Browse

You are looking at 71 - 80 of 715 items for

Open access

Dorte Glintborg, Katrine Hass Rubin, Mads Nybo, Bo Abrahamsen and Marianne Andersen

Aim

To investigate risk of thyroid disease in Danish women with PCOS.

Design

National register-based study on women with PCOS in Denmark. 18,476 women had a diagnosis of PCOS in the Danish National Patient Register. PCOS Odense University Hospital (PCOS OUH, n = 1146) was an embedded cohort of women with PCOS and clinical and biochemical examination. Three age-matched controls were included for each woman with PCOS (n = 54,757). The main outcome measures were thyroid disease (hypothyroidism, Graves’ disease, goiter, thyroiditis) according to hospital diagnosis codes and/or inferred from filled medicine prescriptions. Associations between baseline TSH and development of cardio-metabolic disease was examined in PCOS OUH.

Results

The median (quartiles) age at inclusion was 29 (23–35) years and follow-up duration was 11.1 (6.9–16.0) years. The hazard ratio (95% CI) for thyroid disease development was 2.5 (2.3–2.7) (P < 0.001). The event rate of thyroid disease was 6.0 per 1000 patient-years in PCOS Denmark versus 2.4 per 1000 patient-years in controls (P < 0.001). Women in PCOS OUH with TSH ≥2.5 mIU/L (n = 133) had higher BMI (median 29 vs 27 kg/m2), wider waist, higher triglycerides and free testosterone by the time of PCOS diagnosis compared to women in PCOS OUH with TSH <2.5 mIU/L (n = 588). Baseline TSH did not predict later development of cardio-metabolic diseases in PCOS OUH.

Conclusions

The event rate of thyroid disease was significantly and substantially higher in women with PCOS compared to controls.

Open access

Kaisu Luiro, Kristiina Aittomäki, Pekka Jousilahti and Juha S Tapanainen

Objective

To study the use of hormone therapy (HT), morbidity and reproductive outcomes of women with primary ovarian insufficiency (POI) due to FSH-resistant ovaries (FSHRO).

Design

A prospective follow-up study in a university-based tertiary clinic setting.

Methods

Twenty-six women with an inactivating A189V FSH receptor mutation were investigated by means of a health questionnaire and clinical examination. Twenty-two returned the health questionnaire and 14 were clinically examined. Main outcome measures in the health questionnaire were reported as HT, morbidity, medication and infertility treatment outcomes. In the clinical study, risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and metabolic syndrome (MetS) were compared to age-matched controls from a national population survey (FINRISK). Average number of controls was 326 per FSHRO subject (range 178–430). Bone mineral density and whole-body composition were analyzed with DXA. Psychological and sexual well-being was assessed with Beck Depression Inventory (BDI21), Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7 (GAD-7) and Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) questionnaires.

Results

HT was initiated late (median 18 years of age) compared with normal puberty and the median time of use was shorter (20–22 years) than the normal fertile period. Osteopenia was detected in 9/14 of the FSHRO women despite HT. No major risk factors for CVD or diabetes were found.

Conclusions

HT of 20 years seems to be associated with a similar cardiovascular and metabolic risk factor profile as in the population control group. However, optimal bone health may require an early-onset and longer period of HT, which would better correspond to the natural fertile period.

Open access

Cristina Lamas, Elena Navarro, Anna Casterás, Paloma Portillo, Victoria Alcázar, María Calatayud, Cristina Álvarez-Escolá, Julia Sastre, Evangelina Boix, Lluis Forga, Almudena Vicente, Josep Oriola, Jordi Mesa and Nuria Valdés

Primary hyperparathyroidism is the most frequent manifestation of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) syndrome. Bone and renal complications are common. Surgery is the treatment of choice, but the best timing for surgery is controversial and predictors of persistence and recurrence are not well known. Our study describes the clinical characteristics and the surgical outcomes, after surgery and in the long term, of the patients with MEN1 and primary hyperparathyroidism included in the Spanish Registry of Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia, Pheochromocytomas and Paragangliomas (REGMEN). Eighty-nine patients (49 men and 40 women, 34.2 ± 13 years old) were included. Sixty-four out of the 89 underwent surgery: a total parathyroidectomy was done in 13 patients, a subtotal parathyroidectomy in 34 and a less than subtotal parathyroidectomy in 15. Remission rates were higher after a total or a subtotal parathyroidectomy than after a less than subtotal (3/4 and 20/22 vs 7/12, P < 0.05), without significant differences in permanent hypoparathyroidism (1/5, 9/23 and 0/11, N.S.). After a median follow-up of 111 months, 20 of the 41 operated patients with long-term follow-up had persistent or recurrent hyperparathyroidism. We did not find differences in disease-free survival rates between different techniques, patients with or without permanent hypoparathyroidism and patients with different mutated exons, but a second surgery was more frequent after a less than subtotal parathyroidectomy.

Open access

Sarah Byberg, Jesper Futtrup, Mikkel Andreassen and Jesper Krogh

Objectives

Recent large cohort studies suggest an association between high plasma prolactin and cardiovascular mortality. The objective of this systematic review was to systematically assess the effect of reducing prolactin with dopamine agonist on established cardiovascular risk factors in patients with prolactinomas.

Design

Bibliographical search was done until February 2019 searching the following databases: PubMed, EMBASE, WHO and LILAC. Eligible studies had to include participants with verified prolactinomas where metabolic variables were assessed before and after at least 2 weeks treatment with dopamine agonists.

Methods

Baseline data and outcomes were independently collected by two investigators. The study was registered with PROSPERO (registration number CRD42016046525).

Results

Fourteen observational studies enrolling 387 participants were included. The pooled standardized mean difference of the primary outcome revealed a reduction of BMI and weight of −0.21 (95% CI −0.37 to −0.05; P = 0.01; I 2 = 71%), after treatment. Subgroup analysis suggested that the reduction of weight was primarily driven by studies with high prolactin levels at baseline (P = 0.04). Secondary outcomes suggested a small decrease in waist circumference, a small-to-moderate decrease in triglycerides, fasting glucose levels, HOMA-IR, HbA1c and hsCRP, and a moderate decrease in LDL, total cholesterol and insulin.

Conclusion

This systematic review suggests a reduction of weight as well as an improved lipid profile and glucose tolerance after treatment with dopamine agonist in patients with prolactinomas. These data are based on low-quality evidence.

Open access

Hélène Lasolle, Amandine Ferriere, Alexandre Vasiljevic, Sandrine Eimer, Marie-Laure Nunes and Antoine Tabarin

Purpose

Little data are available regarding the safety and efficacy of switching to Pasireotide-LAR monotherapy in acromegaly patients with partial resistance to first-generation somatostatin agonists (1gSRL) who require combination treatment with cabergoline or pegvisomant.

Method

In this monocentric prospective study within a tertiary university hospital, 15 consecutive acromegalic adults partially resistant to 1gSRL treated with octreotide LAR or lanreotide SR, and cabergoline (n = 4, 3.5 mg/week) or pegvisomant (n = 11, median dose 100 mg/week), were switched to Pasireotide-LAR (8 with 40 mg/month; 7 with 60 mg/month). Immunohistochemical expression level of SSTR5 and the granulation pattern of nine somatotroph adenomas were retrospectively determined to test for a correlation with the therapeutic efficacy of Pasireotide-LAR.

Results

Median IGF-1 concentration at the first evaluation (median 3 months) was similar to baseline (1.0 vs 1.1 ULN). 11/15 patients had IGF-1 levels ≤1.3 ULN before and after the switch but individual changes were variable. Hyperglycemia was frequent and greater in diabetic patients. 7/15 patients stopped Pasireotide-LAR due to lack of control of IGF-1 or intolerance. 8/15 patients received Pasireotide-LAR for a median of 29 months with IGF-1 levels ≤1.3 ULN and acceptable glucose tolerance (median HbA1c 6.1%). Two patients required initiation of oral antidiabetic treatment. The intensity of SSTR5 expression and the granulation pattern of adenomas were of limited value for the prediction of Pasireotide-LAR effectiveness.

Conclusion

Pasireotide-LAR may represent a suitable therapeutic alternative in a subset of acromegalic patients requiring combination therapy involving a 1gSRL

Open access

Cornelia Then, Holger Then, Andreas Lechner, Cornelia Huth, Christa Meisinger, Margit Heier, Annette Peters, Wolfgang Koenig, Wolfgang Rathmann, Christian Herder, Michael Roden, Jürgen Scherberich and Jochen Seissler

Objective

Metabolic syndrome and obesity are risk factors for chronic kidney disease. However, early kidney alterations may escape diagnosis in these conditions due to glomerular hyperfiltration. Uromodulin, a glycoprotein exclusively synthesized in tubular cells of the thick ascending limb of Henle's loop, is a novel tissue-specific biomarker for kidney function. In contrast to the commonly used markers creatinine and cystatin C, serum uromodulin does not primarily depend on glomerular filtration. We hypothesized that serum uromodulin is a marker for metabolic syndrome and related components.

Design

The analyses included 1088 participants of the population-based KORA F4 study aged 62–81 years. Metabolic syndrome was present in 554 participants. After a mean follow-up time of 6.5 years, 621 participants were reevaluated, of which 92 had developed incident metabolic syndrome.

Methods

The association of serum uromodulin with metabolic syndrome and its components were assessed using multivariable logistic regression models.

Results

Serum uromodulin was inversely associated with metabolic syndrome after adjustment for sex, age, estimated glomerular filtration rate, physical activity, smoking, alcohol consumption and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (OR 0.65; 95% CI 0.56–0.76 per standard deviation uromodulin; P < 0.001). Serum uromodulin was inversely associated with all single components of metabolic syndrome. However, serum uromodulin was not associated with new-onset metabolic syndrome after the follow-up period of 6.5 ± 0.3 years (OR 1.18; 95% CI 0.86–1.60).

Conclusions

Serum uromodulin is independently associated with prevalent, but not with incident metabolic syndrome. Low serum uromodulin may indicate a decreased renal reserve in the metabolic syndrome.

Open access

Xiaomin Nie, Yiting Xu, Xiaojing Ma, Yun Shen, Yufei Wang and Yuqian Bao

Background

A high level of free triiodothyronine (FT3) within the reference range may be a potential metabolic risk marker. However, the relationship between different fat depots and FT3 has remained unclear.

Objective

We aimed to explore the relationships between segmental fat distribution and FT3 in euthyroid middle-aged and elderly men and postmenopausal women.

Methods

A total of 891 subjects (394 men and 497 women) were enrolled. A bioelectrical impedance analyzer was used to measure total, trunk, arm and leg fat mass (FM) and fat percentage (fat%). The leg fat mass to trunk fat mass ratio (LTR) was calculated to evaluate the relative distribution of leg fat compared with that of trunk fat. Thyroid hormones were measured by electrochemical luminescence immunoassay.

Results

FT3 in men did not change significantly with increases in LTR quartiles, while FT3 in women decreased significantly (P for trend = 0.004). In multivariate linear regression analysis, multiple metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors were adjusted. The LTR was negatively related to FT3 in women (P < 0.05). After further mutual adjustment for trunk fat and leg fat parameters, trunk FM and fat% were positively related to FT3, while leg FM and fat% were negatively related to FT3 in women (all P < 0.05).

Conclusions

In euthyroid postmenopausal women, trunk fat was positively correlated with FT3, whereas leg fat was negatively correlated with FT3. Our findings supported that a high level of FT3 within the reference range was related to adverse fat distribution.

Open access

Ravikumar Shah, Anurag R Lila, Ramteke-Swati Jadhav, Virendra Patil, Abhishek Mahajan, Sushil Sonawane, Puja Thadani, Anil Dcruz, Prathamesh Pai, Munita Bal, Subhada Kane, Nalini Shah and Tushar Bandgar

Tumor-induced osteomalacia in the head and neck region remains a challenging diagnosis to manage. Literature pertaining to management and outcome details remains sparse. We describe two cohorts: cohort 1 included seven patients from a single center in Western India with tumors located in paranasal sinuses (n = 3), intracranial (n = 2) and maxilla (n = 2). The unique features from our series is the management of persistent disease with radiation therapy (n = 2) and peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) (n = 1). Cohort two has 163 patients identified from 109 publications for systematic review. Paranasal sinuses, mandible, intracranial disease, maxilla and oral cavity, in descending order, are reportedly common tumor sites. Within this cohort, mean age was 46 ± 14 years at presentation with 44.1% having local symptoms. Duration of symptoms varied from 1 to 240 months. Pre-surgery mean serum phosphorus was 1.4 ± 0.4 mg/dL and median FGF-23 levels were 3.6 (IQR:1.8–6.8) times of normal upper limit of normal. Majority (97.5%) were managed primarily with surgical excision; however, primary radiotherapy (n = 2) and surgery combined with radiotherapy (n = 2) were also reported. Twenty patients had persistent disease while nine patients had recurrence, more commonly noted with intracranial and oral cavity tumors. Surgery was the most common second mode of treatment employed succeeded by radiotherapy. Four patients had metastatic disease. The most common histopathological diagnosis reported is PMT mixed connective tissue, while the newer terminology ‘PMT mixed epithelial and connective tissue type’ has been described in 15 patients.

Open access

Mauricio Alvarez, Oswaldo Rincón Sierra, Ginna Saavedra and Sergio Moreno

Objective

Vitamin B12 deficiency resulting from metformin use has been demonstrated in multiple studies. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency in patients with chronic metformin use and the relationship between vitamin B12 deficiency and diabetic neuropathy.

Methods

A cross-sectional study was conducted with 162 patients. Vitamin B12 levels were measured by chemiluminescence immunoassay. Diabetic neuropathy was evaluated by patient record, nerve conduction and Michigan test for the diagnosis of diabetic neuropathy. Additional data, including demographic characteristics were collected. A linear regression model was used to evaluate variables that correlated with vitamin B12 levels and diabetic neuropathy.

Results

Low vitamin B12 levels were found in 7.3% (95% CI: 4.0–12%) of patients. In those with diabetic neuropathy, altered (low and borderline) vitamin B12 level was 64% (95% CI: 47–78%) compared to 17% (95% CI: 10–26%) in patients without diabetic neuropathy (coefficient: −110.8; CI 95%: −165.8, −59.7). Those taking a higher metformin dose had lower levels of vitamin B12 (coefficient: −0.061; CI 95%: −0.09, −0.024). In addition, female patients had higher levels of vitamin B12 compared to men (coefficient: 49.1; CI 95%: 2.3–95).

Conclusions

Vitamin B12 deficiency is highly prevalent, especially in patients with diabetic neuropathy. In this study an inverse correlation was found between diabetic neuropathy and the plasma level of vitamin B12. Higher doses of metformin and male sex were factors related to lower levels of vitamin B12.

Open access

María Dolores Rodríguez Arnao, Amparo Rodríguez Sánchez, Ignacio Díez López, Joaquín Ramírez Fernández, Jose Antonio Bermúdez de la Vega, Diego Yeste Fernández, María Chueca Guindulain, Raquel Corripio Collado, Jacobo Pérez Sánchez, Ana Fernández González and ECOS Spain Study Collaborative Investigator Group

Background

Non-adherence to r-hGH treatments occurs in a variable percentage of subjects. One problem found when evaluating adherence is the great variability in methods of detection and definitions utilized in studies. This study assessed the level of adherence in subjects receiving r-hGH with the easypod™ electronic device.

Methods

National, multicenter, prospective and observational study involving 238 subjects (144 with GH deficiency (GHD), and 86 with small for gestational age (SGA), 8 with Turner Syndrome), who received r-hGH with easypod™ for at least 3 months before inclusion. The follow-up period was 4 years.

Results

Overall adherence was 94.5%; 97.5% after 6 months, 95.3% after 1 year, 93.7% after 2, 94.4% after 3 and 95.5% after 4 years of treatment. No differences in adherence were observed between prepubertal and pubertal groups and GHD and SGA groups. Change in height after 1 and 2 years, change in height SDS after 1 and 2 years, HV after 1 year, HV SDS after at 1 and 4 years, change in BMI after 1 year and change in BMI SDS at 1 and 2 years showed significant correlation with adherence. No significant differences in adherence according to IGF-I levels were found in follow-up visits or between groups.

Conclusions

The easypod™ electronic device, apart from being a precise and objective measure of adherence to r-hGH treatment, allows high compliance rates to be achieved over long periods of time. Adherence significantly impacts growth outcomes associated with r-hGH treatment.