Search Results

You are looking at 41 - 50 of 458 items for

  • Abstract: adiponectin x
  • Abstract: Beta x
  • Abstract: diabetes x
  • Abstract: diabetic x
  • Abstract: Glucagon x
  • Abstract: glucose x
  • Abstract: Hyperglycemia x
  • Abstract: Hypoglycemia x
  • Abstract: Insulin x
  • Abstract: Langerhans x
  • Abstract: Islets x
  • Abstract: Pancreas x
  • Abstract: prediabetes x
  • Abstract: metabo* x
  • Refine by Access: All content x
Clear All Modify Search
Open access

Tatsuya Kondo, Nobukazu Miyakawa, Sayaka Kitano, Takuro Watanabe, Rieko Goto, Mary Ann Suico, Miki Sato, Yuki Takaki, Masaji Sakaguchi, Motoyuki Igata, Junji Kawashima, Hiroyuki Motoshima, Takeshi Matsumura, Hirofumi Kai, and Eiichi Araki

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is often accompanied by metabolic disorders such as metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Heat shock response (HSR) is one of the most important homeostatic abilities but is deteriorated by chronic metabolic insults. Heat shock (HS) with an appropriate mild electrical stimulation (MES) activates HSR and improves metabolic abnormalities including insulin resistance, hyperglycemia and inflammation in metabolic disorders. To analyze the effects of HS + MES treatment on NAFLD biomarkers, three cohorts including healthy men (two times/week, n = 10), patients with metabolic syndrome (four times/week, n = 40), and patients with T2DM (n = 100; four times/week (n = 40) and two, four, seven times/week (n = 20 each)) treated with HS + MES were retrospectively analyzed. The healthy subjects showed no significant alterations in NAFLD biomarkers after the treatment. In patients with metabolic syndrome, many of the NAFLD steatosis markers, including fatty liver index, NAFLD-liver fat score, liver/spleen ratio and hepatic steatosis index and NAFLD fibrosis marker, aspartate aminotransferase/alanine aminotransferase (AST/ALT) ratio, were improved upon the treatment. In patients with T2DM, all investigated NAFLD steatosis markers were improved and NAFLD fibrosis markers such as the AST/ALT ratio, fibrosis-4 index and NAFLD-fibrosis score were improved upon the treatment. Thus, HS + MES, a physical intervention, may become a novel treatment strategy for NAFLD as well as metabolic disorders.

Open access

Yuanyuan Li, Dongmei Li, and Xingbo Cheng

Objective

Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is common worldwide and seriously threatens maternal and infant health. The expression of non-coding (ncRNA) is tissue-specific and highly stable in eukaryotic cells and the circulatory system, which can act as an early molecular marker of GDM.

Methods

The differential expression of lncRNA and mRNA in the peripheral blood of patients with GDM (experimental group) and healthy pregnant women (control group) was analysed via lncRNA gene chip. Employing biological function clustering and KEGG signalling pathway analysis, we selected the mRNAs and lncRNAs closely related to the insulin signalling pathway of GDM to analyse the possible regulatory mechanism in the pathogenesis of GDM. The sequencing results were further verified via quantitative PCR (Q-PCR).

Results

LncRNA microarray analysis revealed 7498 genes (3592 upregulated, 3906 downregulated) differentially expressed in the GDM group and healthy pregnant women control group, including 1098 differentially expressed lncRNAs (609 upregulated, 489 downregulated). According to the regulatory pathway of the lncRNA mRNA network, 6 lncRNAs and 4 mRNAs were found to play a significant role in insulin resistance.

Conclusions

The lncRNAs ERMP1, TSPAN32 and MRPL38 form a co-expression network with TPH1, which is mainly involved in the tryptophan metabolism pathway and in the development of GDM. Moreover, lncRNA RPL13P5 forms a co-expression network with the TSC2 gene via the PI3K-AKT and insulin signalling pathways, which are involved in the process of insulin resistance in GDM.

Open access

Patricia Iozzo and Maria Angela Guzzardi

The prevalence of obesity has reached epidemic proportions and keeps growing. Obesity seems implicated in the pathogenesis of cognitive dysfunction, Alzheimer’s disease and dementia, and vice versa. Growing scientific efforts are being devoted to the identification of central mechanisms underlying the frequent association between obesity and cognitive dysfunction. Glucose brain handling undergoes dynamic changes during the life-course, suggesting that its alterations might precede and contribute to degenerative changes or signaling abnormalities. Imaging of the glucose analog 18F-labeled fluorodeoxyglucose (18FDG) by positron emission tomography (PET) is the gold-standard for the assessment of cerebral glucose metabolism in vivo. This review summarizes the current literature addressing brain glucose uptake measured by PET imaging, and the effect of insulin on brain metabolism, trying to embrace a life-course vision in the identification of patterns that may explain (and contribute to) the frequent association between obesity and cognitive dysfunction. The current evidence supports that brain hypermetabolism and brain insulin resistance occur in selected high-risk conditions as a transient phenomenon, eventually evolving toward normal or low values during life or disease progression. Associative studies suggest that brain hypermetabolism predicts low BDNF levels, hepatic and whole body insulin resistance, food desire and an unfavorable balance between anticipated reward from food and cognitive inhibitory control. Emerging mechanistic links involve the microbiota and the metabolome, which correlate with brain metabolism and cognition, deserving attention as potential future prevention targets.

Open access

Wenqi Yang, Ling Liu, Yuan Wei, Chunlu Fang, Fu Zhou, Jinbao Chen, Qinghua Han, Meifang Huang, Xuan Tan, Qiuyue Liu, Qiang Pan, Lu Zhang, Xiaojuan Lei, and Liangming Li

Objective

The protective effects of exercise against glucose dysmetabolism have been generally reported. However, the mechanism by which exercise improves glucose homeostasis remains poorly understood. The FGF21–adiponectin axis participates in the regulation of glucose metabolism. Elevated levels of FGF21 and decreased levels of adiponectin in obesity indicate FGF21–adiponectin axis dysfunction. Hence, we investigated whether exercise could improve the FGF21–adiponectin axis impairment and ameliorate disturbed glucose metabolism in diet-induced obese mice.

Methods

Eight-week-old C57BL/6J mice were randomly assigned to three groups: low-fat diet control group, high-fat diet group and high-fat diet plus exercise group. Glucose metabolic parameters, the ability of FGF21 to induce adiponectin, FGF21 receptors and co-receptor levels and adipose tissue inflammation were evaluated after 12 weeks of intervention.

Results

Exercise training led to reduced levels of fasting blood glucose and insulin, improved glucose tolerance and better insulin sensitivity in high-fat diet-induced obese mice. Although serum FGF21 levels were not significantly changed, both total and high-molecular-weight adiponectin concentrations were markedly enhanced by exercise. Importantly, exercise protected against high-fat diet-induced impaired ability of FGF21 to stimulate adiponectin secretion. FGF21 co-receptor, β-klotho, as well as receptors, FGFR1 and FGFR2, were upregulated by exercise. We also found that exercise inhibited adipose tissue inflammation, which may contribute to the improvement in the FGF21–adiponectin axis impairment.

Conclusions

Our data indicate exercise protects against high-fat diet-induced FGF21–adiponectin axis impairment, and may thereby exert beneficial effects on glucose metabolism.

Open access

Mohammed S Albreiki, Benita Middleton, and Shelagh M Hampton

Many animal studies have reported an association between melatonin suppression and the disturbance of metabolic responses; yet, few human studies have investigated bright light effects on metabolic and hormonal responses at night. This study investigated the impact of light on plasma hormones and metabolites prior to, and after, an evening meal in healthy participants. Seventeen healthy participants, 8 females (22.2 ± 2.59 years, mean ± s.d.) and 9 males (22.8 ± 3.5 years) were randomised to a two-way cross-over design protocol; dim light (DL) (<5 lux) and bright light (BL) (>500 lux) sessions, separated by at least seven days. Saliva and plasma samples were collected prior to and after a standard evening meal at specific intervals. Plasma non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) levels were significantly higher pre-meal in DL compared to BL (P < 0.01). Plasma glucose and insulin levels were significantly greater post-meal in the BL compared to DL session (P = 0.02, P = 0.001), respectively. Salivary melatonin levels were significantly higher in the DL compared to those in BL session (P = 0.005). BL at night was associated with significant increases in plasma glucose and insulin suggestive of glucose intolerance and insulin insensitivity. Raised pre-prandial NEFA levels may be due to changes in insulin sensitivity or the presence of melatonin and/or light at night. Plasma triglyceride (TAG) levels were the same in both sessions. These results may explain some of the health issues reported in shift workers; however, further studies are needed to elucidate the cause of these metabolic changes.

Open access

Wang Chengji and Fan Xianjin

Objective

To investigate the biological mechanism of the effect of different intensity exercises on diabetic cardiomyopathy.

Methods

87 raise specific pathogen SPF healthy 6-week-old male Sprague–Dawley rats, fed 6 weeks with high-fat diet for rats were used, and a diabetic model was established by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin – randomly selected 43 rats were divided into Diabetic control group (DCG, n = 10), Diabetic exercise group 1 (DEG1, n = 11), Diabetic exercise group 2 (DEG2, n = 11) and Diabetic exercise group 3 (DEG3, n = 11). The rats in DEG1 were forced to run on a motorized treadmill, the exercise load consisted of running at a speed of 10 m/min, the exercise load of the rats in DEG2 were running at a speed of 15 m/min, the exercise load of the rats in DEG3 were running at a speed of 20 m/min, for one hour once a day for 6 weeks. After 6 weeks of exercise intervention, glucose metabolism-related indexes in rats such as blood glucose (FBG), glycosylated serum protein (GSP) and insulin (FINS); cardiac fibrinolytic system parameters such as PAI-1 (plasminogen activator inhibitor 1), Von Willebrand factor (vWF), protein kinase C (PKC) and diacylglycerol (DAG); and serum level of NO, eNOS and T-NOS were measured.

Result

Compared with DCG, fasting blood glucose and GSP were decreased, while insulin sensitivity index and insulin level were increased in all rats of the three exercise groups. FBG decrease was statistically significant (P < 0.01), only GSP decrease was statistically significant (P < 0.05) in DEG1 and DEG2, PAI-1 in three exercise groups were significantly reduced (P < 0.05), plasma vWF levels in the three exercise groups were significantly lower than those in the DCG group (P < 0.01); PKC levels decreased dramatically in the three exercise groups and DAG levels decrease slightly (P < 0.05), but with no significant difference. Compared with DCG, the serum level of NO was significantly higher (P < 0.05), and eNOS level was significantly elevated (P < 0.05). T-NOS elevation was statistically significant in DEG1 (P < 0.05).

Conclusions

Low- and moderate-intensity exercise can better control blood glucose level in diabetic rats; myocardial PAI-1 in DEG1, DEG2 and DEG3 rats decreased significantly (P < 0.05), serum NO increased (P < 0.05) and eNOS increased (P < 0.05) significantly. Therefore, it is inferred that exercise improves the biological mechanism of diabetic cardiomyopathy by affecting the levels of PAI-1 and eNOS, and there is a dependence on intensity.

Open access

Anru Wang, Xueqin Yan, Cai Zhang, Caiqi Du, Wenjun Long, Di Zhan, and Xiaoping Luo

Background

Fibroblast growth factor 1 (FGF1) can regulate glucose and lipid metabolism in obese mice. Serum FGF1 has increased in type 2 diabetes mellitus adults and correlated with BMI. This study aimed to indicate conventional weight loss effects on FGF1 in obese children and adolescents.

Materials and methods

Clinical and metabolic parameters of 88 lean and obese individuals (ages 5–15 years) and 39 obese individuals followed with 6 months of lifestyle intervention were collected. Serum FGF1 levels were detected through enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays.

Results

FGF1 levels were increased in obese individuals. Serum FGF1 levels were significantly correlated with BMI and waist circumferences (r = 0.377, P = 0.012; r = 0.301, P = 0.047, respectively). Multivariate stepwise linear regression analyses showed that FGF1 levels were significantly correlated with HbA1c and HOMA-IR (β = 0.371, P = 0.008; β = 0.323, P = 0.021, respectively). Weight loss (2.3 ± 0.1 kg) was accompanied by a significant reduction of circulating FGF1 levels (7.2 ± 0.4 pg/mL). Changes in FGF1 were significantly correlated with changes in fasting glucose, HOMA-IR and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (β = 0.277, P = 0.020; β = 0.474, P < 0.001; β = 0.320, P = 0.008, respectively).

Conclusion

FGF1 was related to increased risk of insulin resistance in obese children and adolescents. Serum FGF1 reduced after weight loss in obese individuals and was associated with the improvement of insulin resistance. Changes in serum FGF1 were more correlated with insulin resistance than changes in obesity per se.

Open access

Amalie Carlsson, Kaspar Sørensen, Anna-Maria Andersson, Hanne Frederiksen, and Anders Juul

Introduction

Bisphenol A and several of the most commonly used phthalates have been associated with adverse metabolic health effects such as obesity and diabetes. Therefore, we analyzed these man-made chemicals in first morning urine samples from 107 healthy normal-weight Danish children and adolescents.

Method

This was a cross-sectional study. Participants were recruited as part of the Copenhagen Puberty Study. The subjects were evaluated by an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), a dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scan, direct oxygen uptake measurement during cycle ergometry and fasting blood samples. First morning urine was collected and phthalate metabolites and BPA were measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS) with prior enzymatic deconjugation. Individual chemical concentrations were divided into tertiles and analyzed in relation to biological outcome.

Results

Children in the lowest tertile of urinary BPA had significantly higher peak insulin levels during OGTT (P = 0.01), lower insulin sensitivity index (P < 0.01), higher leptin (P = 0.03), triglyceride (P < 0.01) and total cholesterol levels (P = 0.04), lower aerobic fitness (P = 0.02) and a tendency toward higher fat mass index (P = 0.1) compared with children in the highest tertile for uBPA. No significant differences in anthropometrics, body composition or glucose metabolism were associated with any of the phthalate metabolites measured.

Conclusion

This pilot study on healthy normal-weight children suggests an inverse association between BPA and insulin resistance. Our findings contrast other cross-sectional studies showing a positive association for BPA, which may be due to confounding or reverse causation because diet is an important source of both BPA exposure and obesity.

Open access

Ling Hu, Ting Li, Xiao-Ling Yin, and Yi Zou

Objective:

The purpose of this study was to explore the prevalence of thyroid nodules (TN) and metabolic syndrome (MS) and to analyze the correlation between TN and the components of MS.

Methods:

A total of 1526 subjects were divided into two groups: a TN group and a non-thyroid nodules (NTN) group. The height, weight, blood pressure, fasting blood glucose level, fasting plasma insulin level, serum lipid profile, uric acid level, serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) level, free triiodothyronine (FT3) level, and free thyroxine (FT4) level of each patient were measured. Insulin resistance (IR) was estimated by homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Fatty liver and TN were detected by color Doppler ultrasonography.

Results:

(i) The overall prevalence of TN was 39.5%; it was significantly higher in women than in men (P < 0.01) and progressively increased with age in both sexes. (ii) The overall prevalence of MS was 25.6%; it was significantly higher in men than in women (P < 0.01) and progressively increased with age in both sexes. (iii) FT3 was significantly lower in the TN group than in the NTN group (P < 0.01). (iv) BMI, triglycerides, and HOMA-IR were higher in the TN group than in the NTN group (P < 0.05). (v) The existence of TN was significantly associated with overweight/obesity (OR = 1.03, 95% CI = 1.024–1.089), and with insulin resistance (IR) (OR = 1.98, 95% CI = 1.645–2.368), after adjusting for age and sex.

Conclusions:

The prevalence of thyroid nodules and metabolic syndrome in the Nanchang area increases with age, and overweight/obesity and IR in patients are associated with thyroid nodules.

Open access

Agnieszka Adamska, Aleksandra Maria Polak, Anna Krentowska, Agnieszka Łebkowska, Justyna Hryniewicka, Monika Leśniewska, and Irina Kowalska

Objective

PCOS women are characterized by insulin resistance and have higher tendency to the development of hepatic steatosis. Fetuin-B has been introduced as a hepatokine/adipokine, which is increased in hepatic steatosis and may be connected with glucose metabolism disturbances. The aim of the study was to evaluate the relationships between serum fetuin-B concentration and indices of insulin resistance, insulin secretion and markers of liver steatosis in PCOS women in comparison to the control group.

Patients and methods

The study group included 108 women – 57 women with PCOS and 51 women matched for age and BMI as a control group. Serum concentration of fetuin-B was estimated. Homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and homeostasis model assessment β cell function (HOMA-β) were calculated. Fatty liver index (FLI), lipid accumulation product (LAP) and visceral adiposity index (VAI) were used as markers of liver steatosis.

Results

We found higher serum concentration of fetuin-B and FLI in PCOS women in comparison to the control group (all P < 0.05). We observed a positive relationship between serum fetuin-B concentration and HOMA-β (r = 0.43, P = 0.01), HOMA-IR (r = 0.31, P = 0.01), FLI (r = 0.29, P = 0.02), VAI (r = 0.29, P = 0.02) and LAP (r = 0.32, P = 0.01) in PCOS women. We also noticed a relationship between HOMA-IR and FLI (r = 0.42, P = 0.01), VAI (r = 0.38, P = 0.004) and LAP (r = 0.41, P = 0.001) in this group. Multiple regression analysis revealed that HOMA-β (β = 0.39, P = 0.002) and LAP (β = 0.27, P = 0.02) were independently connected with serum fetuin-B levels in women with PCOS.

Conclusions

Serum fetuin-B levels are higher in women with PCOS and are independently connected with HOMA-β and hepatic steatosis.