and positive correlations with HOMA-S and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), sex-hormone binding globulin (SHBG), androstenedione (A4) and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA). Regarding hyperandrogenemic PCOS, and using a stepwise multiple regression, only HOMA-S and WHR were retained in the model (R 2 = 0.294, P < 0.001).
17-OHPE exhibited different relationships with anthropometric, and biochemical parameters in PCOS patients, depending on the androgen levels. In PCOS subjects with high androgen concentrations, 17-OHPE was negatively associated with most anthropometric parameters, particularly with those used as markers of adipose tissue dysfunction and frequently employed as predictors of cardiovascular disease risk; otherwise, 17-OHPE was positively associated with HDL-C and HOMA-S in this patients. Future studies are required to evaluate the clinical implications of these novel findings.
Rossella Cannarella, Andrea Crafa, Sandro La Vignera, Rosita A Condorelli, and Aldo E Calogero
Animal studies suggest that insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) may influence the function of the hypothalamus–pituitary–testicular axis, especially in childhood, but the evidence in humans is scanty. Laron syndrome, a human model of IGF1 deficiency, may help to solve this issue.
This systematic review aims to analyze puberty onset and progression, testicular volume, gonadotropin, and total testosterone serum levels, sperm parameters and fertility, and penile length in patients with Laron syndrome.
Specific keywords were used. All data on male patients with Laron syndrome were included.
Seventeen articles matched the inclusion criteria and were entered in the analysis, for a total of 125 male patients. Puberty was absent in 8.9% and delayed in 35.6% of untreated patients of pubertal age. After onset, the duration of the pubertal process was prolonged in 76.9% of untreated patients. The growth spurt was absent in 52.6% and delayed in 31.6% of untreated patients. The testicular volume was small in the two patients who did not receive any treatment. Treatment with IGF1 increased gonadotropin and testosterone serum levels in five out of five patients of pubertal age. No effect was found in four out of four patients younger than 5 years. No study reported data on sperm parameters and fertility. Micropenis occurred in 67.2% of patients.
Conclusion and future perspectives
Delayed puberty is common in patients with Laron syndrome. The growth hormone–IGF1 axis may influence the time of puberty onset. Serum levels of IGF1 should be investigated in children with delayed puberty, scarce progression of testicular growth, and/or micropenis. IGF1 levels might be measured in children with delayed puberty, poor testicular growth, and/or micropenis.
Bo Zhu, Yumei Chen, Fang Xu, Xiaolu Shen, Xuanyu Chen, Jieqiang Lv, and Songying Zhang
Androgens excess results in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, which is an important cause of β cells dysfunction. Here, we investigated the molecular regulation of androgens excess, ER stress, and β-cell function in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).
PCOS mouse model was established by injection of DHEA. Primary cultured mouse islets were used to detect testosterone (TE)-induced ER stress. The response of ER stress, apoptosis, and hyperinsulinemia were analyzed in INS-1 cells with or without TE exposure. Androgen receptor (AR) antagonist and ER stress inhibitor treatment was performed to evaluate the role of TE in ER stress and proinsulin secretion of PCOS mice.
PCOS mice had higher ER stress in islets. TE exposure induced ER stress and apoptosis significantly through sustaining insulin overexpression in β cells, which in turn impaired proinsulin maturation and secretion. Blocking this process could significantly relieve ER stress and apoptosis and improve insulin homeostasis.
ER stress activated by androgens excess in PCOS contributes to β cell dysfunction and hyperinsulinemia.
Xingyan Liu, Mei Xu, Min Qian, and Lindong Yang
The cytochrome P450 family 17 (CYP17) is associated with hyperandrogenism in women, and the association between CYP17 gene polymorphism and the risk of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is not definitive. In order to determine whether the CYP17 T/C (rs74357) gene polymorphism is an exposure risk for PCOS, a comprehensive meta-analysis summarizing 19 studies was performed. The pooled odds ratio (OR) and the corresponding 95% CI were measured under five genetic models, and the stratified analyses by ethnicity, Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium, testosterone levels and BMI in controls were carried out to identify the causes of substantial heterogeneity. The overall results validated that the CYP17 T/C (rs74357) gene polymorphism was significantly associated with PCOS risk in four genetic models. Moreover, the outcomes of subgroup analysis by ethnicity indicated that the frequencies of the C allele of CYP17 T/C (rs74357) polymorphism were markedly higher in women from Asia than in Caucasians (T vs C: OR 0.85, 95% CI = 0.74–0.99, P < 0.05). Therefore, these findings suggested that the CYP17 T/C (rs74357) gene polymorphism played an indispensable part in increasing the susceptibility of PCOS when carrying the C allele, which proposed that the polymorphism of the CYP17 gene may be a predictive factor for the risk of PCOS or an important pathway in PCOS-associated metabolic and hormonal dysregulation.
Ewa Stogowska, Karol Adam Kamiński, Bartosz Ziółko, and Irina Kowalska
The subject of vocal changes accompanying pathological conditions, although still not well explored, seems to be promising. The discovery of laryngeal receptors for sex hormones and thyroid hormones can strongly support the hypothesis of changes in voice due to various endocrinopathies. On the other hand, the impairment of the proper function of the vocal apparatus can also be caused in the process of the microvasculature complications of diabetes mellitus. This review was a comprehensive summary of the accessible literature concerning the influence of selected endocrinopathies on subjective and objective voice parameters. We analysed a total number of 16 English-language research papers from the PubMed database, released between 2008 and 2021, describing vocal changes in reproductive disorders such as polycystic ovary syndrome and congenital adrenal hyperplasia, thyroid disorders in shape of hypo- or hyperthyroidism and type 2 diabetes mellitus. The vast majority of the analysed articles proved some changes in voice in all mentioned conditions, although the detailed affected vocal parameters frequently differed between research. We assume that the main cause of the observed conflicting results might stem from non-homogeneous methodology designs of the analysed studies.