Constantine A Stratakis
Patrizia Bruzzi, Silvia Vannelli, Emanuela Scarano, Natascia Di Iorgi, Maria Parpagnoli, MariaCarolina Salerno, Marco Pitea, Maria Elisabeth Street, Andrea Secco, Adolfo Andrea Trettene, Malgorzata Wasniewska, Nicola Corciulo, Gianluca Tornese, Maria Felicia Faienza, Maurizio Delvecchio, Simona Filomena Madeo, and Lorenzo Iughetti
This Italian survey aims to evaluate real-life long-term efficacy and safety of recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) therapy in children with short stature homeobox-containing gene deficiency disorders (SHOX-D) and to identify potential predictive factors influencing response to rhGH therapy.
Design and methods
This is a national retrospective observational study collecting anamnestic, anthropometric, clinical, instrumental and therapeutic data in children and adolescents with a genetic confirmation of SHOX-D treated on rhGH. Data were collected at the beginning of rhGH therapy (T0), yearly during the first 4 years of rhGH therapy (T1, T2, T3 and T4) and at near-final height (nFH) (T5), when available.
One hundred and seventeen SHOX-D children started rhGH therapy (initial dose 0.23 ± 0.04 mg/kg/week) at a mean age of 8.67 ± 3.33 years (74% prepubertal), 99 completed the first year of treatment and 46 reached nFH. During rhGH therapy, growth velocity (GV), standard deviation score (SDS) and height (H) SDS improved significantly. Mean H SDS gain from T0 was +1.14 ± 0.58 at T4 and +0.80 ± 0.98 at T5. Both patients carrying mutations involving intragenic SHOX region (group A) and ones with regulatory region defects (group B) experienced a similar beneficial therapeutic effect. The multiple regression analysis identified the age at the start of rhGH treatment (β = −0.31, P = 0.030) and the GV during the first year of rhGH treatment (β = 0.45, P = 0.008) as main independent predictor factors of height gain. During rhGH therapy, no adverse event of concern was reported.
Our data confirm the efficacy and safety of rhGH therapy in SHOX-D children, regardless the wide variety of genotype.
Among children with idiopathic short stature, the prevalence of SHOX-D is near to 1/1000–2000 (1.1–15%) with a wide phenotypic spectrum. Current guidelines support rhGH therapy in SHOX-D children, but long-term data are still few. Our real-life data confirm the efficacy and safety of rhGH therapy in SHOX-D children, regardless of the wide variety of genotypes. Moreover, rhGH therapy seems to blunt the SHOX-D phenotype. The response to rhGH in the first year of treatment and the age when rhGH was started significantly impact the height gain.
Felix Reschke, Torben Biester, Thekla von dem Berge, Dagmar Jamiolkowski, Laura Hasse, Francesca Dassie, Pietro Maffei, Katharina Klee, Olga Kordonouri, Hagen Ott, and Thomas Danne
As the most visible and vulnerable organ of the human organism, the skin can provide an impression of its state of health. Rare forms of diabetes and endocrinopathies are often diagnosed late or primarily misinterpreted due to their rarity. Skin peculiarities associated with these rare diseases may be indicative of the underlying endocrinopathy or form of diabetes. At the same time, rare skin changes in diabetes or endocrinopathies can also be a major challenge for dermatologists, diabetologists and endocrinologists in optimal patient and therapy management. Active collaboration between these different specialist groups can therefore lead to increased patient safety, better therapeutic success and more targeted diagnostics.
Jesper Krogh, Peter Plomgaard, Ruth Frikke-Schmidt, Sten Velschow, Jesper Johannesen, Linda Maria Hilsted, Malene Schrøder, and Ulla Feldt-Rasmussen
Repeated blood sampling is required in certain clinical and research settings, which is currently performed by drawing blood from venous catheters requiring manual handling of each sample at the time of collection. A novel body-worn device for repeated serial samples, Fluispotter®, with automated extraction, collection, and storage of up to 20 venous dried blood spot samples over the course of 20 h may overcome problems with current methods for serial sampling. The purpose of this study was to assess the performance and safety of Fluispotter for the first time in healthy subjects. Fluispotter consists of a cartridge with tubing, a reservoir for flushing solution, pumps and filterpaper, and a multi-lumen catheter placed in the brachial vein. We recruited healthy subjects for testing in an in-hospital setting. Fluispotter was attached by an anesthesiologist to 22 healthy subjects of which 9/22 (40.9%) participants had all 20 samples taken, which was lower than the goal of complete sampling in 80% of the subjects (P = 0.02). The main reason for sample failure was clogging of blood flow which was observed in 11/22 (50%) of the participants. No serious adverse events occurred, and the participants rated the pain from the insertion and the removal of catheter as very low. A cortisol profile showed nadir values at midnight and highest values at 05:00 h. Although full sampling was not successful in all participants, the Fluispotter technology proved safe and highly acceptable to the participants producing the expected cortisol profile without the requirement of staff during sample collection.
Marta Fichna, Piotr P Małecki, Magdalena Żurawek, Katarzyna Furman, Bolesław Gębarski, Piotr Fichna, and Marek Ruchała
Since individuals with Addison’s disease (AD) present considerable co-occurrence of additional autoimmune conditions, clustering of autoimmunity was also predicted among their relatives. The study was aimed to assess circulating autoantibodies in first-degree relatives of patients with AD and to correlate them with the established genetic risk factors (PTPN22 rs2476601, CTLA4 rs231775, and BACH2 rs3757247). Antibodies were evaluated using validated commercial assays, and genotyping was performed using TaqMan chemistry. The studied cohort comprised 112 female and 75 male relatives. Circulating autoantibodies were found in 69 relatives (36.9%). Thyroid autoantibodies, that is antibodies to thyroid peroxidase (aTPO) and thyroglobulin (aTg), were detectable in 25.1 and 17.1% relatives, respectively. Antibodies to 21-hydroxylase (a21OH) were found in 5.8% individuals, and beta cell-specific antibodies to ZnT8, GAD, and IA2 were found in 7.5, 8.0, and 2.7%, respectively. The prevalence of a21OH (P = 0.0075; odds ratio (OR) 7.68; 95% CI 1.903–36.0), aTPO (P < 0.0001; OR 3.85; 95% CI 1.873–7.495), and aTg (P < 0.0001; OR 7.73; 95% CI 3.112–19.65), as well as aGAD (P = 0.0303; OR 3.38; 95% CI 1.180–9.123) and aZnT8 (P = 0.032; OR 6.40; 95% CI 1.846–21.91), was significantly increased in carriers of rs2476601 T allele. Moreover, T allele appeared to be a risk factor for multiple circulating autoantibody specificities (P = 0.0009; OR 5.79; 95% CI 1.962–15.81). None of the studied autoantibodies demonstrated significant association with rs231775 in CTLA4 (P > 0.05), and only weak association was detected between BACH2 rs3757247 and circulating aTPO (P = 0.0336; OR 2.12; 95%CI 1.019–4.228). In conclusion, first-degree relatives of patients with AD, carriers of the PTPN22 rs2476601 T allele, are at particular risk of developing autoantibodies to endocrine antigens.
Kimberly Kuiper, Hanna Swaab, Nicole Tartaglia, and Sophie van Rijn
The presence of an additional X or Y chromosome (sex chromosome trisomies, SCT) is associated with an increased risk for neurodevelopmental difficulties, including socio-emotional problems, across the life span. Studying emotion regulation in young children with SCT could signal deviations in emotional development that serve as risk markers to guide clinical care. This study explored the presence and variety of emotion regulation strategies in 75 SCT children and 81 population-based controls, aged 1–7 years, during a frustration-inducing event in which physiological (heart rate) and observational data (behavioral responses) were collected. Children with SCT were equally physiologically aroused by the event as compared to controls. However, they showed more emotion regulation difficulties in terms of behavior compared to controls that were not explicable in terms of differences in general intellectual functioning. Specifically, they had a more limited range of behavioral alternatives and tended to rely longer on inefficient strategies with increasing age. The field of practice should be made aware of these early risk findings regarding emotion regulation in SCT, which may potentially lay the foundation for later socio-emotional problems, given the significant impact of emotion regulation on child and adult mental health outcomes. The current results may help to design tailored interventions to reduce the impact of the additional sex chromosome on adaptive functioning, psychopathology, and quality of life.
Natacha Driessens, Madhu Prasai, Orsalia Alexopoulou, Christophe De Block, Eva Van Caenegem, Guy T’Sjoen, Frank Nobels, Christophe Ghys, Laurent Vroonen, Corinne Jonas, Bernard Corvilain, and Dominique Maiter
Primary adrenal insufficiency (PAI) is a rare disease with an increasing prevalence, which may be complicated by life-threatening adrenal crisis (AC). Good quality epidemiological data remain scarce. We performed a Belgian survey to describe the aetiology, clinical characteristics, treatment regimens, comorbidities and frequency of AC in PAI.
A nationwide multicentre study involving 10 major university hospitals in Belgium collected data from adult patients with known PAI.
Two hundred patients were included in this survey. The median age at diagnosis was 38 years (IQR 25–48) with a higher female prevalence (F/M sex ratio = 1.53). The median disease duration was 13 years (IQR 7–25). Autoimmune disease was the most common aetiology (62.5%) followed by bilateral adrenalectomy (23.5%) and genetic variations (8.5%). The majority (96%) of patients were treated with hydrocortisone at a mean daily dose of 24.5 ± 7.0 mg, whereas 87.5% of patients also received fludrocortisone. About one-third of patients experienced one or more AC over the follow-up period, giving an incidence of 3.2 crises per 100 patient-years. There was no association between the incidence of AC and the maintenance dose of hydrocortisone. As high as 27.5% of patients were hypertensive, 17.5% had diabetes and 17.5% had a diagnosis of osteoporosis.
This study provides the first information on the management of PAI in large clinical centres in Belgium, showing an increased frequency of postsurgical PAI, a nearly normal prevalence of several comorbidities and an overall good quality of care with a low incidence of adrenal crises, compared with data from other registries.
Andre Madsen, Anders Juul, and Lise Aksglaede
Klinefelter syndrome (KS) is the most common sex chromosome disorder and genetic cause of infertility in males. A highly variable phenotype contributes to the fact that a large proportion of cases are never diagnosed. Typical hallmarks in adults include small testes and azoospermia which may prompt biochemical evaluation that typically shows extremely high follicle-stimulating hormone and low/undetectable inhibin B serum concentrations. However, in prepubertal KS individuals, biochemical parameters are largely overlapping those of prepubertal controls. We aimed to characterize clinical profiles of prepubertal boys with KS in relation to controls and to develop a novel biochemical classification model to identify KS before puberty.
Retrospective, longitudinal data from 15 prepubertal boys with KS and data from 1475 controls were used to calculate age- and sex-adjusted standard deviation scores (SDS) for height and serum concentrations of reproductive hormones and used to infer a decision tree classification model for KS.
Individual reproductive hormones were low but within reference ranges and did not discriminate KS from controls. Clinical and biochemical profiles including age- and sex-adjusted SDS from multiple reference curves provided input data to train a ‘random forest’ machine learning (ML) model for the detection of KS. Applied to unseen data, the ML model achieved a classification accuracy of 78% (95% CI, 61–94%).
Supervised ML applied to clinically relevant variables enabled computational classification of control and KS profiles. The application of age- and sex-adjusted SDS provided robust predictions irrespective of age. Specialized ML models applied to combined reproductive hormone concentrations may be useful diagnostic tools to improve the identification of prepubertal boys with KS.
Ruth Percik, Sherwin Criseno, Safwaan Adam, Kate Young, and Daniel L Morganstein
Checkpoint inhibitors are now widely used in the management of many cancers. Endocrine toxicity is amongst the most common side effects. These endocrinopathies differ from most other immune-related toxicities in frequently being irreversible and rarely requiring cessation of checkpoint inhibitor therapy. This review considers an approach to the presentation and diagnosis of endocrinopathies, compared to classical endocrine diagnosis, suggesting improvements to classification and treatment based on fundamental endocrine principles. These will help to align management with other similar endocrine conditions and standardise the diagnosis and reporting of endocrine toxicity of checkpoint inhibitors to improve both endocrine and oncological care. In particular, the importance of considering any inflammatory phase (such as painful thyroiditis or hypophysitis resulting in the pituitary enlargement), from the endocrine consequences (transient hyperthyroidism followed by hypothyroidism, pan-hypopituitarism or isolated adrenocorticotrophic hormone deficiency), is highlighted. It is also important to consider the potential confounder of exogenous corticosteroids in adrenal suppression.
Yinqiong Huang, Zhaozhao Zhu, Zhiqin Huang, and Jingxiong Zhou
Background: Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) has become a major cause of chronic kidney disease. However, early diagnosis of DKD is challenging. Trimethylamine oxide (TMAO) is an intestinal microbial metabolite which might be associated with diabetes complications. The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between TMAO and DKD.
Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted. 108 T2DM patients and 33 healthy subjects were enrolled in this study. Multiple logistic regression analysis and area under receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) were performed to evaluate the correlation between serum TMAO and DKD.
Results: Serum TMAO levels were significantly higher in DKD patients than healthy control group and the NDKD (T2DM without combined DKD) group (P < 0.05). TMAO levels were negatively correlated with eGFR and positively correlated with urea nitrogen, ACR and DKD (P < 0.05). Logistic regression analysis indicated that serum TMAO was one of the independent risk factors for DKD patients (P < 0.05). In the diagnostic model, the AUROC of TMAO for the diagnosis of DKD was 0.691.
Conclusion: Elevated levels of serum TMAO levels were positively associated with the risk of DKD in T2DM patients, which might be a potential biomarker for DKD.