Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 461 items for

  • Abstract: adrenarche x
  • Abstract: amenorrhoea x
  • Abstract: fertility x
  • Abstract: Gender x
  • Abstract: Hypogonadism x
  • Abstract: infertility x
  • Abstract: Kallmann x
  • Abstract: Klinefelter x
  • Abstract: menopause x
  • Abstract: puberty x
  • Abstract: testes x
  • Abstract: transsexual x
  • Abstract: Turner x
  • Abstract: sperm* x
  • Abstract: ovary x
Clear All Modify Search
Alan D Rogol Department of Pediatrics, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia, USA

Search for other papers by Alan D Rogol in
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close

The overall incidence of sex chromosome aneuploidies is approximately 1 per 500 live-born infants, but far more common at conception. I shall review the fertility aspects of the sex chromosome trisomies, XXY, XYY, and XXX, with special reference to the karyotype 45,X/47,XXX. Each has a ‘specific’ (but variable) phenotype but may be modified by mosaicism. Although the alterations in the hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal axis are important (and discussed), the emphasis here is on potential fertility and if one might predict that at various epochs within an individual’s life span: fetal, ‘mini’-puberty, childhood, puberty, and adulthood. The reproductive axis is often affected in females with the 47,XXX karyotype with diminished ovarian reserve and accelerated loss of ovarian function. Fewer than 5% of females with Turner syndrome have the 45,X/47,XXX karyotype. They have taller stature and less severe fertility issues compared to females with the 45,X or other forms of Turner syndrome mosaicism. For the 47,XXY karyotype, non-obstructive azoospermia is almost universal with sperm retrieval by micro-testicular sperm extraction possible in slightly fewer than half of the men. Men with the 47,XYY karyotype have normal to large testes and much less testicular dysfunction than those with the 47,XXY karyotype. They do have a slight increase in infertility compared to the reference population but not nearly as severe as those with the 47,XXY karyotype. Assisted reproductive technology, especially micro-testicular sperm extraction, has an important role, especially for those with 47,XXY; however, more recent data show promising techniques for the in vitro maturation of spermatogonial stem cells and 3D organoids in culture. Assisted reproductive technology is more complex for the female, but vitrification of oocytes has shown promising advances.

Open access
Ladan Younesi Shahid Akbarabadi Clinical Research Development Unit (ShACRDU), Iran University of Medical Sciences (IUMS), Tehran, Iran

Search for other papers by Ladan Younesi in
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Zeinab Safarpour Lima Shahid Akbarabadi Clinical Research Development Unit (ShACRDU), Iran University of Medical Sciences (IUMS), Tehran, Iran

Search for other papers by Zeinab Safarpour Lima in
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Azadeh Akbari Sene Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, IVF Fellowship, Shahid Akbar-Abadi Hospital IVF Center, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

Search for other papers by Azadeh Akbari Sene in
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Zahra Hosseini Jebelli Shahid Akbarabadi Clinical Research Development Unit (ShACRDU), Iran University of Medical Sciences (IUMS), Tehran, Iran

Search for other papers by Zahra Hosseini Jebelli in
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
, and
Ghazaleh Amjad Shahid Akbarabadi Clinical Research Development Unit (ShACRDU), Iran University of Medical Sciences (IUMS), Tehran, Iran

Search for other papers by Ghazaleh Amjad in
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close

Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common endocrine disorders. The aim of this study was to find the correlation between color Doppler ultrasound and serum tests as auxiliary diagnostic criteria in areas where there is no possibility of some tests. A total of 108 patients were enrolled. They were divided into three groups including patients with PCOS, patients with PCOA ultrasound, patients with ovaries and normal hormone tests. Transvaginal sonography was performed from three groups and the results were evaluated in gray scale. The volume of the ovary, the number of follicles and the placement of follicles were recorded using using Doppler spectrum of uterine artery and ovarian stroma. Their arterial resistance index was also calculated. In the next step, serum samples were evaluated to determine the level of LH, FSH, free testosterone, DHEAS and 17-OHP hormones in the early follicular phase. Gray scale ultrasonographic findings (volume and number of ovarian follicles) as well as LH values were higher in patients with PCOS than those in the other two groups. These results proved the reliability of using these factors in the prediction of PCOS. In this study, Doppler indexes did not correlate with the size of the ovaries, the number of ovarian follicles and the measured hormone levels. The findings of transvaginal ultrasound and investigating the relationship with clinical and laboratory outcomes, a more suitable pattern could be chosen for more accurate patient selection and, leading to timely treatment and reducing the complications of the disease.

Open access
Katica Bajuk Studen Nuclear Medicine Department, University Medical Centre Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia

Search for other papers by Katica Bajuk Studen in
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
and
Marija Pfeifer Faculty of Medicine, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia

Search for other papers by Marija Pfeifer in
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common disorder in women of reproductive age. Besides hyperandrogenism, oligomenorrhea and fertility issues, it is associated with a high prevalence of metabolic disorders and cardiovascular risk factors. Several genetic polymorphisms have been identified for possible associations with cardiometabolic derangements in PCOS. Different PCOS phenotypes differ significantly in their cardiometabolic risk, which worsens with severity of androgen excess. Due to methodological difficulties, longer time-scale data about cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in PCOS and about possible beneficial effects of different treatment interventions is missing leaving many issues regarding cardiovascular risk unresolved.

Open access
Paraskevi Kazakou Diabetes Centre, Department of Clinical Therapeutics, Alexandra Hospital, School of Medicine, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece

Search for other papers by Paraskevi Kazakou in
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Stavroula A Paschou Endocrine Unit, Department of Clinical Therapeutics, Alexandra Hospital, School of Medicine, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece

Search for other papers by Stavroula A Paschou in
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Theodora Psaltopoulou Unit of Hematology and Oncology, Department of Clinical Therapeutics, Alexandra Hospital, School of Medicine, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece

Search for other papers by Theodora Psaltopoulou in
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Maria Gavriatopoulou Unit of Hematology and Oncology, Department of Clinical Therapeutics, Alexandra Hospital, School of Medicine, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece

Search for other papers by Maria Gavriatopoulou in
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Eleni Korompoki Department of Clinical Therapeutics, Alexandra Hospital, School of Medicine, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece

Search for other papers by Eleni Korompoki in
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Katerina Stefanaki Endocrine Unit, Department of Clinical Therapeutics, Alexandra Hospital, School of Medicine, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece

Search for other papers by Katerina Stefanaki in
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Fotini Kanouta Department of Endocrinology, Alexandra Hospital, Athens, Greece

Search for other papers by Fotini Kanouta in
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Georgia N Kassi Department of Endocrinology, Alexandra Hospital, Athens, Greece

Search for other papers by Georgia N Kassi in
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Meletios-Athanasios Dimopoulos Unit of Hematology and Oncology, Department of Clinical Therapeutics, Alexandra Hospital, School of Medicine, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece

Search for other papers by Meletios-Athanasios Dimopoulos in
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
, and
Asimina Mitrakou Diabetes Centre, Department of Clinical Therapeutics, Alexandra Hospital, School of Medicine, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece

Search for other papers by Asimina Mitrakou in
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close

Endocrine system plays a vital role in controlling human homeostasis. Understanding the possible effects of COVID-19 on endocrine glands is crucial to prevent and manage endocrine disorders before and during hospitalization in COVID-19-infected patients as well as to follow them up properly upon recovery. Many endocrine glands such as pancreas, hypothalamus and pituitary, thyroid, adrenal glands, testes, and ovaries have been found to express angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 receptors, the main binding site of the virus. Since the pandemic outbreak, various publications focus on the aggravation of preexisting endocrine diseases by COVID-19 infection or the adverse prognosis of the disease in endocrine patients. However, data on endocrine disorders both during the phase of the infection (early complications) and upon recovery (late complications) are scarce. The aim of this review is to identify and discuss early and late endocrine complications of COVID-19. The majority of the available data refer to glucose dysregulation and its reciprocal effect on COVID-19 infection with the main interest focusing on the presentation of new onset of diabetes mellitus. Thyroid dysfunction with low triiodothyronine, low thyroid stimulating hormone, or subacute thyroiditis has been reported. Adrenal dysregulation and impaired spermatogenesis in affected men have been also reported. Complications of other endocrine glands are still not clear. Considering the recent onset of COVID-19 infection, the available follow-up data are limited, and therefore, long-term studies are required to evaluate certain effects of COVID-19 on the endocrine glands.

Open access
Wolfgang Koechling Ferring Pharmaceuticals A/S, Copenhagen, Denmark

Search for other papers by Wolfgang Koechling in
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Daniel Plaksin Bio-Technology General Israel Ltd, Ferring Pharmaceuticals, Kiryat Malachi, Israel

Search for other papers by Daniel Plaksin in
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Glenn E Croston Croston Consulting, San Diego, California, USA

Search for other papers by Glenn E Croston in
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Janni V Jeppesen The Laboratory of Reproductive Biology, The Department of Fertility at The Juliane Marie Centre, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen University Hospital and The University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark

Search for other papers by Janni V Jeppesen in
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Kirsten T Macklon The Laboratory of Reproductive Biology, The Department of Fertility at The Juliane Marie Centre, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen University Hospital and The University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark

Search for other papers by Kirsten T Macklon in
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
, and
Claus Yding Andersen The Laboratory of Reproductive Biology, The Department of Fertility at The Juliane Marie Centre, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen University Hospital and The University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark

Search for other papers by Claus Yding Andersen in
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close

Recombinant FSH proteins are important therapeutic agents for the treatment of infertility, including follitropin alfa expressed in Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells and, more recently, follitropin delta expressed in the human cell line PER.C6. These recombinant FSH proteins have distinct glycosylation, and have distinct pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiles in women. Comparative experiments demonstrated that follitropin delta and follitropin alfa displayed the same in vitro potency at the human FSH receptor, but varied in their pharmacokinetics in mouse and rat. While follitropin delta clearance from serum depended in part on the hepatic asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGPR), follitropin alfa clearance was unaffected by ASGPR inhibition in rat or genetic ablation in mice. The distinct properties of follitropin delta and follitropin alfa are likely to contribute to the differing pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiles observed in women and to influence their efficacy in therapeutic protocols for the treatment of infertility.

Open access
Karim Gariani Service of Endocrinology, Diabetes, Nutrition and Therapeutic Patient Education, Geneva University Hospitals and Geneva University, Geneva, Switzerland

Search for other papers by Karim Gariani in
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
and
François R Jornayvaz Service of Endocrinology, Diabetes, Nutrition and Therapeutic Patient Education, Geneva University Hospitals and Geneva University, Geneva, Switzerland
Diabetes Center, Faculty of Medicine, University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland

Search for other papers by François R Jornayvaz in
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of chronic liver disease in the industrialized world. NAFLD encompasses a whole spectrum ranging from simple steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and cirrhosis. The latter can lead to hepatocellular carcinoma. Furthermore, NASH is the most rapidly increasing indication for liver transplantation in western countries and therefore represents a global health issue. The pathophysiology of NASH is complex and includes multiple parallel hits. NASH is notably characterized by steatosis as well as evidence of hepatocyte injury and inflammation, with or without fibrosis. NASH is frequently associated with type 2 diabetes and conditions associated with insulin resistance. Moreover, NASH may also be found in many other endocrine diseases such as polycystic ovary syndrome, hypothyroidism, male hypogonadism, growth hormone deficiency or glucocorticoid excess, for example. In this review, we will discuss the pathophysiology of NASH associated with different endocrinopathies.

Open access
Nicolás Crisosto Endocrinology and Metabolism Laboratory, West Division, School of Medicine, University of Chile, Santiago, Chile

Search for other papers by Nicolás Crisosto in
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Bárbara Echiburú Endocrinology and Metabolism Laboratory, West Division, School of Medicine, University of Chile, Santiago, Chile

Search for other papers by Bárbara Echiburú in
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Manuel Maliqueo Endocrinology and Metabolism Laboratory, West Division, School of Medicine, University of Chile, Santiago, Chile

Search for other papers by Manuel Maliqueo in
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Marta Luchsinger Endocrinology and Metabolism Laboratory, West Division, School of Medicine, University of Chile, Santiago, Chile

Search for other papers by Marta Luchsinger in
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Pedro Rojas Laboratory of Animal Physiology and Endocrinology, Faculty of Veterinary Sciences, University of Concepción, Chillán, Chile

Search for other papers by Pedro Rojas in
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Sergio Recabarren Laboratory of Animal Physiology and Endocrinology, Faculty of Veterinary Sciences, University of Concepción, Chillán, Chile

Search for other papers by Sergio Recabarren in
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
, and
Teresa Sir-Petermann Endocrinology and Metabolism Laboratory, West Division, School of Medicine, University of Chile, Santiago, Chile

Search for other papers by Teresa Sir-Petermann in
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close

Context

Intrauterine life may be implicated in the origin of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) modifying the endocrine and metabolic functions of children born to PCOS mothers independently of the genetic inheritance and gender. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the reproductive and metabolic functions in sons of women with PCOS during puberty.

Methods

Sixty-nine PCOS sons (PCOSs) and 84 control sons of 7–18 years old matched by the Tanner stage score were studied. A complete physical examination was conducted including anthropometric measurements (weight, height, waist, hip and body mass index). An oral glucose tolerance test was performed and circulating concentrations of luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), sex hormone-binding globulin, testosterone, androstenedione (A4), 17α-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP) and AMH were determined in the fasting sample.

Results

Waist-to-hip ratio, FSH and androstenedione levels were significantly higher in the PCOSs group compared to control boys during the Tanner stage II–III. In Tanner stages II–III and IV–V, PCOSs showed significantly higher total cholesterol and LDL levels. Propensity score analysis showed that higher LDL levels were attributable to the PCOSs condition and not to other metabolic factors. AMH levels were comparable during all stages. The rest of the parameters were comparable between both groups.

Conclusions

Sons of women with PCOS show increased total cholesterol and LDL levels during puberty, which may represent latent insulin resistance. Thus, this is a group that should be followed and studied looking for further features of insulin resistance and cardiovascular risk markers. Reproductive markers, on the other hand, are very similar to controls.

Open access
Neil R Chappell Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility Division, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Baylor College of Medicine and Family Fertility Center, Texas Children’s Hospital, Houston, Texas, USA

Search for other papers by Neil R Chappell in
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Beth Zhou Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility Division, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Baylor College of Medicine and Family Fertility Center, Texas Children’s Hospital, Houston, Texas, USA

Search for other papers by Beth Zhou in
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Amy K Schutt Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility Division, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Baylor College of Medicine and Family Fertility Center, Texas Children’s Hospital, Houston, Texas, USA

Search for other papers by Amy K Schutt in
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
William E Gibbons Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility Division, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Baylor College of Medicine and Family Fertility Center, Texas Children’s Hospital, Houston, Texas, USA

Search for other papers by William E Gibbons in
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
, and
Chellakkan S Blesson Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility Division, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Baylor College of Medicine and Family Fertility Center, Texas Children’s Hospital, Houston, Texas, USA

Search for other papers by Chellakkan S Blesson in
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common ovulatory defect in women. Although most PCOS patients are obese, a subset of PCOS women are lean but show similar risks for adverse fertility outcomes. A lean PCOS mouse model was created using prenatal androgen administration. This developmentally programmed mouse model was used for this study. Our objective was to investigate if mitochondrial structure and functions were compromised in oocytes obtained from lean PCOS mouse. The lean PCOS mouse model was validated by performing glucose tolerance test, HbA1c levels, body weight and estrous cycle analyses. Oocytes were isolated and were used to investigate inner mitochondrial membrane potential, oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation, ATP production, mtDNA copy number, transcript abundance and electron microscopy. Our results demonstrate that lean PCOS mice have similar weight to that of the controls but exhibit glucose intolerance and hyperinsulinemia along with dysregulated estrus cycle. Analysis of their oocytes show impaired inner mitochondrial membrane function, elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS) and increased RNA transcript abundance. Electron microscopy of the oocytes showed impaired mitochondrial ultrastructure. In conclusion, the lean PCOS mouse model shows a decreased oocyte quality related to impaired mitochondrial ultrastructure and function.

Open access
Dorte Glintborg Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Odense University Hospital, Odense, Denmark

Search for other papers by Dorte Glintborg in
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Magda Lambaa Altinok Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Odense University Hospital, Odense, Denmark

Search for other papers by Magda Lambaa Altinok in
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Pernille Ravn Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Odense University Hospital, Odense, Denmark

Search for other papers by Pernille Ravn in
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Kurt Bjerregaard Stage Department of Psychiatry, Odense University Hospital, Odense, Denmark

Search for other papers by Kurt Bjerregaard Stage in
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Kurt Højlund Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Odense University Hospital, Odense, Denmark

Search for other papers by Kurt Højlund in
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
, and
Marianne Andersen Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Odense University Hospital, Odense, Denmark

Search for other papers by Marianne Andersen in
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close

Background/aims

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with insulin resistance, adrenal hyperactivity and decreased mental health. We aimed to investigate the changes in adrenal activity, metabolic status and mental health in PCOS during treatment with escitalopram or placebo.

Methods

Forty-two overweight premenopausal women with PCOS and no clinical depression were randomized to 12-week SSRI (20 mg escitalopram/day, n = 21) or placebo (n = 21). Patients underwent clinical examination, fasting blood samples, adrenocorticotroph hormone (ACTH) test, 3-h oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and filled in questionnaires regarding mental health and health-related quality of life (HRQoL): WHO Well-Being Index (WHO-5), Major Depression Inventory (MDI), Short Form 36 (SF-36) and PCOS questionnaire.

Results

Included women were aged 31 (6) years (mean (s.d.)) and had body mass index (BMI) 35.8 (6.5) kg/m2 and waist 102 (12) cm. Escitalopram was associated with increased waist (median (quartiles) change 1 (0; 3) cm), P = 0.005 vs change during placebo and increased cortisol levels (cortisol 0, cortisol 60, peak cortisol and area under the curve for cortisol during ACTH test), all P< 0.05 vs changes during placebo. Escitalopram had no significant effect on measures of insulin sensitivity, insulin secretion, fasting lipids, mental health or HRQoL.

Conclusion

Waist circumference and cortisol levels increased during treatment with escitalopram in women with PCOS and no clinical depression, whereas metabolic risk markers, mental health and HRQol were unchanged.

Open access
Isabelle Flechtner Center for Rare Gynecological Disorders, Centre des Pathologies Gynécologiques Rares, Paris, France
Department of Paediatric Endocrinology, Gynaecology, and Diabetology, AP-HP, Necker-Enfants Malades University Hospital, IMAGINE Institute affiliate, Paris, France

Search for other papers by Isabelle Flechtner in
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Magali Viaud Center for Rare Gynecological Disorders, Centre des Pathologies Gynécologiques Rares, Paris, France
Department of Paediatric Endocrinology, Gynaecology, and Diabetology, AP-HP, Necker-Enfants Malades University Hospital, IMAGINE Institute affiliate, Paris, France

Search for other papers by Magali Viaud in
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Dulanjalee Kariyawasam Department of Paediatric Endocrinology, Gynaecology, and Diabetology, AP-HP, Necker-Enfants Malades University Hospital, IMAGINE Institute affiliate, Paris, France

Search for other papers by Dulanjalee Kariyawasam in
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Marie Perrissin-Fabert Center for Rare Gynecological Disorders, Centre des Pathologies Gynécologiques Rares, Paris, France
Department of Paediatric Endocrinology, Gynaecology, and Diabetology, AP-HP, Necker-Enfants Malades University Hospital, IMAGINE Institute affiliate, Paris, France

Search for other papers by Marie Perrissin-Fabert in
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Maud Bidet Center for Rare Gynecological Disorders, Centre des Pathologies Gynécologiques Rares, Paris, France
Department of Paediatric Endocrinology, Gynaecology, and Diabetology, AP-HP, Necker-Enfants Malades University Hospital, IMAGINE Institute affiliate, Paris, France

Search for other papers by Maud Bidet in
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Anne Bachelot Center for Rare Gynecological Disorders, Centre des Pathologies Gynécologiques Rares, Paris, France
Department of Endocrinology and Reproductive Medicine, AP-HPIE3M, Hôpital Pitié-Salpêtrière, ICAN, Paris, France

Search for other papers by Anne Bachelot in
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Philippe Touraine Center for Rare Gynecological Disorders, Centre des Pathologies Gynécologiques Rares, Paris, France
Department of Endocrinology and Reproductive Medicine, AP-HPIE3M, Hôpital Pitié-Salpêtrière, ICAN, Paris, France

Search for other papers by Philippe Touraine in
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Philippe Labrune Department of Pediatrics, APHP, Centre de Référence des Maladies héréditaires du Métabolisme Hépatique, Hopital Antoine Béclère and Paris Sud University, Clamart, France

Search for other papers by Philippe Labrune in
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Pascale de Lonlay Reference Center of Inherited Metabolic Diseases, Université de Paris, Necker Enfants Malades, University Hospital, Paris, France
Centre for Rare Gynecological Disorders, Hospital Universitaire Necker-Enfants Malades, Paediatric Endocrinology, Gynaecology and Diabetology, AP-HP, Université de Paris, Paris, France

Search for other papers by Pascale de Lonlay in
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
, and
Michel Polak Center for Rare Gynecological Disorders, Centre des Pathologies Gynécologiques Rares, Paris, France
Department of Paediatric Endocrinology, Gynaecology, and Diabetology, AP-HP, Necker-Enfants Malades University Hospital, IMAGINE Institute affiliate, Paris, France
Centre for Rare Gynecological Disorders, Hospital Universitaire Necker-Enfants Malades, Paediatric Endocrinology, Gynaecology and Diabetology, AP-HP, Université de Paris, Paris, France

Search for other papers by Michel Polak in
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close

Classic galactosemia is a rare inborn error of galactose metabolism with a birth prevalence of about 1/30,000–60,000. Long-term complications occurring despite dietary treatment consist of premature ovarian insufficiency (POI) and neurodevelopmental impairments. We performed with the French Reference Centers for Rare Diseases a multisite collaborative questionnaire survey for classic galactosemic patients. Its primary objective was to assess their puberty, pregnancy, gonadotropic axis, and pelvic morphology by ultrasound. The secondary objective was to determine predictive factors for pregnancy without oocyte donation. Completed questionnaires from 103 patients, 56 females (median age, 19 years (3–52 years)) and 47 males (median age, 19 years (3–45 years)), were analyzed. Among the 43 females older than 13 years old, mean age for breast development first stage was 13.8 years; spontaneous menarche occurred in 21/31 females at a mean age of 14.6 years. In these 21 women, 62% had spaniomenorrhea and 7/17 older than 30 years had amenorrhea. All age-groups confounded, FSH was above reference range for 65.7% of the patients, anti-Müllerian hormone and inhibin B were undetectable, and the ovaries were small with few or no follicles detected. Among the 5 females who sought to conceive, 4 had pregnancies. Among the 47 males, 1 had cryptorchidism, all have normal testicular function and none had a desire to conceive children. Thus, spontaneous puberty and POI are both common in this population. Spontaneous menarche seems to be the best predictive factor for successful spontaneous pregnancy.

Open access