Vitamin D

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Johanna Öberg Tromso Endocrine Research Group, Department of Clinical Medicine, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromso, Norway

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Rolf Jorde Tromso Endocrine Research Group, Department of Clinical Medicine, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromso, Norway

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Yngve Figenschau Tromso Endocrine Research Group, Department of Clinical Medicine, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromso, Norway
Diagnostic Clinic, University Hospital of North Norway, Tromso, Norway

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Per Medbøe Thorsby Hormone Laboratory, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biochemical Endocrinology and Metabolism Research Group, Oslo University Hospital, Aker, Oslo, Norway

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Sandra Rinne Dahl Hormone Laboratory, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biochemical Endocrinology and Metabolism Research Group, Oslo University Hospital, Aker, Oslo, Norway

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Anne Winther Division of Neurosciences, Orthopedics and Rehabilitation Services, University Hospital of North Norway, Tromso, Norway

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Guri Grimnes Tromso Endocrine Research Group, Department of Clinical Medicine, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromso, Norway
Division of Internal Medicine, University Hospital of North Norway, Tromso, Norway

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Objective

Combined hormonal contraceptive (CHC) use has been associated with higher total 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels. Here, we investigate the relation between CHC use and vitamin D metabolism to elucidate its clinical interpretation.

Methods

The cross-sectional Fit Futures 1 included 1038 adolescents. Here, a subgroup of 182 girls with available 25(OH)D, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D), 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (24,25(OH)2D), vitamin D-binding protein (DBP) and measured free 25(OH)D levels, in addition to parathyroid hormone (PTH) and fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), was investigated. Vitamin D metabolites were compared between girls using (CHC+) and not using CHC (CHC−). Further, the predictability of CHC on 25(OH)D levels was assessed in a multiple regression model including lifestyle factors. The ratios 1,25(OH)2D/25(OH)D and 24,25(OH)2D/25(OH)D (vitamin D metabolite ratio (VMR)) in relation to 25(OH)D were presented in scatterplots.

Results

CHC+ (n  = 64; 35% of the girls) had higher 25(OH)D levels (mean ± s.d., 60.3 ± 22.2) nmol/L) than CHC- (n  = 118; 41.8 ± 19.3 nmol/L), P -values <0.01. The differences in 25(OH)D levels between CHC+ and CHC− were attenuated but remained significant after the adjustment of lifestyle factors. CHC+ also had higher levels of 1,25(OH)2D, 24,25(OH)2D, DBP and calcium than CHC−, whereas 1,25(OH)2D/25(OH)D, PTH, FGF23 and albumin were significantly lower. Free 25(OH)D and VMR did not statistically differ, and both ratios appeared similar in relation to 25(OH)D, irrespective of CHC status.

Conclusion

This confirms a clinical impact of CHC on vitamin D levels in adolescents. Our observations are likely due to an increased DBP-concentration, whereas the free 25(OH)D appears unaltered.

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Gabriella Oliveira Lima Laboratory of Pharmacology and Toxicology of Natural Products, Institute of Biological Sciences, Federal University of Pará, Belém, Pará, Brazil

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Alex Luiz Menezes da Silva Laboratory of Pharmacology and Toxicology of Natural Products, Institute of Biological Sciences, Federal University of Pará, Belém, Pará, Brazil

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Julianne Elba Cunha Azevedo Laboratory of Pharmacology and Toxicology of Natural Products, Institute of Biological Sciences, Federal University of Pará, Belém, Pará, Brazil

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Chirlene Pinheiro Nascimento Laboratory of Pharmacology and Toxicology of Natural Products, Institute of Biological Sciences, Federal University of Pará, Belém, Pará, Brazil

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Luana Rodrigues Vieira Laboratory of Pharmacology and Toxicology of Natural Products, Institute of Biological Sciences, Federal University of Pará, Belém, Pará, Brazil

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Akira Otake Hamoy Laboratory of Pharmacology and Toxicology of Natural Products, Institute of Biological Sciences, Federal University of Pará, Belém, Pará, Brazil

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Luan Oliveira Ferreira Laboratory of Experimental Neuropathology, Institute of Biological Sciences, Federal University of Pará, Belém, Pará, Brazil

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Verônica Regina Lobato Oliveira Bahia Multidisciplinary Laboratory of Animal Morphology, Institute of Biological Sciences, Federal University of Pará, Belém, Pará, Brazil

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Nilton Akio Muto Amazon Bioactive Compounds Valorization Center, Institute of Biological Sciences, Federal University of Pará, Belém, Pará, Brazil

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Dielly Catrina Favacho Lopes Laboratory of Experimental Neuropathology, Institute of Biological Sciences, Federal University of Pará, Belém, Pará, Brazil

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Moisés Hamoy Laboratory of Pharmacology and Toxicology of Natural Products, Institute of Biological Sciences, Federal University of Pará, Belém, Pará, Brazil

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Low plasma levels of vitamin D causes bone mineral change that can precipitate osteopenia and osteoporosis and could aggravate autoimmune diseases, hypertension and diabetes. The demand for vitamin D supplementation becomes necessary; however, the consumption of vitamin D is not without risks, which its toxicity could have potentially serious consequences related to hypervitaminosis D, such as hypercalcemia and cerebral alterations. Thus, the present study describes the electroencephalographic changes caused by supraphysiological doses of vitamin D in the brain electrical dynamics and the electrocardiographic changes. After 4 days of treatment with vitamin D at a dose of 25,000 IU/kg, the serum calcium levels found were increased in comparison with the control group. The electrocorticogram analysis found a reduction in wave activity in the delta, theta, alpha and beta frequency bands. For ECG was observed changes with shortened QT follow-up, which could be related to serum calcium concentration. This study presented important evidence about the cerebral and cardiac alterations caused by high doses of vitamin D, indicating valuable parameters in the screening and decision-making process for diagnosing patients with symptoms suggestive of intoxication.

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Jane Fletcher Nutrition Nurses, University Hospitals Birmingham NHS Trust, Queen Elizabeth Hospital Birmingham, Mindelsohn Way, Edgbaston, Birmingham, UK
School of Nursing, Institute of Clinical Sciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, UK

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Emma L Bishop Institute of Immunology and Immunotherapy, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK

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Stephanie R Harrison Leeds Institute of Rheumatic and Musculoskeletal Medicine, Chapel Allerton Hospital, Leeds, UK

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Amelia Swift School of Nursing, Institute of Clinical Sciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, UK

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Sheldon C Cooper Gastroenterology Department, University Hospitals Birmingham NHS Trust, Queen Elizabeth Hospital Birmingham, Mindelsohn Way, Edgbaston, Birmingham, UK

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Sarah K Dimeloe Institute of Immunology and Immunotherapy, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK

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Karim Raza Institute of Inflammation and Ageing, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK

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Martin Hewison Institute of Metabolism and Systems Research, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK

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Vitamin D has well-documented effects on calcium homeostasis and bone metabolism but recent studies suggest a much broader role for this secosteroid in human health. Key components of the vitamin D system, notably the vitamin D receptor (VDR) and the vitamin D-activating enzyme (1α-hydroxylase), are present in a wide array of tissues, notably macrophages, dendritic cells and T lymphocytes (T cells) from the immune system. Thus, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25D) can be converted to hormonal 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25D) within immune cells, and then interact with VDR and promote transcriptional and epigenomic responses in the same or neighbouring cells. These intracrine and paracrine effects of 1,25D have been shown to drive antibacterial or antiviral innate responses, as well as to attenuate inflammatory T cell adaptive immunity. Beyond these mechanistic observations, association studies have reported the correlation between low serum 25D levels and the risk and severity of human immune disorders including autoimmune diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease, multiple sclerosis, type 1 diabetes and rheumatoid arthritis. The proposed explanation for this is that decreased availability of 25D compromises immune cell synthesis of 1,25D leading to impaired innate immunity and over-exuberant inflammatory adaptive immunity. The aim of the current review is to explore the mechanistic basis for immunomodulatory effects of 25D and 1,25D in greater detail with specific emphasis on how vitamin D-deficiency (low serum levels of 25D) may lead to dysregulation of macrophage, dendritic cell and T cell function and increase the risk of inflammatory autoimmune disease.

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Jennifer K Y Ko Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, Hong Kong, China

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Jinghua Shi Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Beijing, China

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Raymond H W Li Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, Hong Kong, China

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William S B Yeung Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, Hong Kong, China

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Ernest H Y Ng Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, Hong Kong, China

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Objective

Vitamin D receptors are present in the female reproductive tract. Studies on the association between serum vitamin D level and pregnancy rate of in vitro fertilization (IVF) showed inconsistent results and focused on a single fresh or frozen embryo transfer cycle. The objective of our study was to evaluate if serum vitamin D level before ovarian stimulation was associated with the cumulative live birth rate (CLBR) of the first IVF cycle.

Design

Retrospective cohort study.

Methods

Women who underwent the first IVF cycle from 2012 to 2016 at a university-affiliated reproductive medicine center were included. Archived serum samples taken before ovarian stimulation were analyzed for 25(OH)D levels using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

Results

In total, 1113 had pregnancy outcome from the completed IVF cycle. The median age (25th–75th percentile) of the women was 36 (34–38) years and serum 25(OH)D level was 53.4 (41.9–66.6) nmol/L. The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency (less than 50 nmol/L) was 42.2%. The CLBR in the vitamin D-deficient group was significantly lower compared to the non-deficient group (43.9%, 208/474 vs 50.9%, 325/639, P  = 0.021, unadjusted), and after controlling for women’s age, BMI, antral follicle count, type and duration of infertility. There were no differences in the clinical/ongoing pregnancy rate, live birth rate and miscarriage rate in the fresh cycle between the vitamin D deficient and non-deficient groups.

Conclusions

Vitamin D deficiency was prevalent in infertile women in subtropical Hong Kong. The CLBR of the first IVF cycle in the vitamin D-deficient group was significantly lower compared to the non-deficient group.

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Kevin D Cashman Cork Centre for Vitamin D and Nutrition Research, School of Food and Nutritional Sciences, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland

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Background

Internationally, concern has been repeatedly raised about the little notable progress in the collection, analysis and use of population micronutrient status and deficiency data globally. The need for representative status and intake data for vitamin D has been highlighted as a research priority for well over a decade.

Aim and methods

A narrative review which aims to provide a summary and assessment of vitamin D nutritional status data globally. This review divides the world into the Food and Agriculture Organisation’s (FAO) major regions: the Americas, Europe, Oceania, Africa and Asia. Emphasis was placed on published data on the prevalence of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) < 25/30 and <50 nmol/L (reflecting vitamin D deficiency and inadequacy, respectively) as well as vitamin D intake, where possible from nationally representative surveys.

Results

Collating data from the limited number of available representative surveys from individual countries might suggest a relatively low overall prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in South America, Oceania and North America, whereas there is more moderate prevalence in Europe and Asia, and possibly Africa. Overall, the prevalence of serum 25(OH)D < 25/30 and <50 nmol/L ranges from ~5 to 18% and 24 to 49%, respectively, depending on FAO world region. Usual intakes of vitamin D can also vary by FAO world region, but in general, with a few exceptions, there are very high levels of inadequacy of vitamin D intake.

Conclusions

While the burden of vitamin D deficiency and inadequacy varies by world regions and not just by UVB availability, the global burden overall translates into enormous numbers of individuals at risk.

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Josef Köhrle Charité – Universitätsmedizin Berlin, corporate member of Freie Universität Berlin and Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Institut für Experimentelle Endokrinologie, Berlin, Germany

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Martina Rauner Department of Medicine III, Universitätsklinikum Dresden, Technische Universität Dresden, Dresden, Germany
Center for Healthy Aging, Universitätsklinikum Dresden, Technische Universität Dresden, Dresden, Germany

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Susan A Lanham-New Department of Nutritional Sciences, School of Biosciences and Medicine, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford, UK

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Mateo Amaya-Montoya School of Medicine, Universidad de los Andes, Bogotá, Colombia

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Daniela Duarte-Montero School of Medicine, Universidad de los Andes, Bogotá, Colombia

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Luz D Nieves-Barreto School of Medicine, Universidad de los Andes, Bogotá, Colombia

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Angélica Montaño-Rodríguez School of Medicine, Universidad de los Andes, Bogotá, Colombia

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Eddy C Betancourt-Villamizar Team Foods, Bogotá, Colombia

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María P Salazar-Ocampo School of Medicine, Universidad de los Andes, Bogotá, Colombia

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Carlos O Mendivil School of Medicine, Universidad de los Andes, Bogotá, Colombia
Fundación Santa Fe de Bogotá, Section of Endocrinology, Bogotá, Colombia

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Data on dietary calcium and vitamin D intake from Latin America are scarce. We explored the main correlates and dietary sources of calcium and vitamin D in a probabilistic, population-based sample from Colombia. We studied 1554 participants aged 18–75 from five different geographical regions. Dietary intake was assessed by employing a 157-item semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire and national and international food composition tables. Daily vitamin D intake decreased with increasing age, from 230 IU/day in the 18–39 age group to 184 IU/day in the 60–75 age group (P -trend < 0.001). Vitamin D intake was positively associated with socioeconomic status (SES) (196 IU/day in lowest vs 234 in highest SES, P-trend < 0.001), and with educational level (176 IU/day in lowest vs 226 in highest education level, P-trend < 0.001). Daily calcium intake also decreased with age, from 1376 mg/day in the 18–39 age group to 1120 mg/day in the 60–75 age group (P -trend < 0.001). Calcium intake was lowest among participants with only elementary education, but the absolute difference in calcium intake between extreme education categories was smaller than for vitamin D (1107 vs 1274 mg/day, P-trend = 0.023). Daily calcium intake did not correlate with SES (P -trend = 0.74). Eggs were the main source of overall vitamin D, albeit their contribution decreased with increasing age. Dairy products contributed at least 48% of dietary calcium in all subgroups, mostly from cheese-containing traditional foods. SES and education were the key correlates of vitamin D and calcium intake. These findings may contribute to shape public health interventions in Latin American countries.

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Ann R Webb Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK

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Rehab Alghamdi Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK
Department of Clinical Nutrition, Faculty of Applied Medical Sciences, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

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Richard Kift Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK

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Lesley E Rhodes Centre for Dermatology Research, School of Biological Sciences, The University of Manchester and Salford Royal NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester, UK

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A systematic review of publications addressing change in vitamin D status (25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD)) after exposure to UV radiation identified 2001 independent peer-reviewed publications. Of these, 21 used artificial sources of UV radiation, met all inclusion criteria and were quality assured; 13 publications used solar radiation and met sufficient inclusion criteria to be retained as supporting evidence; 1 further included publication used both solar and artificial sources. The review consistently identified that low dose, sub-erythemal doses are more effective for vitamin D synthesis than doses close to a minimum erythema dose; increasing skin area exposed increases the amount of vitamin D synthesised although not necessarily in a linear manner; constant dosing leads to a dose-dependent plateau in 25OHD, and dose–response is greatest at the start of a dosing regime; there is a large interpersonal variation in response to UV exposure. Fourteen of the studies using artificial sources of radiation were used to determine a dose–response relationship for change in 25OHD on whole-body exposure to repeated sub-erythemal doses of UV radiation, taking the form Δ25OHD (nmol/L) = A ln(standard vitamin D dose) + B. This helps quantify our understanding of UV as a source of vitamin D and enables exposure regimes for safe synthesis of vitamin D to be assessed. Specific studies of people with pigmented skin (Fitzpatrick skin types 5 and 6) were rare, and this dose–response relationship is only applicable to white-skinned individuals as skin type is a determinant of response to UV radiation. Findings provide information for vitamin D guidance updates.

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