Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a rare disease of not well-defined etiology that involves immune cell activation and frequently affects the skeleton. Bone involvement in LCH usually presents in the form of osteolytic lesions along with low bone mineral density. Various molecules involved in bone metabolism are implicated in the pathogenesis of LCH or may be affected during the course of the disease, including interleukins (ILs), tumor necrosis factor α, receptor activator of NF-κB (RANK) and its soluble ligand RANKL, osteoprotegerin (OPG), periostin and sclerostin. Among them IL-17A, periostin and RANKL have been proposed as potential serum biomarkers for LCH, particularly as the interaction between RANK, RANKL and OPG not only regulates bone homeostasis through its effects on the osteoclasts but also affects the activation and survival of immune cells. Significant changes in circulating and lesional RANKL levels have been observed in LCH patients irrespective of bone involvement. Standard LCH management includes local or systematic administration of corticosteroids and chemotherapy. Given the implication of RANK, RANKL and OPG in the pathogenesis of the disease and the osteolytic nature of bone lesions, agents aiming at inhibiting the RANKL pathway and/or osteoclastic activation, such as bisphosphonates and denosumab, may have a role in the therapeutic approach of LCH although further clinical investigation is warranted.
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Athanasios D Anastasilakis, Marina Tsoli, Gregory Kaltsas, and Polyzois Makras
Anna Kistner, Mireille Vanpée, and Kerstin Hall
Children born small for gestational age (SGA) are at risk for developing type 2 diabetes. Lipodystrophy leads to early type 2 diabetes and leptin reverses the metabolic consequences of the disease. Low IGF-binding protein 1 (IGFBP1) can predict the development of type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to determine leptin, insulin, and IGFBP1 in children and adult women born preterm or SGA to evaluate the role of leptin as a compensatory mechanism in insulin resistance development.
Seventy-six children (8.5–10 years, 41 girls and 35 boys) and 45 women (23–30 years) were studied. The children comprised subjects born appropriate for gestational age (<30 gestational weeks) (n=22), born SGA at term (n=23), and full-term normal-weight controls (n=31). Among the women, the corresponding figures were, n=10, n=18, and n=17 respectively. Fasting levels of IGFBP1, leptin, insulin, and IGF1 were determined and total adiponectin only in women.
In girls and women, term SGA subjects had higher leptin levels in relation to BMI SDS (P=0.042 and P=0.03 respectively). More than half of IGFBP1 variability was explained by leptin and insulin in children. In term SGA women, IGFBP1 level was lower compared with controls (P=0.012) and the regression line of IGFBP1 on insulin was suppressed below −1 s.d. of a reference material.
Leptin levels were elevated in term SGA girls and women, in particular in adult women, but not found in preterm girls and women. IGFBP1 was lower in term SGA women. In children, leptin and insulin were strong suppressors of IGFBP1. We speculate that higher leptin levels could be a protective event to enhance hepatic insulin sensitivity.
Shane M Regnier, Andrew G Kirkley, Daniel Ruiz, Wakanene Kamau, Qian Wu, Kurunthachalam Kannan, and Robert M Sargis
Emerging evidence implicates environmental endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in the pathogenesis of metabolic diseases such as obesity and diabetes; however, the interactions between EDCs and traditional risk factors in disease pathogenesis remain incompletely characterized. The present study interrogates the interaction of the EDC tolylfluanid (TF) and traditional dietary stressors in the promotion of metabolic dysfunction. Eight-week-old male C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat, high-sucrose diet (HFHSD) or a high-sucrose diet (HSD), with or without TF supplementation at 100 μg/g, for 12 weeks. Food intake, body weight and visceral adiposity were quantified. Glucose homeostasis was interrogated by intraperitoneal glucose and insulin tolerance tests at 9 and 10 weeks of exposure, respectively. After 12 weeks of dietary exposure, metabolic cage analyses were performed to interrogate nutrient handling and energy expenditure. In the background of an HFHSD, TF promoted glucose intolerance; however, weight gain and insulin sensitivity were unchanged, and visceral adiposity was reduced. In the background of an HSD, TF increased visceral adiposity; however, glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity were unchanged, while weight gain was reduced. Thus, these analyses reveal that the metabolic perturbations induced by dietary exposure to TF, including the directionality of alterations in body weight gain, visceral adiposity and glucose homeostasis, are influenced by dietary macronutrient composition, suggesting that populations may exhibit distinct metabolic risks based on their unique dietary characteristics.
Hong Wang, Jie Cao, Jian-bin Su, Xue-qin Wang, Dong-mei Zhang, and Xiao-hua Wang
Antithrombin 3 (AT3) is a physiological inhibitor of thrombin, and serum AT3 activity was found to decrease at the status of type 2 diabetes (T2D). T2D was presented with an increased risk of thrombotic complications at the background of impaired insulin sensitivity. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between insulin sensitivity indices and serum AT3 activity in patients with T2D.
We conducted a cross-sectional study in patients with T2D who consented to participate in the study at the Endocrinology Department of Affiliated 2 Hospital of Nantong University from January 2015 to June 2018. All patients received serum AT3 activity test and 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Basal and systemic insulin sensitivity were assessed by homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and Matsuda index (ISIMatsuda), respectively, from the OGTT. And other relevant clinical data were also collected.
Total of 1612 patients with T2D were enrolled in the study, with a mean age of 58.67 ± 13.09 years and a median diabetes duration of 6 years (interquartile range, 1–10 years). Across ascending quartiles of serum AT3 activity, HOMA-IR progressively decreased, while ISIMatsuda progressively increased (all P for trend < 0.001). Moreover, serum AT3 activity was negatively correlated with HOMA-IR (r = −0.189, P < 0.001) and positively correlated with ISIMatsuda (r = 0.221, P < 0.001). After adjusting for other metabolic risk factors, hemostatic parameters and glucose-lowering therapies by multivariate linear regression analysis, HOMA-IR (β = −0.185, t = −5.960, P < 0.001) and ISIMatsuda (β = 0.197, t = 6.632, P < 0.001) remained independently associated with the serum AT3 activity in patients with T2D, respectively.
Reduced basal and systemic insulin sensitivity are associated with decreased serum AT3 activity in patients with T2D.
C L Bodinham, L Smith, E L Thomas, J D Bell, J R Swann, A Costabile, D Russell-Jones, A M Umpleby, and M D Robertson
Resistant starch (RS) has been shown to beneficially affect insulin sensitivity in healthy individuals and those with metabolic syndrome, but its effects on human type 2 diabetes (T2DM) are unknown. This study aimed to determine the effects of increased RS consumption on insulin sensitivity and glucose control and changes in postprandial metabolites and body fat in T2DM. Seventeen individuals with well-controlled T2DM (HbA1c 46.6±2 mmol/mol) consumed, in a random order, either 40 g of type 2 RS (HAM-RS2) or a placebo, daily for 12 weeks with a 12-week washout period in between. At the end of each intervention period, participants attended for three metabolic investigations: a two-step euglycemic–hyperinsulinemic clamp combined with an infusion of [6,6-2H2] glucose, a meal tolerance test (MTT) with arterio-venous sampling across the forearm, and whole-body imaging. HAM-RS2 resulted in significantly lower postprandial glucose concentrations (P=0.045) and a trend for greater glucose uptake across the forearm muscle (P=0.077); however, there was no effect of HAM-RS2 on hepatic or peripheral insulin sensitivity, or on HbA1c. Fasting non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentrations were significantly lower (P=0.004) and NEFA suppression was greater during the clamp with HAM-RS2 (P=0.001). Fasting triglyceride (TG) concentrations and soleus intramuscular TG concentrations were significantly higher following the consumption of HAM-RS2 (P=0.039 and P=0.027 respectively). Although fasting GLP1 concentrations were significantly lower following HAM-RS2 consumption (P=0.049), postprandial GLP1 excursions during the MTT were significantly greater (P=0.009). HAM-RS2 did not improve tissue insulin sensitivity in well-controlled T2DM, but demonstrated beneficial effects on meal handling, possibly due to higher postprandial GLP1.
Yael Sofer, Nava Nevo, Michal Vechoropoulos, Gabi Shefer, Etty Osher, Nathan Landis, Karen Tordjman, Geoffrey L Hammond, and Naftali Stern
Sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) is the main transporter of sex hormones in most vertebrates. Low SHBG levels have been linked to increased risk for diabetes and metabolic syndrome. Polymorphisms of the SHBG gene linked to low SHBG protein levels also strongly predicted increased risk of type 2 diabetes, thus raising the possibility that SHBG may play a role in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and diabetes.
To examine whether expression of human SHBG in mice may ameliorate the development of diabetes and metabolic syndrome in response to a high-fat diet (HFD).
Transgene mice expressing a human SHBG transgene (SHBG+) (N = 10/11; males/females) and their wild type littermates (N = 12/8; males/females) were fed HFD for 4.5 months.
HFD induced comparable obesity in control and SHBG+ mice. Male transgenes had higher muscle mass after 2–3.5 months HFD (0.43 ± 0.028 (n = 4) vs 0.38 ± 0.053 g (n = 7), P = 0.05). Fasting blood glucose, as well as insulin or HOMA-IR, was not different in transgenic vs wild-type males after 4–5 months HFD. Female transgenes had higher fasting glucose (152 ± 29 (n = 7) vs 115 ± 27 mg/dL, P = 0.01 (n = 8)), but mean insulin and HOMA-IR were not different. Likewise, insulin tolerance test and intra-peritoneal glucose tolerance test (GTT) were not different. Finally, SHBG+ mice were not different from controls in terms of liver enzymes, serum triglyceride levels and blood pressure.
In mice with diet-induced obesity, human SHBG did not protect against development of obesity or dysglycemia.
Selina Mäkinen, Neeta Datta, Yen H Nguyen, Petro Kyrylenko, Markku Laakso, and Heikki A Koistinen
Simvastatin use is associated with muscular side effects, and increased risk for type 2 diabetes (T2D). In clinical use, simvastatin is administered in inactive lipophilic lactone-form, which is then converted to active acid-form in the body. Here, we have investigated if lactone- and acid-form simvastatin differentially affect glucose metabolism and mitochondrial respiration in primary human skeletal muscle cells.
Muscle cells were exposed separately to lactone- and acid-form simvastatin for 48 h. After pre-exposure, glucose uptake and glycogen synthesis were measured using radioactive tracers; insulin signalling was detected with Western blotting; and glycolysis, mitochondrial oxygen consumption and ATP production were measured with Seahorse XFe96 analyzer.
Lactone-form simvastatin increased glucose uptake and glycogen synthesis, whereas acid-form simvastatin did not affect glucose uptake and decreased glycogen synthesis. Phosphorylation of insulin signalling targets Akt substrate 160 kDa (AS160) and glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) was upregulated with lactone-, but not with acid-form simvastatin. Exposure to both forms of simvastatin led to a decrease in glycolysis and glycolytic capacity, as well as to a decrease in mitochondrial respiration and ATP production.
These data suggest that lactone- and acid-forms of simvastatin exhibit differential effects on non-oxidative glucose metabolism as lactone-form increases and acid-form impairs glucose storage into glycogen, suggesting impaired insulin sensitivity in response to acid-form simvastatin. Both forms profoundly impair oxidative glucose metabolism and energy production in human skeletal muscle cells. These effects may contribute to muscular side effects and risk for T2D observed with simvastatin use.
Frederique Van de Velde, Marlies Bekaert, Anja Geerts, Anne Hoorens, Arsène-Hélène Batens, Samyah Shadid, Margriet Ouwens, Yves Van Nieuwenhove, and Bruno Lapauw
Obese subjects with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) are more prone to develop additional metabolic disturbances such as systemic insulin resistance (IR) and type 2 diabetes. NAFLD is defined by hepatic steatosis, lobular inflammation, ballooning and stage of fibrosis, but it is unclear if and which components could contribute to IR.
To assess which histological components of NAFLD associate with IR in subjects with obesity, and if so, to what extent.
This cross-sectional study included 78 obese subjects (mean age 46 ± 11 years; BMI 42.2 ± 4.7 kg/m2). Glucose levels were analysed by hexokinase method and insulin levels with electrochemiluminescence. Homeostasis model assessment-estimated insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was calculated. Liver biopsies were evaluated for histological components of NAFLD.
A positive association between overall NAFLD Activity Score and HOMA-IR was found (r s = 0.259, P = 0.022). As per individual components, lobular inflammation and fibrosis stage were positively associated with HOMA-IR, glucose and insulin levels (P < 0.05), and HOMA-IR was higher in patients with more inflammatory foci or higher stage of fibrosis. These findings were independent of age, BMI, triglyceride levels, diabetes status and sex (all P < 0.043). In a combined model, lobular inflammation, but not fibrosis, remained associated with HOMA-IR.
In this group of obese subjects, a major contributing histological component of NAFLD to the relation between NAFLD severity and IR seems to be the grade of hepatic lobular inflammation. Although no causal relationship was assessed, preventing or mitigating this inflammatory response in obesity might be of importance in controlling obesity-related metabolic disturbances.
Xiuzhen Zhang, Dan Xu, Ping Xu, Shufen Yang, Qingmei Zhang, Yan Wu, and Fengyi Yuan
Metformin has been demonstrated to enhance cardioprotective benefits in type 1 diabetes (T1DM). Although glycemic variability (GV) is associated with increased risk of CVD in diabetes, there is a scarcity of research evaluating the effect of metformin on GV in T1DM.
In the present study, the effects of adjuvant metformin therapy on GV and metabolic control in T1DM were explored.
Patients and methods
A total of 65 adults with T1DM were enrolled and subjected to physical examination, fasting laboratory tests, and continuous glucose monitoring, and subsequently randomized 1:1 to 3 months of 1000–2000 mg metformin daily add-on insulin (MET group, n = 34) or insulin (non-MET group, n = 31). After, baseline measurements were repeated.
The mean amplitude of glycemic excursions was substantially reduced in MET group, compared with non-MET group (–1.58 (–3.35, 0.31) mmol/L vs 1.36 (–1.12, 2.24) mmol/L, P = 0.004). In parallel, the largest amplitude of glycemic excursions (–2.83 (–5.47, –0.06) mmol/L vs 0.45 (–1.29, 4.48) mmol/L, P = 0.004), the s.d. of blood glucose (–0.85 (–1.51, 0.01) mmol/L vs –0.14 (–0.68, 1.21) mmol/L, P = 0.015), and the coefficient of variation (–6.66 (–15.00, 1.50)% vs –1.60 (–6.28, 11.71)%, P = 0.012) all demonstrated improvement in the MET group, compared with the non-MET group. Significant reduction in insulin dose, BMI, and body weight was observed in patients in MET, not those in non-MET group.
Additional metformin therapy improved GV in adults with T1DM, as well as improving body composition and reducing insulin requirement. Hence, metformin as an adjunctive therapy has potential prospects in reducing the CVD risk in patients with T1DM in the long term.
Alessandro Ciresi, Stefano Radellini, Valentina Guarnotta, Maria Grazia Mineo, and Carla Giordano
To evaluate the impact of gender on the clinical and metabolic parameters in prepubertal growth hormone deficiency (GHD) children at diagnosis and during GH treatment (GHT).
The data of 105 prepubertal children (61 males, 44 females, mean age 6.8 ± 0.7 years) affected by idiopathic GHD were retrospectively evaluated.
Body height, BMI, waist circumference (WC), IGF-I, HbA1c, lipid profile, fasting and after-OGTT glucose and insulin levels, insulin sensitivity and secretion indices were evaluated at baseline and after 24 months of GHT.
At baseline, no significant difference was found in all clinical, hormonal and metabolic parameters between males and females. After 24 months of GHT, both males and females showed a significant increase in height (both P < 0.001), BMI (both P < 0.001), WC (P < 0.001 and P = 0.004, respectively), IGF-I (both P < 0.001), fasting glucose (P < 0.001 and P = 0.001, respectively), fasting insulin (both P < 0.001) and Homa-IR (both P < 0.001), with a concomitant significant decrease in insulin sensitivity index (ISI) (both P < 0.001) and oral disposition index (DIo) (P = 0.001 and P < 0.001, respectively). At 24 months of GHT, females showed significantly higher BMI (P = 0.027), lower ISI (P < 0.001) and DIo (P < 0.001), in concomitance with a significant greater change from baseline to 24 months of BMI (P = 0.013), WC (P < 0.001), ISI (P = 0.002) and DIo (P = 0.072), although the latter does not reach statistical significance.
Twenty-four months of GHT in prepubertal children leads to different metabolic outcomes according to gender, with a greater reduction in insulin sensitivity in females, regardless of auxological and hormonal parameters. Therefore, prepubertal GHD females should probably need a more proper monitoring in clinical practice.