Search Results

You are looking at 81 - 90 of 199 items for

  • Abstract: Adrenal x
  • Abstract: Addisons x
  • Abstract: Adrenaline x
  • Abstract: Androgens x
  • Abstract: Catecholamines x
  • Abstract: hyperplasia x
  • Abstract: Cortex x
  • Abstract: Cortisol x
  • Abstract: Glucocorticoids x
  • Abstract: Medulla x
  • Abstract: Mineralocorticoids x
  • Abstract: Noradrenaline x
  • Refine by Access: All content x
Clear All Modify Search
Open access

Caio Jordão Teixeira, Junia Carolina Santos-Silva, Dailson Nogueira de Souza, Alex Rafacho, Gabriel Forato Anhe, and Silvana Bordin

Pancreatic islets from pregnant rats develop a transitory increase in the pancreatic β-cell proliferation rate and mass. Increased apoptosis during early lactation contributes to the rapid reversal of those morphological changes. Exposure to synthetic glucocorticoids during pregnancy has been previously reported to impair insulin secretion, but its impacts on pancreatic islet morphological changes during pregnancy and lactation have not been described. To address this issue, we assessed the morphological and molecular characteristics of pancreatic islets from rats that underwent undisturbed pregnancy (CTL) or were treated with dexamethasone between the 14th and 19th days of pregnancy (DEX). Pancreatic islets were analyzed on the 20th day of pregnancy (P20) and on the 3rd, 8th, 14th and 21st days of lactation (L3, L8, L14 and L21, respectively). Pancreatic islets from CTL rats exhibited transitory increases in cellular proliferation and pancreatic β-cell mass at P20, which were reversed at L3, when a transitory increase in apoptosis was observed. This was followed by the appearance of morphological features of pancreatic islet neogenesis at L8. Islets from DEX rats did not demonstrate an increase in apoptosis at L3, which coincided with an increase in the expression of M2 macrophage markers relative to M1 macrophage and T lymphocyte markers. Islets from DEX rats also did not exhibit the morphological characteristics of pancreatic islet neogenesis at L8. Our data demonstrate that maternal pancreatic islets undergo a renewal process during lactation that is impaired by exposure to DEX during pregnancy.

Open access

Lisette van Alewijk, Kirsten Davidse, Karlijn Pellikaan, Judith van Eck, Anita C S Hokken-Koelega, Theo C J Sas, Sabine Hannema, Aart J van der Lely, and Laura C G de Graaff

Objective

Adolescents and young adults (AYA) with common endocrine disorders show a high dropout (up to 50%) after the transfer from paediatric to adult endocrinology. Little is known about transition readiness in rare endocrine conditions (rEC). This study aims to assess medical self-management skills (SMS) among AYA with rEC in relation to age and gender, in order to understand dropout and increase transition readiness.

Design

Cross-sectional study using web-based medical self-management questionnaires.

Methods

Questionnaires consisting of 54 questions in seven domains were filled out by the adolescents before the first shared appointment with both paediatric and adult endocrinologist.

Results

Fifty-seven patients (median age 17 years, 25/57 females) participated and generally scored well on most items. However, one out of seven did not know the name of their disorder, one sixth of the glucocorticoid users did not know that dose should be adapted in case of illness or surgery, over one-fifth had never ordered their repeat prescriptions themselves and two-thirds had never had a conversation alone with their doctor.

Conclusions

Several SMS among patients with rEC are insufficient, with regard to medical knowledge, practical skills and communication. As SMS are only weakly related to non-modifiable factors, such as age and gender, we recommend focussing on other factors to increase transition readiness. The timing, amount and ‘mode’ of medical information should be individualised. Transition checklists should be used to detect shortcomings in practical skills and communication, which can subsequently be trained with the help of parents, caregivers and/or e-technology.

Open access

A Daniel Bird, Spencer Greatorex, David Reser, Gareth G Lavery, and Timothy J Cole

Steroid hormones play clinically important and specific regulatory roles in the development, growth, metabolism, reproduction and brain function in human. The type 1 and 2 11-beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase enzymes (11β-HSD1 and 2) have key roles in the pre-receptor modification of glucocorticoids allowing aldosterone regulation of blood pressure, control of systemic fluid and electrolyte homeostasis and modulation of integrated metabolism and brain function. Although the activity and function of 11β-HSDs is thought to be understood, there exists an open reading frame for a distinct 11βHSD-like gene; HSD11B1L, which is present in human, non-human primate, sheep, pig and many other higher organisms, whereas an orthologue is absent in the genomes of mouse, rat and rabbit. We have now characterised this novel HSD11B1L gene as encoded by 9 exons and analysis of EST library transcripts indicated the use of two alternate ATG start sites in exons 2 and 3, and alternate splicing in exon 9. Relatively strong HSD11B1L gene expression was detected in human, non-human primate and sheep tissue samples from the brain, ovary and testis. Analysis in non-human primates and sheep by immunohistochemistry localised HSD11B1L protein to the cytoplasm of ovarian granulosa cells, testis Leydig cells, and gonadatroph cells in the anterior pituitary. Intracellular localisation analysis in transfected human HEK293 cells showed HSD1L protein within the endoplasmic reticulum and sequence analysis suggests that similar to 11βHSD1 it is membrane bound. The endogenous substrate of this third HSD enzyme remains elusive with localisation and expression data suggesting a reproductive hormone as a likely substrate.

Open access

L Ghataore, I Chakraborti, S J Aylwin, K-M Schulte, D Dworakowska, P Coskeran, and N F Taylor

Mitotane (o,p'-DDD), an oral adrenolytic agent for treatment of advanced adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC), is reported to inhibit cortisol biosynthesis in vitro and enhance production from exogenous cortisol of urinary 6β-hydroxycortisol and unidentified polar unconjugated metabolites. We examined urinary steroid profiles by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry of patients with histologically confirmed ACC following surgery, receiving a) hydrocortisone alone (three males and three females) and b) mitotane and hydrocortisone (six males and 11 females). Samples were collected after plasma mitotane had reached the therapeutic range of 14–20 mg/l. Increased excretion of polar unconjugated steroids during mitotane treatment was confirmed, with 6β-hydroxycortisol and 6β-hydroxy-20-dihydrocortisols predominating. The proportion of additionally hydroxylated metabolites was <2% in untreated controls and 52, 35–52% (mean, range) in the mitotane plus hydrocortisone group. Ratios of 5α-/5β- and 20β-/20α-metabolites of administered cortisol were decreased 50-, 15-fold, and 14-, 8-fold respectively (males, females – mean values) but with no change in metabolite ratios that reflect oxidoreduction at C11 or C20. Patterns of decrease in 5α- relative to 5β-reduced metabolites were similar to those of patients with 5α-reductase 2 deficiency or on treatment with the 5α-reductase 2 inhibitor finasteride but different from those of patients on dutasteride, indicating specific inhibition of 5α-reductase 2. We conclude that mitotane causes consistent changes in cortisol catabolism, most of which have not been previously recognised. These need not interfere with early detection of ACC recurrence. Induction of 6β-hydroxylation offers an explanation for a reported decrease in cortisol bioavailability. Mitotane also has potential as a unique steroid metabolic probe for 20β-reduction.

Open access

Sebastião Freitas de Medeiros, Cinthia Marenza Ormond, Matheus Antônio Souto de Medeiros, Nayara de Souza Santos, Camila Regis Banhara, and Márcia Marly Winck Yamamoto

Objective

To examine the anthropometric, and metabolic connections of 17-hydroxypregnenolone in the normo- and hyperandrogenemic polycystic ovary syndrome phenotypes.

Materials and methods

This cohort study was conducted at the Julio Muller University Hospital, Cuiabá, Brazil, between January 2014 and July 2016, and 91 normal cycling healthy women, 46 normoandrogenemic and 147 hyperandrogenemic, patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) were enrolled according to the Rotterdam criteria. Several anthropometric, biochemical and hormonal parameters were properly verified and correlated with 17-hydroxypregnenolone (17-OHPE) concentrations.

Results

17-OHPE was higher in hyperandrogenemic PCOS than in normoandrogenemic PCOS and in control groups (P = 0.032 and P < 0.001, respectively). In healthy controls, 17-OHPE was positively associated with glucose, free estrogen index, DHEAS and negatively associated with compounds S. In normoandrogenemic PCOS patients, 17-OHPE presented positive correlations with VAI, LAP, cortisol, insulin and HOMA-IR. In the hyperandrogenemic group, 17-OHPE presented significant negative correlations with most anthropometric parameters, HOMA-IR, HOMA %B, estradiol, free estrogen index (FEI), C-peptide, and TG levels and positive correlations with HOMA-S and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), sex-hormone binding globulin (SHBG), androstenedione (A4) and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA). Regarding hyperandrogenemic PCOS, and using a stepwise multiple regression, only HOMA-S and WHR were retained in the model (R 2 = 0.294, P < 0.001).

Conclusion

17-OHPE exhibited different relationships with anthropometric, and biochemical parameters in PCOS patients, depending on the androgen levels. In PCOS subjects with high androgen concentrations, 17-OHPE was negatively associated with most anthropometric parameters, particularly with those used as markers of adipose tissue dysfunction and frequently employed as predictors of cardiovascular disease risk; otherwise, 17-OHPE was positively associated with HDL-C and HOMA-S in this patients. Future studies are required to evaluate the clinical implications of these novel findings.

Open access

Thabiso R P Mofokeng, Salem A Beshyah, Fazleh Mahomed, Kwazi C Z Ndlovu, and Ian L Ross

Background

The burden and management of primary adrenal insufficiency (PAI) in Africa have not been well documented. We aimed to identify specific disease characteristics, patient demographics, and patterns of clinical management in established PAI in Africa.

Methods

An online survey of physicians’ experience relating to PAI.

Results

There were 1334 responses received, 589 were complete, and 332 respondents reported managing patients with hypoadrenalism. The described responses were related to a calculated pool of 5787 patients with hypoadrenalism (2746 females, 3041 males), of whom 2302 had PAI. The likely causes of PAI in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) vs the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) regions included autoimmune disease (20% vs 60.3%; P < 0.001), tuberculosis (34% vs 4.1%; P < 0.001), AIDS (29.8% vs 1%; P < 0.001), malignancy, and genetic conditions. Sixteen percent of AD patients (376/2302) presented in an adrenal crisis. Medical emergency identification was not used by 1233 (83.6%) SSA vs 330 (40.4%) MENA patients (P < 0.001), respectively. Relative non-availability of diagnostic tests across both regions included adrenal antibodies 63% vs 69.6% (P = 0.328), s-cortisol 49.4 % vs 26.7% (P = 0.004), s-ACTH 55.7% vs 53.3% (P = 0.217), and adrenal CT scans 52.4% vs 31.8% (P = 0.017) in the SSA and MENA region, respectively. Across the entire cohort, the overall hydrocortisone use and extrapolated proportion of synacthen use were 59.4% and 50.7%, respectively.

Conclusions

Through the perception and practice of healthcare professionals, we identified significant challenges in the diagnosis and management of PAI which may herald high mortality. Differences between regions may reflect the allocation of healthcare resources.

Open access

M von Wolff, C T Nakas, M Tobler, T M Merz, M P Hilty, J D Veldhuis, A R Huber, and J Pichler Hefti

Humans cannot live at very high altitude for reasons, which are not completely understood. Since these reasons are not restricted to cardiorespiratory changes alone, changes in the endocrine system might also be involved. Therefore, hormonal changes during prolonged hypobaric hypoxia were comprehensively assessed to determine effects of altitude and hypoxia on stress, thyroid and gonadal hypothalamus–pituitary hormone axes. Twenty-one male and 19 female participants were examined repetitively during a high-altitude expedition. Cortisol, prolactin, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), fT4 and fT3 and in males follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH) and total testosterone were analysed as well as parameters of hypoxemia, such as SaO2 and paO2 at 550 m (baseline) (n = 40), during ascent at 4844 m (n = 38), 6022 m (n = 31) and 7050 m (n = 13), at 4844 m (n = 29) after acclimatization and after the expedition (n = 38). Correlation analysis of hormone concentrations with oxygen parameters and with altitude revealed statistical association in most cases only with altitude. Adrenal, thyroid and gonadal axes were affected by increasing altitude. Adrenal axis and prolactin were first supressed at 4844 m and then activated with increasing altitude; thyroid and gonadal axes were directly activated or suppressed respectively with increasing altitude. Acclimatisation at 4844 m led to normalization of adrenal and gonadal but not of thyroid axes. In conclusion, acclimatization partly leads to a normalization of the adrenal, thyroid and gonadal axes at around 5000 m. However, at higher altitude, endocrine dysregulation is pronounced and might contribute to the physical degradation found at high altitude.

Open access

Amit Kumar, Maria Ghosh, and Jubbin Jagan Jacob

Background

The diagnosis of syndrome of inappropriate anti-diuresis requires the exclusion of secondary adrenal insufficiency (AI) among patients with euvolemic hyponatremia (EuVHNa). Studies have suggested that about 2.7–3.8% of unselected patients presenting to the emergency room with EuVHNa have undiagnosed AI and it is as high as 15% among patients admitted to specialized units for evaluation of hyponatremia.

Objective

To study the prevalence of AI among in-patients with EuVHNa in a general medical ward setting.

Methods

This was a prospective, single-center observational study conducted among general medical in-patients with EuVHNa, defined as patients with a serum sodium <135 mmol/L, clinical euvolemia and urine spot sodium >30 mmol/L. Additionally, patients with recent vomiting, current renal failure, diuretic use and those with uncontrolled hyperglycemia were excluded. Adrenal functions were assessed by a modified adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) stimulation test called the Acton Prolongatum™ stimulation test (APST). A cut-off cortisol value of <18 mg/dL after 60 min of ACTH injection was used to diagnose AI.

Results

One hundred forty-one patients were included and underwent an APST. APST suggested 20/141 (14.2%) had undiagnosed AI. The commonest cause of AI (9/20) was secondary AI because of the use of steroids including inhaled steroids and indigenous medicines contaminated with steroids. In 5 (3.5%) patients hypopituitarism was newly diagnosed. Despite primary AI (PAI) not commonly presenting as EuVHNa, 2/20 patients had PAI.

Conclusions

AI is much commoner in our country, among in-patients with EuVHNa primarily driven by exogenous steroid use and undiagnosed hypopituitarism.

Open access

Lia Ferreira, João Silva, Susana Garrido, Carlos Bello, Diana Oliveira, Hélder Simões, Isabel Paiva, Joana Guimarães, Marta Ferreira, Teresa Pereira, Rita Bettencourt-Silva, Ana Filipa Martins, Tiago Silva, Vera Fernandes, Maria Lopes Pereira, and Adrenal Tumors Study Group of the Portuguese Society of Endocrinology

Introduction

Primary adrenal insufficiency (PAI) is a rare but severe and potentially life-threatening condition. No previous studies have characterized Portuguese patients with PAI.

Aims

To characterize the clinical presentation, diagnostic workup, treatment and follow‐up of Portuguese patients with confirmed PAI.

Methods

This multicentre retrospective study examined PAI patients in 12 Portuguese hospitals.

Results

We investigated 278 patients with PAI (55.8% were females), with a mean age of 33.6 ± 19.3 years at diagnosis. The most frequent presenting clinical features were asthenia (60.1%), mucocutaneous hyperpigmentation (55.0%) and weight loss (43.2%); 29.1% of the patients presented with adrenal crisis. Diagnosis was established by high plasma ACTH and low serum cortisol in most patients (43.9%). The most common aetiology of PAI was autoimmune adrenalitis (61.0%). There were 38 idiopathic cases. Autoimmune comorbidities were found in 70% of the patients, the most frequent being autoimmune thyroiditis (60.7%) and type 1 diabetes mellitus (17.3%). Seventy-nine percent were treated with hydrocortisone (mean dose 26.3 ± 8.3 mg/day) mostly in three (57.5%) or two (37.4%) daily doses. The remaining patients were treated with prednisolone (10.1%), dexamethasone (6.2%) and methylprednisolone (0.7%); 66.2% were also on fludrocortisone (median dose of 100 µg/day). Since diagnosis, 33.5% of patients were hospitalized for disease decompensation. In the last appointment, 17.2% of patients had complaints (7.6% asthenia and 6.5% depression) and 9.7% had electrolyte disturbances.

Conclusion

This is the first multicentre Portuguese study regarding PAI. The results emphasize the need for standardization in diagnostic tests and etiological investigation and provide a framework for improving treatment.

Open access

Soraya Puglisi, Paola Perotti, Mattia Barbot, Paolo Cosio, Carla Scaroni, Antonio Stigliano, Pina Lardo, Valentina Morelli, Elisa Polledri, Iacopo Chiodini, Giuseppe Reimondo, Anna Pia, and Massimo Terzolo

Objective

Metyrapone has been approved for the treatment of patients with Cushing’s syndrome (CS), but only few retrospective clinical studies are available. The aim of our study was the prospective assessment of metyrapone as pre-operative treatment.

Design and methods

Before adrenalectomy, seven patients with ACTH-independent CS due to adrenal adenoma were prospectively treated with metyrapone for 3 months in three tertiary academic centers, with endocrine work-up and clinical evaluation at screening and at predefined evaluation time points (Days 14, 31, 48, 65, 82).

Results

In all patients, UFC levels decreased up to normal range from baseline to Day 82 (609 (188–1476) vs 69 (28–152) nmol/24 h, P < 0.02), with a reduction of serum and salivary cortisol levels, and no significant increase of plasma ACTH and serum DHEAS levels. Clinical improvement was reported on quality of life (+16.7 (+4.2; +52.00) points, P < 0.04) and pressure control (systolic pressure, −25 (−52; −10) mmHg, P < 0.01; diastolic pressure, −16 (−50; +2 mmHg), P < 0.03). No significant change in weight, electrolytes, glycemic and lipid profile was reported. Although in women a significant increase of testosterone and androstenedione was reported, no worsening of clinical hyperandrogenism was observed. All drug-related adverse events (nausea, fatigue, low grade fever, edema of lower limbs and facial rash) were grade 1 or 2 and generally transient.

Conclusions

This prospective pilot study demonstrated that metyrapone is effective in normalizing biochemical and clinical parameters in patients with CS due to adrenal adenoma before surgical intervention, with minimal side effects.