Thyroid

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Irfan Vardarli 5th Medical Department, Division of Endocrinology and Diabetes, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University, Mannheim, Germany

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Susanne Tan Department of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Clinical Chemistry – Division of Laboratory Research Endocrine Tumor Center at WTZ/Comprehensive Cancer Center, University Hospital Essen, University of Duisburg-Essen, Essen, Germany

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Rainer Görges Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital Essen, University of Duisburg-Essen, Essen, Germany

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Bernhard K Krämer 5th Medical Department, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University, Mannheim, Germany

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Ken Herrmann Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital Essen, University of Duisburg-Essen, Essen, Germany

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Christoph Brochhausen Institue of Pathology, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University, Mannheim, Germany

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Objective

The management of thyroid nodules with indeterminate cytology (ITN) is still a challenge. To evaluate the performance of commercial molecular tests for ITN, we performed this comprehensive meta-analysis.

Methods

We performed an electronic search using PubMed/Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane Library. Studies assessing the diagnostic accuracy of Afirma gene expression classifier (GEC), Afirma gene sequencing classifier (GSC), ThyroSeq v2 (TSv2), or ThyroSeq v3 (TSv3) in patients with ITN (only Bethesda category III or IV) were selected; Statistical analyses were performed by using Stata.

Results

Seventy-one samples (GEC, n = 38; GSC, n = 16; TSv2, n = 9; TSv3, n = 8) in 53 studies, involving 6490 fine needle aspirations (FNAs) with ITN cytology with molecular diagnostics (GEC, GSC, TSv2, or TSv3), were included in the study. The meta-analysis showed the following pooled estimates: sensitivity 0.95 (95% CI: 0.94–0.97), specificity 0.35 (0.28–0.43), positive likelihood ratio (LR+) 1.5 (1.3–1.6), and negative likelihood ratio (LR−) 0.13 (0.09–0.19), with the best performance for TSv3 (area under the ROC curve 0.95 (0.93–0.96), followed by TSv2 (0.90 (0.87–0.92)), GSC (0.86 (0.82–0.88)), and GEC (0.82 (0.78–0.85)); the best rule-out property was observed for GSC (LR−, 0.07 (0.02–0.19)), followed by TSv3 (0.11 (0.05–0.24)) and GEC (0.16 (0.10–0.28), and the best rule-in was observed for TSv2 (LR+, 2,9 (1.4–4.6)), followed by GSC (1.9 (1.6–2.4)). A meta-regression analysis revealed that study design, Bethesda category, and type of molecular test were independent factors.

Conclusion

We showed that in patients with ITN, TSv3 has the best molecular diagnostic performance, followed by TSv2, GSC, and GEC. As regards rule-out malignancy, GSC, and rule-in, TSV2 is superior to other tests.

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Ayse Nurcan Cebeci Paediatric Endocrinology, Department of Friedrich-Alexander University Hospital, Erlangen, Germany

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Vera Schempp Paediatric Endocrinology, University Hospital, Bonn, Germany

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Katharina Förtsch Paediatric Endocrinology, University Hospital, Düsseldorf, Germany

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Bettina Gohlke Paediatric Endocrinology, University Hospital, Bonn, Germany

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Michaela Marx Paediatric Endocrinology, Department of Friedrich-Alexander University Hospital, Erlangen, Germany

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Helmuth-Guenther Dörr Paediatric Endocrinology, Department of Friedrich-Alexander University Hospital, Erlangen, Germany

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Joachim Woelfle Paediatric Endocrinology, Department of Friedrich-Alexander University Hospital, Erlangen, Germany

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While subclinical or overt hypothyroidism are common in Down syndrome (DS); Graves’ disease (GD) is rare (ranges 0.6–3%). We aimed to evaluate the clinical features, course, and treatment of GD in children with DS and compare them with those without DS. Among 161 children with GD, 13 (8 female, 5 male) had DS (8%). Data were collected retrospectively from patients’ medical records. The mean age at diagnosis was 10.6 ± 4.5 years, with a female-to-male ratio 1.6:1. The main symptoms were weight loss (n = 6), increased irritability (n = 3), and increased sweating (n = 3). None had orbitopathy. Seven of 11 patients with a thyroid ultrasound at diagnosis had a goitre. On admission, all had thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) <0.01 mU/L (normal range (NR): 0.51–4.30), free triiodothyronine, free thyroxine (mean ± s.d .), and thyrotrophin receptor antibodies (median, range) were 22.2 ± 10.2 pmol/L (NR: 3.5–8.1), 50.2 ± 18.7 pmol/L (NR 12.6–20.9), and 17.0 (2.89–159.0) U/L (NR <1), respectively. Patients were treated either with methimazole (n = 10) or carbimazole (n = 3), a dose of 0.54 ± 0.36 mg/kg/day. The treatment was ‘block and replace’ in ten patients and ‘dose titration’ in three patients, with a mean duration of 43.4 ± 11.0 months. Of 13 patients, four are still receiving primary treatment, three are in remission, one patient had two medically treated recurrences, three underwent surgery without complications, and two patients were lost to follow-up. Our data show that the clinical course of GD in patients with DS was similar to those without DS and suggest that a prolonged medical therapy should be the preferred option.

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