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Open access

Sahar Hossam El Hini, Yehia Zakaria Mahmoud, Ahmed Abdelfadel Saedii, Sayed Shehata Mahmoud, Mohamed Ahmed Amin, Shereen Riad Mahmoud, and Ragaa Abdelshaheed Matta

Objective

Angiopoietin-like proteins (ANGPTL) 3, 4 and 8 are upcoming cardiovascular biomarkers. Experimental studies showed that thyroid hormones altered their levels. We assessed ANGPTL3, 4 and 8 as predictors of cardiovascular functions among naïve subclinical and naïve overt hypothyroidism (SCH and OH) and altered ANGPTL levels with levothyroxine replacement (LT4) and their association with improved cardiovascular risk factors and cardiovascular function.

Design and methods

The study was a prospective follow-up study that assessed ANGPTL3, 4 and 8 levels, vascular status (flow-mediated dilation% of brachial artery (FMD%), carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT), aortic stiffness index (ASI)), left ventricle (LV) parameters (ejection fraction (EF), myocardial performance index (MPI), and LV mass), well-known cardiovascular risk factors and homeostatic model for the assessment of insulin resistance, at two time points, that is, among naïve SCH, naïve OH, and healthy subjects groups; and at 6 months after achieving the euthyroid state with LT4 by calculating their increased or decreased delta changes (∆↑ or ∆↓) in longitudinal arm among LT4-hypothyroid groups.

Results

Significantly elevated levels of ANGPTL3, 4 and 8 among hypothyroid groups than the healthy subjects were reduced with LT4. Multivariate analysis revealed ANGPTLs as independent predictors of cardiovascular functions and the contributors for ANGPTL level included ANGPTL3 and 4 for impaired FMD%, and ANGPTL8 for LV mass among naïve SCH; ANGPTL3 for EF% and ANGPTL8 for CIMT in naïve OH; ∆↓ANGPTL3 for ∆↓ASI meanwhile ∆↑freeT4 for ∆↓ANGPTL3, ∆↓fasting glucose, ∆↓triglyceride, and ∆↓thyroid peroxidase antibody for ∆↓ANGPTL4 among LT4-SCH. ∆↓ANGPTL4 for ∆↓MPI and ∆↓LV mass, meanwhile ∆↓TSH and ∆↓triglyceride for ∆↓ANGPTL3, ∆↑free T3 and ∆↓HOMA-IR for ∆↓ANGPTL4, and systolic blood pressure and waist circumference for ∆↓ANGPTL8 among LT4-OH.

Conclusion

Elevated ANGPTL3, 4 and 8 levels are differentially independent predictors of endothelial and cardiac function and are reduced with LT4 in SCH and OH.

Open access

Yanmei Lou, Yanyan Zhang, Ping Zhao, Pei Qin, Changyi Wang, Jianping Ma, Xiaolin Peng, Hongen Chen, Dan Zhao, Shan Xu, Li Wang, Ming Zhang, Dongsheng Hu, and Fulan Hu

To assess the association between fasting plasma glucose (FPG) change trajectory and incident hypertension among Chinese people, this cohort study included 11,791 adults aged 18 to 80 years without hypertension at first entry and who completed at least four follow-ups between 2009 and 2016. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between FPG change trajectory and probability of hypertension. During a median follow-up of 5.10 years (total person-years 61,887.76), hypertension developed in 2177 participants. After adjusting for baseline potential confounders, the probability of hypertension increased with the increasing FPG change trajectory (adjusted OR [aOR] 1.22, 95% CI 1.07-1.40), bell-shape trajectory (aOR 1.15, 95% CI 1.02-1.30) and other-shape trajectory (aOR 1.13, 95% CI 1.02-1.25) which showed a higher variability of FPG compared to the decreasing group. In addition, the increasing FPG change trajectory was associated with a higher probability of hypertension compared with the decreasing group regardless of age and body mass index (BMI) but was only significant in males and in those with normal FPG at baseline. Our study indicates that the increasing FPG change trajectory determines the highest risk of hypertension, demonstrating the importance of maintaining low and stable levels of FPG, especially in males and in those with normal FPG.

Open access

Mahmoud Al-Masri, Tawfiq Al-Shobaki, Hani Al-Najjar, Rafal Iskanderian, Enas Younis, Niveen Abdallah, Abdelghani Tbakhi, Hussam Haddad, Mohammad Al-Masri, Zeinab Obeid, and Awad Jarrar

Purpose

This study focuses on the oncologic influence of BRAF V600E mutations in a cohort of Middle Eastern papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) patients treated at a single centre. We tested the association of BRAF V600E mutation with papillary thyroid carcinoma at King Hussein Cancer Center.

Methods

Patients with histologically confirmed PTC who underwent surgical treatment between 2006 and 2015 were included in this study. Oncological outcomes, both short- and long-termed, were collected.

Results

A total of 128 patients (68% females) were included in this study with a mean age of 38 years (±13.8). The median follow-up period was 50 months. The BRAF V600E mutation was found in 71% of patients. The tumour size for patients with a negative BRAF V600E mutation was significantly larger in comparison to patients who tested positive for the mutation (3.47 cm vs 2.31 cm, respectively, P = 0.009). The two groups showed similar disease-free survival (DFS) rates; positive = 75% (median 43 months (0–168)) compared to 78% for the negative BRAF V600E mutation (median 38 months (3–142)) (P = 0.162, HR = 0.731) Furthermore, both groups showed similar overall survival rates, positive = 94.5% (median 56 months (0–228)) compared to 94.6% for the negative BRAF V600E mutation (median 43 months (3–157)) (P = 0.941, HR = 0.940).

Conclusion

BRAF V600E mutation had no effect on loco-regional recurrence, distant metastasis, overall survival, or DFS. These findings may be attributed to geographic variations or reflect that BRAF V600E may only serve as an indicator of poor prognosis in high-risk group as such.

Open access

Jan Kvasnička, Ondřej Petrák, Tomáš Zelinka, Judita Klímová, Barbora Kološov, Květoslav Novák, David Michalský, Jiří Widimský Jr, and Robert Holaj

Background

Pheochromocytomas (PHEO) are tumours with the ability to produce, metabolize and secrete catecholamines. Catecholamines overproduction leads to the decrease of longitudinal function of the left ventricle (LV) measured by speckle-tracking echocardiography. Patients with PHEO have a lower magnitude of global longitudinal strain (GLS) than patients with essential hypertension. GLS normalization is expected after resolution of catecholamine overproduction.

Methods

Twenty-four patients (14 females and 10 males) with a recent diagnosis of PHEO have been examined before and 1 year after adrenalectomy. An echocardiographic examination including speckle-tracking analysis with the evaluation of GLS and regional longitudinal strain (LS) in defined groups of LV segments (basal, mid-ventricular and apical) was performed.

Results

One year after adrenalectomy, the magnitude of GLS increased (−14.3 ± 1.8 to −17.7 ± 1.6%; P < 0.001). When evaluating the regional LS, the most significant increase in the differences was evident in the apical segment compared to mid-ventricular and basal segments of LV (−5.4 ± 5.0 vs −1.9 ± 2.7 vs −1.6 ± 3.8; P < 0.01).

Conclusions

In patients with PHEO, adrenalectomy leads to an improvement of subclinical LV dysfunction represented by the increasing magnitude of GLS, which is the most noticeable in apical segments of LV.

Open access

Sneha Arya, Sandeep Kumar, Anurag R Lila, Vijaya Sarathi, Saba Samad Memon, Rohit Barnabas, Hemangini Thakkar, Virendra A Patil, Nalini S Shah, and Tushar R Bandgar

Objective

The literature regarding gonadoblastoma risk in exonic Wilms’ tumor suppressor gene (WT1) pathogenic variants is sparse. The aim of this study is to describe the phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of Asian–Indian patients with WT1 pathogenic variants and systematically review the literature on association of exonic WT1 pathogenic variants and gonadoblastoma.

Design

Combined retrospective–prospective analysis.

Methods

In this study, 46,XY DSD patients with WT1 pathogenic variants detected by clinical exome sequencing from a cohort of 150 index patients and their affected relatives were included. The PubMed database was searched for the literature on gonadoblastoma with exonic WT1 pathogenic variants.

Results

The prevalence of WT1 pathogenic variants among 46,XY DSD index patients was 2.7% (4/150). All the four patients had atypical genitalia and cryptorchidism. None of them had Wilms’ tumor till the last follow-up, whereas one patient had late-onset nephropathy. 11p13 deletion was present in one patient with aniridia. The family with p.Arg458Gln pathogenic variant had varied phenotypic spectrum of Frasier syndrome; two siblings had gonadoblastoma, one of them had growing teratoma syndrome (first to report with WT1). On literature review, of >100 exonic point pathogenic variants, only eight variants (p.Arg462Trp, p.Tyr177*, p.Arg434His, p.Met410Arg, p.Gln142*, p.Glu437Lys, p.Arg458*, and p.Arg458Gln) in WT1 were associated with gonadoblastoma in a total of 15 cases (including our two cases).

Conclusions

WT1 alterations account for 3% of 46,XY DSD patients in our cohort. 46,XY DSD patients harboring exonic WT1 pathogenic variants carry a small but definitive risk of gonadoblastoma; hence, these patients require a gonadoblastoma surveillance with a more stringent surveillance in those harboring a gonadoblastoma-associated variant.

Open access

Lanping Jiang, Xiaoyan Peng, Bingbin Zhao, Lei Zhang, Lubin Xu, Xuemei Li, Min Nie, and Limeng Chen

Purposes: This study was conducted to identify the frequent mutations from reported Chinese Gitelman syndrome (GS) patients, to predict three-dimensional structure change of human Na-Cl co-transporter (hNCC), and to test the activity of these mutations and some novel mutations in vitro and in vivo.

Methods: SLC12A3 gene mutations in Chinese GS patients previously reported in the PubMed, CNKI and Wanfang database were summarized. Predicted configurations of wild type (WT) and mutant proteins were achieved using the I-TASSER workplace. Six missense mutations (T60M, L215F, D486N, N534K, Q617R and R928C) were generated by site-directed mutagenesis. 22Na+ uptake experiment was carried out in the Xenopus laevis oocyte expression system. 35 GS patients and 20 healthy volunteers underwent the thiazide test.

Results: T60M, T163M,D486N, R913Q, R928C and R959 frameshift were frequent SLC12A3 gene mutations (mutated frequency >3%) in 310 Chinese GS families. The protein’s three-dimensional structure was predicted to be altered in all mutations. Compared with WT hNCC, the thiazide-sensitive 22Na+ uptake was significantly diminished for all 6 mutations: T60M 22±9.2%, R928C 29±12%, L215F 38±14%, N534K 41±15.5%, Q617R 63±22.1% and D486N 77±20.4%. In thiazide test, the net increase in chloride fractional excretion in 20 healthy controls was significantly higher than GS patients with or without T60M or D486N mutations.

Conclusions: Frequent mutations (T60M, D486N, R928C) and novel mutations (L215F, N534K and Q617R) lead to protein structure alternation and protein dysfunction verified by 22Na+ uptake experiment in vitro and thiazide test on patients.

Open access

Kevin D. Cashman

Background: Internationally, concern has been repeatedly raised about the little notable progress in the collection, analysis and use of population micronutrient status and deficiency data globally. The need for representative status and intake data for vitamin D has been highlighted as a research priority for well over a decade.

Aim and methods: A narrative review which aims to provide a summary and assessment of vitamin D nutritional status data globally. It divides the World into the Food and Agriculture Organisation’s (FAO) major regions: the Americas, Europe, Oceania, Africa, and Asia. Emphasis was placed on published data on prevalence of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] <25/30 and <50 nmol/L (reflecting vitamin D deficiency and inadequacy, respectively) as well as vitamin D intake, where possible from nationally representative surveys.

Results: Collating data from the limited number of available representative surveys from individual countries might suggest a relatively low overall prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in South America, Oceania and North America, whereas there is more moderate prevalence in Europe and Asia, and possibly Africa. Overall, prevalence of serum 25(OH)D <25/30 and <50 nmol/L ranges from ~5% to 18% and 24% to 49%, respectively, depending on FAO World region. Usual intakes of vitamin D can also vary by FAO World region, but in general, with a few exceptions, there are very high levels of inadequacy of vitamin D intake.

Conclusions: While the burden of vitamin D deficiency and inadequacy varies by World regions and not just by UVB availability, the global burden overall translates into enormous numbers of individuals at risk.

Open access

Yuerong Yan, Lili You, Xiaoyi Wang, Zhuo Zhang, Feng Li, Hongshi Wu, Muchao Wu, Jin Zhang, Jiayun Wu, Caixia Chen, Xiaohui Li, Biwen Xia, Mingtong Xu, and Li Yan

Objectives

A variety of factors differed between rural and urban areas may further influence iodine status and thyroid structure. Hence, this study compared iodine nutrition, the prevalence of thyroid goiter, and nodules between rural and urban residents in Guangzhou, a southern coastal city of China.

Methods

A total of 1211 rural residents and 1305 urban residents were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. A questionnaire regarding personal characteristics was administered. Urinary iodine concentration (UIC) was examined. Ultrasonography of the thyroid was performed to evaluate thyroid goiter and nodules. Multiple logistic analysis was used to identify the potential associated factors.

Results

The median UIC was significantly lower in rural residents than in urban residents (120.80 μg/L vs 136.00 μg/L, P < 0.001). Although the coverage rate of iodized salt was much higher in rural residents than in urban residents (99.59% vs 97.29%, P < 0.001), the percentages of seafood intake (8.60% vs 29.29%, P < 0.001), iodine-containing drug consumption (0.33% vs 1.24%, P = 0.011), and iodine contrast medium injection (0.58% vs 1.87%, P = 0.004) were lower in rural residents than in urban residents. Both the prevalence of thyroid goiters and nodules was significantly higher in rural residents than in urban residents (goiter: 8.06% vs 1.20%, P < 0.001; nodules: 61.89% vs 55.04%, P = 0.023). Living in rural areas was associated with thyroid goiter (OR 5.114, 95% CI 2.893–9.040, P < 0.001).

Conclusions

There were differences in iodine nutrition and the prevalence of thyroid goiter and nodules in rural and urban residents in Guangzhou. Differentiated and specialized monitoring is recommended in our area.

Open access

Josephina G. Kuiper, Aline C. Fenneman, Anne H. van der Spek, Elena Rampanelli, Max Nieuwdorp, Myrthe P.P. van Herk-Sukel, Valery E.p.p. Lemmens, Ernst J. Kuipers, Ron M.C. Herings, and Eric Fliers

Objective: Whether an association between oral levothyroxine use, leading to supraphysiological exposure of the colon to thyroid hormones, and risk of colorectal cancer exists in humans is unclear. We therefore aimed to assess whether the use of levothyroxine is associated with a reduced risk of colorectal cancer in a linked cohort of pharmacy and cancer data.

Design: Population-based matched case-control study.

Methods: A total of 28,121 patients diagnosed with colorectal cancer between 1998-2014 were matched to 106,086 controls. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate the association between levothyroxine use and occurrence of colorectal cancer, adjusted for potential confounders. Results were stratified by gender, age, tumour subtype and staging as well as treatment duration and dosing.

Results: A total of 1066 colorectal cancer patients (4%) and 4024 (4%) controls had used levothyroxine at any point before index date (adjusted odds ratio 0.95 [0.88-1.01]). Long-term use of levothyroxine was seen in 323 (30%) colorectal cancer patients and 1111 (28%) controls (adjusted odds ratio 1.00 [0.88-1.13]). Stratification by tumour subsite showed a borderline significant risk reduction of rectal cancer, while this was not seen for proximal colon cancer or distal colon cancer. There was no relationship with treatment duration or with levothyroxine dose.

Conclusions: In this study, no reduced risk of colorectal cancer was seen in levothyroxine users. When stratifying by tumour subsite, a borderline significant risk reduction of rectal cancer was found and may warrant further research.

Open access

Magdalena Fortova, Lenka Hanouskova, Martin Valkus, Jana Cepova, Richard Prusa, and Karel Kotaska

Background: Fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF23) is a key regulator of urine phosphate excretion. The aim of the study was to investigate the perioperative (intraoperative and postoperative) changes of plasma intact and C-terminal FGF23 (iFGF23, cFGF23) concentrations in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT) submitted to surgery.

Materials and methods: Study involved 38 adult patients with pHPT caused by adenoma. PTH levels were investigated intraoperatively (just before the incision and 10 minutes after adenoma excision). cFGF23, iFGF23, phosphate, eGFR and P1NP were measured intraoperatively and postoperatively (next day after the surgery).

Results: PTH levels decreased intraoperatively (13.10 vs. 4.17 pmol/L, P<0.0001). FGF23 levels measured intraoperatively were at the upper level of reference interval. cFGF23 decreased postoperatively compared with values measured just before the incision (cFGF23: 89.17 vs. 22.23 RU/mL, P<0.0001). iFGF23 decreased as well, but postoperative values were low. Postoperative inorganic phosphate values increased (1.03 mmol/L vs. 0.8 mmol/L, P=0.0025). We proved significant negative correlation of perioperative FGF23 with inorganic phosphate (cFGF23: Spearman r=-0.253,P=0.0065; iFGF23: Spearman r =-0.245, P=0.0085). We also found FGF23 values just before incision correlated with eGFR (cystatin C) (cFGF23: Spearman r=-0.499, P=0.0014; iFGF23: Spearman r=-0.413, P=0.01).

Conclusion: Intraoperative iFGF23 and cFGF23 did not change despite PTH decreased significantly. cFGF23 and iFGF23 significantly decreased one day after parathyroidectomy and are associated with increase of inorganic phosphate in pHPT patients. cFGF23 and iFGF23 just before incision correlated with eGFR (cystatin C). The similar results found in both iFGF23 and cFGF23 suggest each could substitute the other.