Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a heterogenous endocrine disorder with typical symptoms of oligomenorrhoea, hyperandrogenism, hirsutism, obesity, insulin resistance and increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Extensive evidence indicates that PCOS is a genetic disease and numerous biochemical pathways have been linked with its pathogenesis. A number of genes from these pathways have been investigated, which include those involved with steroid hormone biosynthesis and metabolism, action of gonadotropin and gonadal hormones, folliculogenesis, obesity and energy regulation, insulin secretion and action and many others. In this review, we summarize the historical and recent findings in genetic polymorphisms of PCOS from the relevant publications and outline some genetic polymorphisms that are potentially associated with the risk of PCOS. This information could uncover candidate genes associating with PCOS, which will be valuable for the development of novel diagnostic and treatment platforms for PCOS patients.
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Yao Chen and Shu-ying Fang
Veronica Kieffer, Kate Davies, Christine Gibson, Morag Middleton, Jean Munday, Shashana Shalet, Lisa Shepherd, and Phillip Yeoh
This competency framework was developed by a working group of endocrine specialist nurses with the support of the Society for Endocrinology to enhance the clinical care that adults with an endocrine disorder receive. Nurses should be able to demonstrate that they are functioning at an optimal level in order for patients to receive appropriate care. By formulating a competency framework from which an adult endocrine nurse specialist can work, it is envisaged that their development as professional practitioners can be enhanced. This is the second edition of the Competency Framework for Adult Endocrine Nursing. It introduces four new competencies on benign adrenal tumours, hypo- and hyperparathyroidism, osteoporosis and polycystic ovary syndrome. The authors and the Society for Endocrinology welcome constructive feedback on the document, both nationally and internationally, in anticipation that further developments and ideas can be incorporated into future versions.
Sebastião Freitas de Medeiros, Cinthia Marenza Ormond, Matheus Antônio Souto de Medeiros, Nayara de Souza Santos, Camila Regis Banhara, and Márcia Marly Winck Yamamoto
To examine the anthropometric, and metabolic connections of 17-hydroxypregnenolone in the normo- and hyperandrogenemic polycystic ovary syndrome phenotypes.
Materials and methods
This cohort study was conducted at the Julio Muller University Hospital, Cuiabá, Brazil, between January 2014 and July 2016, and 91 normal cycling healthy women, 46 normoandrogenemic and 147 hyperandrogenemic, patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) were enrolled according to the Rotterdam criteria. Several anthropometric, biochemical and hormonal parameters were properly verified and correlated with 17-hydroxypregnenolone (17-OHPE) concentrations.
17-OHPE was higher in hyperandrogenemic PCOS than in normoandrogenemic PCOS and in control groups (P = 0.032 and P < 0.001, respectively). In healthy controls, 17-OHPE was positively associated with glucose, free estrogen index, DHEAS and negatively associated with compounds S. In normoandrogenemic PCOS patients, 17-OHPE presented positive correlations with VAI, LAP, cortisol, insulin and HOMA-IR. In the hyperandrogenemic group, 17-OHPE presented significant negative correlations with most anthropometric parameters, HOMA-IR, HOMA %B, estradiol, free estrogen index (FEI), C-peptide, and TG levels and positive correlations with HOMA-S and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), sex-hormone binding globulin (SHBG), androstenedione (A4) and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA). Regarding hyperandrogenemic PCOS, and using a stepwise multiple regression, only HOMA-S and WHR were retained in the model (R 2 = 0.294, P < 0.001).
17-OHPE exhibited different relationships with anthropometric, and biochemical parameters in PCOS patients, depending on the androgen levels. In PCOS subjects with high androgen concentrations, 17-OHPE was negatively associated with most anthropometric parameters, particularly with those used as markers of adipose tissue dysfunction and frequently employed as predictors of cardiovascular disease risk; otherwise, 17-OHPE was positively associated with HDL-C and HOMA-S in this patients. Future studies are required to evaluate the clinical implications of these novel findings.
Caroline Culen, Diana-Alexandra Ertl, Katharina Schubert, Lisa Bartha-Doering, and Gabriele Haeusler
Turner syndrome (TS), although considered a rare disease, is the most common sex chromosome abnormality in women, with an incident of 1 in 2500 female births. TS is characterized by distinctive physical features such as short stature, ovarian dysgenesis, an increased risk for heart and renal defects as well as a specific cognitive and psychosocial phenotype. Given the complexity of the condition, patients face manifold difficulties which increase over the lifespan. Furthermore, failures during the transitional phase to adult care result in moderate health outcomes and decreased quality of life. Guidelines on the optimal screening procedures and medical treatment are easy to find. However, recommendations for the treatment of the incriminating psychosocial aspects in TS are scarce. In this work, we first reviewed the literature on the cognitive and psychosocial development of girls with TS compared with normal development, from disclosure to young adulthood, and then introduce a psychosocial approach to counseling and treating patients with TS, including recommendations for age-appropriate psychological diagnostics. With this work, we aim to facilitate the integration of emphasized psychosocial care in state-of-the-art treatment for girls and women with TS.
Diana-Alexandra Ertl, Andreas Gleiss, Katharina Schubert, Caroline Culen, Peer Hauck, Johannes Ott, Alois Gessl, and Gabriele Haeusler
Previous studies have shown that only a minority of patients with Turner syndrome (TS) have adequate medical care after transfer to adult care.
Aim of this study
To assess the status of medical follow-up and quality of life (QoL) in adult women diagnosed with TS and followed up until transfer. To compare the subjective and objective view of the medical care quality and initiate improvements based on patients’ experiences and current recommendations.
39 adult women with TS out of 64 patients contacted were seen for a clinical and laboratory check, cardiac ultrasound, standardized and structured questionnaires (SF-36v2 and Beck depression inventory).
7/39 of the patients were not being followed medically at all. Only 2/39 consulted all the specialists recommended. Comorbidities were newly diagnosed in 27/39 patients; of these, 11 related to the cardiovascular system. Patients in our cohort scored as high as the mean reference population for SF-36v2 in both mental and physical compartments. Obese participants had lower scores in the physical function section, whereas higher education was related to higher physical QoL scores. Adult height slightly correlated positively with physical health.
Medical follow-up was inadequate in our study cohort of adults with TS. Even though their medical follow-up was insufficient, these women felt adequately treated, leaving them vulnerable for premature illness. Initiatives in health autonomy and a structured transfer process as well as closer collaborations within specialities are urgently needed.
María Dolores Rodríguez Arnao, Amparo Rodríguez Sánchez, Ignacio Díez López, Joaquín Ramírez Fernández, Jose Antonio Bermúdez de la Vega, Diego Yeste Fernández, María Chueca Guindulain, Raquel Corripio Collado, Jacobo Pérez Sánchez, Ana Fernández González, and ECOS Spain Study Collaborative Investigator Group
Non-adherence to r-hGH treatments occurs in a variable percentage of subjects. One problem found when evaluating adherence is the great variability in methods of detection and definitions utilized in studies. This study assessed the level of adherence in subjects receiving r-hGH with the easypod™ electronic device.
National, multicenter, prospective and observational study involving 238 subjects (144 with GH deficiency (GHD), and 86 with small for gestational age (SGA), 8 with Turner Syndrome), who received r-hGH with easypod™ for at least 3 months before inclusion. The follow-up period was 4 years.
Overall adherence was 94.5%; 97.5% after 6 months, 95.3% after 1 year, 93.7% after 2, 94.4% after 3 and 95.5% after 4 years of treatment. No differences in adherence were observed between prepubertal and pubertal groups and GHD and SGA groups. Change in height after 1 and 2 years, change in height SDS after 1 and 2 years, HV after 1 year, HV SDS after at 1 and 4 years, change in BMI after 1 year and change in BMI SDS at 1 and 2 years showed significant correlation with adherence. No significant differences in adherence according to IGF-I levels were found in follow-up visits or between groups.
The easypod™ electronic device, apart from being a precise and objective measure of adherence to r-hGH treatment, allows high compliance rates to be achieved over long periods of time. Adherence significantly impacts growth outcomes associated with r-hGH treatment.
Bo Zhu, Yumei Chen, Fang Xu, Xiaolu Shen, Xuanyu Chen, Jieqiang Lv, and Songying Zhang
Androgens excess results in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, which is an important cause of β cells dysfunction. Here, we investigated the molecular regulation of androgens excess, ER stress, and β-cell function in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).
PCOS mouse model was established by injection of DHEA. Primary cultured mouse islets were used to detect testosterone (TE)-induced ER stress. The response of ER stress, apoptosis, and hyperinsulinemia were analyzed in INS-1 cells with or without TE exposure. Androgen receptor (AR) antagonist and ER stress inhibitor treatment was performed to evaluate the role of TE in ER stress and proinsulin secretion of PCOS mice.
PCOS mice had higher ER stress in islets. TE exposure induced ER stress and apoptosis significantly through sustaining insulin overexpression in β cells, which in turn impaired proinsulin maturation and secretion. Blocking this process could significantly relieve ER stress and apoptosis and improve insulin homeostasis.
ER stress activated by androgens excess in PCOS contributes to β cell dysfunction and hyperinsulinemia.
Xingyan Liu, Mei Xu, Min Qian, and Lindong Yang
The cytochrome P450 family 17 (CYP17) is associated with hyperandrogenism in women, and the association between CYP17 gene polymorphism and the risk of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is not definitive. In order to determine whether the CYP17 T/C (rs74357) gene polymorphism is an exposure risk for PCOS, a comprehensive meta-analysis summarizing 19 studies was performed. The pooled odds ratio (OR) and the corresponding 95% CI were measured under five genetic models, and the stratified analyses by ethnicity, Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium, testosterone levels and BMI in controls were carried out to identify the causes of substantial heterogeneity. The overall results validated that the CYP17 T/C (rs74357) gene polymorphism was significantly associated with PCOS risk in four genetic models. Moreover, the outcomes of subgroup analysis by ethnicity indicated that the frequencies of the C allele of CYP17 T/C (rs74357) polymorphism were markedly higher in women from Asia than in Caucasians (T vs C: OR 0.85, 95% CI = 0.74–0.99, P < 0.05). Therefore, these findings suggested that the CYP17 T/C (rs74357) gene polymorphism played an indispensable part in increasing the susceptibility of PCOS when carrying the C allele, which proposed that the polymorphism of the CYP17 gene may be a predictive factor for the risk of PCOS or an important pathway in PCOS-associated metabolic and hormonal dysregulation.
Ewa Stogowska, Karol Adam Kamiński, Bartosz Ziółko, and Irina Kowalska
The subject of vocal changes accompanying pathological conditions, although still not well explored, seems to be promising. The discovery of laryngeal receptors for sex hormones and thyroid hormones can strongly support the hypothesis of changes in voice due to various endocrinopathies. On the other hand, the impairment of the proper function of the vocal apparatus can also be caused in the process of the microvasculature complications of diabetes mellitus. This review was a comprehensive summary of the accessible literature concerning the influence of selected endocrinopathies on subjective and objective voice parameters. We analysed a total number of 16 English-language research papers from the PubMed database, released between 2008 and 2021, describing vocal changes in reproductive disorders such as polycystic ovary syndrome and congenital adrenal hyperplasia, thyroid disorders in shape of hypo- or hyperthyroidism and type 2 diabetes mellitus. The vast majority of the analysed articles proved some changes in voice in all mentioned conditions, although the detailed affected vocal parameters frequently differed between research. We assume that the main cause of the observed conflicting results might stem from non-homogeneous methodology designs of the analysed studies.
Hong Tang, Xiaomei Jiang, Yu Hua, Heyue Li, Chunlan Zhu, Xiaobai Hao, Minhui Yi, and Linxia Li
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is an androgen disorder and ovarian dysfunction disease in women of reproductive age. The cell death of granulosa cells (GCs) plays an important role in the development of PCOS. However, the mechanism of GC death is still unclear.
In the current study, NEDD4L was found to be elevated in PCOS GEO (Gene Expression Omnibus) databases and mouse models. The cell viability was analyzed by CCK-8 and FDA staining. The expression of ferroptosis markers was assessed by ELISA and immunofluorescence. The direct interaction of GPX4 and NEDD4L was verified by co-immunoprecipitation assay.
Functionally, results from CCK-8 and FDA staining demonstrated that NEDD4L inhibited the cell viability of KGN cells and NEDD4L increased the levels of iron, malonyldialdehyde, and reactive oxygen species and decreased glutathione levels. Moreover, the cell death of KGN induced by NEDD4L was blocked by ferroptosis inhibitor, suggesting that NEDD4L regulates KGN cell ferroptosis. Mechanistically, NEDD4L directly interacts with GPX4 and promotes GPX4 ubiquitination and degradation.
Taken together, our study indicated that NEDD4L facilitates GC ferroptosis by promoting GPX4 ubiquitination and degradation and contributes to the development of PCOS.