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Shams Ali Baig College of Medical and Dental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, United Kingdom

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Kashish Malhotra Department of Surgery, Rama Medical College Hospital and Research Centre, Hapur, Uttar Pradesh, India
Institute of Applied Health Research, College of Medical and Dental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK

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Anagh Josh Banerjee College of Medical and Dental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, United Kingdom

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Mukunth Kowsik College of Medical and Dental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, United Kingdom

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Khushi Kumar College of Medical and Dental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, United Kingdom

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Fazna Rahman College of Medical and Dental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, United Kingdom

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Syeda Sabbah Batul College of Medical and Dental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, United Kingdom

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Mohammed Faraaz Saiyed College of Medical and Dental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, United Kingdom

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Vardhan Venkatesh College of Medical and Dental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, United Kingdom

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Pranav Viswanath Iyer College of Medical and Dental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, United Kingdom

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Punith Kempegowda Institute of Applied Health Research, College of Medical and Dental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK
Queen Elizabeth Hospital, University Hospitals Birmingham NHS Foundation Trust, Birmingham, UK

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YouTube® is one of the leading platforms for health information. However, the lack of regulation of content and quality raises concerns about accuracy and reliability. CoMICs (Concise Medical Information Cines) are evidence-based short videos created by medical students and junior doctors and reviewed by experts to ensure clinical accuracy. We performed a systematic review to understand the impact of videos on knowledge and awareness about diabetes and PCOS. We then evaluated the quality of YouTube® videos about diabetes and PCOS using various validated quality assessment tools and compared these with CoMICs videos on the same topics. Quality assessment tools like DISCERN, JAMA benchmark criteria, and global quality scale (GQS) score were employed. Some of the authors of this study also co-authored the creation of some of the CoMICs evaluated. Our study revealed that while videos effectively improve understanding of diabetes and PCOS, there are notable differences in quality and reliability of the videos on YouTube®. For diabetes, CoMICs videos had higher DISCERN scores (CoMICs vs YouTube®: 2.4 vs 1.6), superior reliability (P < 0.01), and treatment quality (P < 0.01) and met JAMA criteria for authorship (100% vs 30.6%) and currency (100% vs 53.1%). For PCOS, CoMICs had higher DISCERN scores (2.9 vs 1.9), reliability (P < 0.01), and treatment quality (P < 0.01); met JAMA criteria for authorship (100% vs 34.0%) and currency (100% vs 54.0%); and had higher GQS scores (4.0 vs 3.0). In conclusion, CoMICs outperformed other similar sources on YouTube® in providing reliable evidence-based medical information which may be used for patient education.

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Niels B Dalsgaard Center for Clinical Metabolic Research, Gentofte Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Hellerup, Denmark

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Lærke S Gasbjerg Center for Clinical Metabolic Research, Gentofte Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Hellerup, Denmark
Department of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark

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Laura S Hansen Center for Clinical Metabolic Research, Gentofte Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Hellerup, Denmark

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Dennis S Nielsen Department of Food Science, Faculty of Science, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark

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Torben S Rasmussen Department of Food Science, Faculty of Science, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark

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Filip K Knop Center for Clinical Metabolic Research, Gentofte Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Hellerup, Denmark
Department of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark
Steno Diabetes Center Copenhagen, Gentofte, Denmark

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Aim

The alpha-glucosidase inhibitor acarbose is approved for the treatment of type 2 diabetes (T2D). It acts in the lumen of the gut by reducing intestinal hydrolysis and absorption of ingested carbohydrates. This reduces postprandial blood glucose concentration and increases the content of carbohydrates in the distal parts of the intestine potentially influencing gut microbiome (GM) composition and possibly impacting the gut microbiome (GM) dysbiosis associated with T2D. Here, we investigated the effect of acarbose on GM composition in patients with T2D.

Methods

Faecal samples were collected in a previously conducted randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover study in which 15 individuals with metformin-treated T2D (age 57–85 years, HbA1c 40–74 mmol/mol, BMI 23.6–34.6 kg/m2) were subjected to two 14-day treatment periods with acarbose and placebo, respectively, separated by a 6-week wash-out period. Faecal samples were collected before and by the end of each treatment period. The GM profiles were evaluated by 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing.

Results

The GM profiles after the treatment periods with acarbose or placebo remained unaffected (P > 0.7) when compared with the GM profiles before treatment. This applied to the analysis of within-sample diversity (α-diversity) and between-sample bacterial composition diversity (β-diversity). Additionally, no dominant bacterial species differentiated the treatment groups, and only minor increases in the relative abundances of Klebsiella spp. and Escherichia coli (P < 0.05) were observed after acarbose treatment.

Conclusion

In patients with metformin-treated T2D, 14 days of treatment with acarbose showed only minor effects on GM as seen in increased relative abundances of Klebsiella spp. and Escherichia coli.

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Sun Fei Wuxi Medical College of Jiangnan University, Wuxi, China

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Min Liu Wuxi Maternity and Child Health Care Hospital, Wuxi, China

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Hu Shanshan Wuxi Maternity and Child Health Care Hospital, Wuxi, China

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Ruijie Xie Department of Microsurgery, University of South China, Hengyang, China

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Wu Danni Wuxi Medical College of Jiangnan University, Wuxi, China

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Zhou Ningying Wuxi Medical College of Jiangnan University, Wuxi, China

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Background

Depression has become a multifaceted global health issue, with complex connections to obesity. Weight-adjusted-waist index (WWI) can effectively evaluate central obesity, but the relationship between WWI and depression has not been well studied. The study aims to investigate the potential correlation between these two health parameters.

Methods

According to the data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, this cross-sectional study used multiple regression analysis, subgroup analysis, and smooth curve fitting to explore the relationship between WWI and depression. The assessment ability of WWI was evaluated and compared to other obesity indicators using the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve.

Results

This study analyzed 38,154 participants. Higher WWI is associated with higher depression scores (β = 0.41; 95% CI, 0.36–0.47). After adjusting for various confounding factors, the positive correlation between WWI and depression remained significant (P for trend < 0.0001). Nonlinear positive correlation was detected with a breakpoint of 11.14. ROC analysis shows that compared to other obesity indicators (ROCWWI = 0.593; ROCBMI = 0.584; and ROCWC = 0.581), the correlation between WWI and depression has better discrimination and accuracy. DII mediated 4.93%, SII mediated 5.08%, and sedentary mediated 0.35% of the total association between WWI and depression.

Conclusion

WWI levels were related to an increased likelihood of depression and showed a stronger relationship than BMI and waist circumference. Our findings indicated that WWI may serve as a simple anthropometric index to evaluate depression.

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Zhenyu Liu Department of Clinical Medicine, Beijing Luhe Hospital, Capital Medical University, Tongzhou District, Beijing, China

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Huixi Kong Department of Clinical Medicine, Beijing Shijitan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Haidian District, Beijing, China

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Baoyu Zhang Center for Endocrine Metabolism and Immune Diseases, Beijing Luhe Hospital, Capital Medical University, Tongzhou District, Beijing, China

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To optimize the treatment plan for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and hyperuricemia, this narrative literature review summarizes the effect of antidiabetic drugs on serum uric acid (SUA) levels using data from observational studies, prospective clinical trials, post hoc analyses, and meta-analyses. SUA is an independent risk factor for T2DM, and evidence has shown that patients with both gout and T2DM exhibit a mutually interdependent effect on higher incidences. We find that insulin and dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitor (DPP-4i) except linagliptin could increase the SUA and other drugs including metformin, thiazolidinediones (TZDs), glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RAs), linagliptin, sodium–glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2i), and α-glucosidase inhibitors have a reduction effect on SUA. We explain the mechanisms of different antidiabetic drugs above on SUA and analyze them compared with actual data. For sulfonylureas, meglitinides, and amylin analogs, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. We think the usage of linagliptin and SGLT2i is the most potentially effective treatment of patients with T2DM and hyperuricemia currently. Our review is a comprehensive summary of the effects of antidiabetic drugs on SUA, which includes actual data, the mechanisms of SUA regulation, and the usage rate of drugs.

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Yueyuan Yang Department of Endocrinology, Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan, China

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Tingting Yu Department of Radiology, Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan, China

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Zhili Niu Department of Clinical Laboratory, Institute of translational medicine, Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan, China

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Ling Gao Department of Endocrinology, Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan, China

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Objective

Uridine might be a common link between pathological pathways in diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. This study aimed to investigate the predictive value of plasma uridine for type 2 diabetes (T2D) and T2D with atherosclerosis.

Methods

Individuals with T2D and healthy controls (n = 218) were randomly enrolled in a cross-sectional study. Patients with T2D were divided into two groups based on carotid ultrasound: patients with carotid atherosclerosis (CA) (group DCA) and patients without CA (group D). Plasma uridine was determined using HPLC-MS/MS. Correlation and logistic regression analyses were used to analyze the results.

Results

Fasting and postprandial uridine were significantly increased in patients with T2D compared with healthy individuals. Logistic regression suggested that fasting and postprandial uridine were independent risk factors for T2D. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve showed that fasting uridine had a predictive value on T2D (95% CI, 0.686–0.863, sensitivity 74.3%, specificity 71.8%). Fasting uridine was positively correlated with LDL-c, FBG, and PBG and negatively correlated with fasting C-peptide (CP-0h) and HOMA-IS. The change in postprandial uridine from fasting baseline (Δuridine) was smaller in T2D patients with CA compared with those without (0.80 (0.04–2.46) vs 2.01 (0.49–3.15), P = 0.010). Δuridine was also associated with T2D with CA and negatively correlated with BMI, CP-0h, and HOMA-IR.

Conclusion

Fasting uridine has potential as a predictor of diabetes. Δuridine is closely associated with carotid atherosclerosis in patients with T2D.

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