Obesity

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M Guftar Shaikh Department of Paediatric Endocrinology, Royal Hospital for Children, Glasgow, UK
Developmental Endocrinology Research Group, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK

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Timothy G Barrett Department of Endocrinology, Birmingham Womens and Children’s Hospital, Birmingham, UK
Institute of Cancer and Genomic Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK

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Nicola Bridges Department of Paediatric Endocrinology, Chelsea and Westminster Hospital, London, UK

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Robin Chung Research Working Group, Prader-Willi Syndrome Association, Northampton, UK

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Evelien F Gevers Department of Paediatric Endocrinology, Barts Health NHS Trust, Royal London Hospital, London, UK
Centre for Endocrinology, William Harvey Research Institute, Barts and The London Medical School, Queen Mary University of London, London, UK

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Anthony P Goldstone PsychoNeuroEndocrinologyResearch Group, Division of Psychiatry, Department of Brain Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, London, UK
Department of Endocrinology, Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, Hammersmith Hospital, London, UK

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Anthony Holland Department of Psychiatry, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK

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Shankar Kanumakala Royal Alexandra Children’s Hospital, Brighton, UK

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Ruth Krone Department of Endocrinology, Birmingham Womens and Children’s Hospital, Birmingham, UK

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Andreas Kyriakou Department of Paediatric Endocrinology, Royal Hospital for Children, Glasgow, UK
Department of Paediatric Endocrinology, Makarios Children's Hospital, Nicosia, Cyprus

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E Anne Livesey Royal Alexandra Children’s Hospital, Brighton, UK
Sussex Community NHS Trust, Brighton, UK

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Angela K Lucas-Herald Department of Paediatric Endocrinology, Royal Hospital for Children, Glasgow, UK
Developmental Endocrinology Research Group, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK

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Christina Meade CHI at Tallaght University Hospital, Dublin, Republic of Ireland

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Susan Passmore Prader-Willi Syndrome Association, Northampton, UK

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Edna Roche CHI at Tallaght University Hospital, Dublin, Republic of Ireland
The University of Dublin, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin, Republic of Ireland

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Chris Smith Royal Alexandra Children’s Hospital, Brighton, UK

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Sarita Soni Learning Disability Psychiatry, NHS Greater Glasgow and Clyde, Glasgow, UK

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Prader–Willi syndrome (PWS) is a rare orphan disease and complex genetic neurodevelopmental disorder, with a birth incidence of approximately 1 in 10,000–30,000. Management of people with PWS requires a multi-disciplinary approach, ideally through a multi-disciplinary team (MDT) clinic with community support. Hypotonia, poor feeding and faltering growth are characteristic features in the neonatal period, followed by hyperphagia and risk of rapid weight gain later in childhood. Children and adolescents (CA) with PWS usually display developmental delay and mild learning disability and can develop endocrinopathies, scoliosis, respiratory difficulties (both central and obstructive sleep apnoea), challenging behaviours, skin picking, and mental health issues, especially into adulthood. This consensus statement is intended to be a reference document for clinicians managing children and adolescents (up to 18 years of age) with PWS. It considers the bio-psycho-social domains of diagnosis, clinical assessment, and management in the paediatric setting as well as during and after transition to adult services. The guidance has been developed from information gathered from peer-reviewed scientific reports and from the expertise of a range of experienced clinicians in the United Kingdom and Ireland involved in the care of patients with PWS.

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Carlijn A Hoekx Division of Endocrinology, Department of Medicine, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands
Einthoven Laboratory for Experimental Vascular Medicine, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands

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Borja Martinez-Tellez Division of Endocrinology, Department of Medicine, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands
Einthoven Laboratory for Experimental Vascular Medicine, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands
Department of Nursing Physiotherapy and Medicine, SPORT Research Group (CTS-1024), CERNEP Research Center, University of Almería, Almería, Spain
Biomedical Research Unit, Torrecárdenas University Hospital, Almería, Spain
CIBER de Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y Nutrición (CIBEROBN), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Granada, Spain

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Maaike E Straat Division of Endocrinology, Department of Medicine, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands
Einthoven Laboratory for Experimental Vascular Medicine, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands

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Magdalena M A Verkleij Division of Endocrinology, Department of Medicine, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands
Einthoven Laboratory for Experimental Vascular Medicine, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands

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Mirjam Kemmeren Division of Endocrinology, Department of Medicine, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands
Einthoven Laboratory for Experimental Vascular Medicine, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands

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Sander Kooijman Division of Endocrinology, Department of Medicine, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands
Einthoven Laboratory for Experimental Vascular Medicine, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands

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Martin Uhrbom Bioscience Metabolism, Research and Early Development, Cardiovascular, Renal and Metabolism (CVRM), BioPharmaceuticals R&D, AstraZeneca Gothenburg, Sweden
Department of Medicine, Huddinge, Karolinska Institutet Campus Flemingsberg, Neo Building, Huddinge, Sweden

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Saskia C A de Jager Laboratory of Experimental Cardiology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands

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Patrick C N Rensen Division of Endocrinology, Department of Medicine, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands
Einthoven Laboratory for Experimental Vascular Medicine, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands

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Mariëtte R Boon Division of Endocrinology, Department of Medicine, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands
Einthoven Laboratory for Experimental Vascular Medicine, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands

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Objectives

Cold exposure is linked to cardiometabolic benefits. Cold activates brown adipose tissue (BAT), increases energy expenditure, and induces secretion of the hormones fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) and growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF15). The cold-induced increase in energy expenditure exhibits a diurnal rhythm in men. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the effect of cold exposure on serum FGF21 and GDF15 levels in humans and whether cold-induced changes in FGF21 and GDF15 levels differ between morning and evening in males and females.

Method

In this randomized cross-over study, serum FGF21 and GDF15 levels were measured in healthy lean males (n = 12) and females (n = 12) before, during, and after 90 min of stable cold exposure in the morning (07:45 h) and evening (19:45 h) with a 1-day washout period in between.

Results

Cold exposure increased FGF21 levels in the evening compared to the morning both in males (+61% vs −13%; P < 0.001) and in females (+58% vs +8%; P < 0.001). In contrast, cold exposure did not significantly modify serum GDF15 levels, and no diurnal variation was found. Changes in FGF21 and GDF15 levels did not correlate with changes in cold-induced energy expenditure in the morning and evening.

Conclusion

Cold exposure increased serum FGF21 levels in the evening, but not in the morning, in both males and females. GDF15 levels were not affected by cold exposure. Thus, this study suggests that the timing of cold exposure may influence cold-induced changes in FGF21 levels but not GDF15 levels and seems to be independent of changes in energy expenditure.

Open access
Peiwen Zheng School of Mental Health, Wenzhou Medical University, The Affiliated Kangning Hospital, Wenzhou, China

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Fan Wang Beijing Hui-Long-Guan Hospital, Peking University, Beijing, China

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Hui Li Psychosomatic Medicine Research Division, Inner Mongolia Medical University, Huhhot, China

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Hanlu Chen School of Mental Health, Wenzhou Medical University, The Affiliated Kangning Hospital, Wenzhou, China

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Mengtong Li School of Mental Health, Wenzhou Medical University, The Affiliated Kangning Hospital, Wenzhou, China

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Haozheng Ma School of Mental Health, Wenzhou Medical University, The Affiliated Kangning Hospital, Wenzhou, China

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Jue He School of Mental Health, Wenzhou Medical University, The Affiliated Kangning Hospital, Wenzhou, China

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Li Chen School of Mental Health, Wenzhou Medical University, The Affiliated Kangning Hospital, Wenzhou, China

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Yanlong Liu School of Mental Health, Wenzhou Medical University, The Affiliated Kangning Hospital, Wenzhou, China

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Haiyun Xu School of Mental Health, Wenzhou Medical University, The Affiliated Kangning Hospital, Wenzhou, China

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Objective

This study aimed to reveal associations between metabolic hormones in cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) and cigarette smoking-induced weight gain and to explore the underlying mechanism.

Methods

A total of 156 adult men were included, comprising active smokers and nonsmokers. In addition to demographic information and body mass index (BMI), plasma levels of ApoA1 and ApoB, high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, cholesterol, triglyceride, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and gamma-glutamyl transferase in the participants were measured. Moreover, the metabolic hormones adiponectin, fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21), ghrelin, leptin, and orexin A, as well as the trace elements iron and zinc in CSF, were assessed.

Results

Compared to nonsmokers, active smokers showed higher BMI, and elevated CSF levels of FGF21, Zn, and Fe, but decreased levels of metabolic hormones adiponectin, ghrelin, leptin, and orexin A. Negative correlations existed between CSF FGF21 and ghrelin, between CSF Zn and ghrelin, as well as between CSF Fe and orexin A in active smokers. Furthermore, elevated CSF FGF21 and Zn predicted ghrelin level decrease in the smokers.

Conclusion

These data relate smoking-induced weight gain to its neurotoxic effect on the neurons that synthesize metabolic hormones such as adiponectin, ghrelin, leptin, or orexin A in the brain, by disrupting mitochondrial function and causing oxidative stress in the neurons.

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