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Open access

Mahmoud Al-Masri, Tawfiq Al-Shobaki, Hani Al-Najjar, Rafal Iskanderian, Enas Younis, Niveen Abdallah, Abdelghani Tbakhi, Hussam Haddad, Mohammad Al-Masri, Zeinab Obeid, and Awad Jarrar

Purpose

This study focuses on the oncologic influence of BRAF V600E mutations in a cohort of Middle Eastern papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) patients treated at a single centre. We tested the association of BRAF V600E mutation with papillary thyroid carcinoma at King Hussein Cancer Center.

Methods

Patients with histologically confirmed PTC who underwent surgical treatment between 2006 and 2015 were included in this study. Oncological outcomes, both short- and long-termed, were collected.

Results

A total of 128 patients (68% females) were included in this study with a mean age of 38 years (±13.8). The median follow-up period was 50 months. The BRAF V600E mutation was found in 71% of patients. The tumour size for patients with a negative BRAF V600E mutation was significantly larger in comparison to patients who tested positive for the mutation (3.47 cm vs 2.31 cm, respectively, P = 0.009). The two groups showed similar disease-free survival (DFS) rates; positive = 75% (median 43 months (0–168)) compared to 78% for the negative BRAF V600E mutation (median 38 months (3–142)) (P = 0.162, HR = 0.731) Furthermore, both groups showed similar overall survival rates, positive = 94.5% (median 56 months (0–228)) compared to 94.6% for the negative BRAF V600E mutation (median 43 months (3–157)) (P = 0.941, HR = 0.940).

Conclusion

BRAF V600E mutation had no effect on loco-regional recurrence, distant metastasis, overall survival, or DFS. These findings may be attributed to geographic variations or reflect that BRAF V600E may only serve as an indicator of poor prognosis in high-risk group as such.

Open access

Sneha Arya, Sandeep Kumar, Anurag R Lila, Vijaya Sarathi, Saba Samad Memon, Rohit Barnabas, Hemangini Thakkar, Virendra A Patil, Nalini S Shah, and Tushar R Bandgar

Objective

The literature regarding gonadoblastoma risk in exonic Wilms’ tumor suppressor gene (WT1) pathogenic variants is sparse. The aim of this study is to describe the phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of Asian–Indian patients with WT1 pathogenic variants and systematically review the literature on association of exonic WT1 pathogenic variants and gonadoblastoma.

Design

Combined retrospective–prospective analysis.

Methods

In this study, 46,XY DSD patients with WT1 pathogenic variants detected by clinical exome sequencing from a cohort of 150 index patients and their affected relatives were included. The PubMed database was searched for the literature on gonadoblastoma with exonic WT1 pathogenic variants.

Results

The prevalence of WT1 pathogenic variants among 46,XY DSD index patients was 2.7% (4/150). All the four patients had atypical genitalia and cryptorchidism. None of them had Wilms’ tumor till the last follow-up, whereas one patient had late-onset nephropathy. 11p13 deletion was present in one patient with aniridia. The family with p.Arg458Gln pathogenic variant had varied phenotypic spectrum of Frasier syndrome; two siblings had gonadoblastoma, one of them had growing teratoma syndrome (first to report with WT1). On literature review, of >100 exonic point pathogenic variants, only eight variants (p.Arg462Trp, p.Tyr177*, p.Arg434His, p.Met410Arg, p.Gln142*, p.Glu437Lys, p.Arg458*, and p.Arg458Gln) in WT1 were associated with gonadoblastoma in a total of 15 cases (including our two cases).

Conclusions

WT1 alterations account for 3% of 46,XY DSD patients in our cohort. 46,XY DSD patients harboring exonic WT1 pathogenic variants carry a small but definitive risk of gonadoblastoma; hence, these patients require a gonadoblastoma surveillance with a more stringent surveillance in those harboring a gonadoblastoma-associated variant.

Open access

Rui Zhang, Xinmei Huang, Yue Li, Zhiyan Yu, Yueyue Wu, Bingbing Zha, Heyuan Ding, Shufei Zang, and Jun Liu

Objective

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of TFR2 on iron storage in type 2 diabetes.

Methods

A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1938 participants from the Jiangchuan Community of Shanghai. A total of 784 participants with T2DM and 1154 normal participants (non-T2DM) were enrolled in this study. Serum ferritin, fasting blood glucose, postprandial blood glucose, and HbA1C (glycated hemoglobin A1c) levels were determined. Eighteen Wistar male rats were randomly assigned into three groups (n = 6/group): rats in a high-fat diet streptozotocin (HFD+STZ) group were fed with HFD for 4 weeks and intraperitoneally injected with streptozotocin (STZ); rats in a control group were fed with a standard diet for 4 weeks and intraperitoneally injected with buffer; rats in an STZ group were fed with a standard diet for 4 weeks and intraperitoneally injected with streptozotocin. Glucose tolerance test was performed at the end of the study. Blood samples and liver tissues were assessed for liver TFR2, blood glucose, serum ferritin, and iron levels.

Results

The mean serum ferritin level of T2DM participants was significantly higher than that of the control group (227 (140–352) vs 203.5 (130.5–312) ng/mL, P < 0.05). Serum ferritin level was an independent risk factor for T2DM (high ferritin group vs low ferritin group, 1.304 (1.03–1.651), P < 0.05). Diabetic rats showed reduced liver TFR2 levels, with increased serum ferritin levels.

Conclusion

T2DM participants exhibited iron disorder with elevated serum ferritin levels. Elevated serum ferritin levels in diabetic rats were accompanied by reduced liver TFR2 levels.

Open access

Xiying Zeng, Yinxiang Huang, Mulin Zhang, Chen Yun, Ye Jiawen, Yan Han, Ma Danyan, Xin Zheng, Xiaohong Yan, and Changqin Liu

Objective: Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) is recognized as the most important biomarker for ovarian reserve. In this cross-sectional study, we aimed to explore the potential association of AMH with central obesity or general obesity in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).

Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 179 patients with PCOS were enrolled and underwent anthropometric measurements (BMI and waist circumference (WC)) and serum AMH level detection. Pearson's correlation and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to determine associations of AMH with central obesity and general obesity.

Results: Subjects with the increasing of body mass index (BMI) showed significantly lower values of AMH (median (IQR) 8.95 (6.03-13.60) ng/mL in normal weight group, 6.57 (4.18-8.77) ng/mL in overweight group, and 6.03 (4.34-9.44) ng/mL in obesity group, respectively, p=0.001), but higher levels of systolic blood pressure, fasting insulin, total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and obesity indices (WC, hip circumferences, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) and Chinese visceral adiposity index (CVAI)) respectively. Compared with the group of PCOS women without central obesity, the group with central obesity had significantly lower value of AMH (median (IQR) 8.56(5.29-12.96) vs. 6.22(4.33-8.82) ng/mL; p=0.003). Pearson’s correlation analysis showed that AMH were significantly and negatively correlated with BMI (r=-0.280; p<0.001), WC (r=-0.263; p<0.001), WHtR (r=-0.273; p<0.001), and CVAI (r=-0.211; p=0.006) respectively. Multivariate logistic regression analysis with adjustment for potential confounding factors showed that AMH was independently and negatively associated with central obesity, but was not significantly associated with general obesity.

Conclusions: AMH was independently and negatively associated with central obesity. Closely monitoring WC and AMH should be addressed in terms of assessing ovarian reserve in women with PCOS.

Open access

Sahar Hossam El Hini, Yehia Zakaria Mahmoud, Ahmed Abdelfadel Saedii, Sayed Shehata Mahmoud, Mohamed Ahmed Amin, Shereen Riad Mahmoud, and Ragaa Abdelshaheed Matta

Objective: Angiopoietin-like protein (ANGPTL) 3,4,8 are upcoming cardiovascular biomarkers. Experimental studies showed thyroid hormones altered their levels. We assessed: ANGPTL3,4,8 as predictor of cardiovascular functions among naïve-subclinical and naïve-overt hypothyroidism [SCH and OH]; and altered ANGPTL levels with levothyroxine replacement (LT4) and their association with improved cardiovascular risk factors and cardiovascular function.

Design and Methods: Prospective follow-up study assessed ANGPTL3,4,8 levels, vascular status (flow mediated dilation% of brachial artery (FMD%), carotid intima media thickness (CIMT), aortic stiffness index (ASI)), left ventricle (LV) parameters (ejection fraction (EF), myocardial performance index (MPI), LV mass), well-known cardiovascular risk factors and HOMA-IR, at two time points: among naïve -SCH, naïve-OH and healthy subjects groups; and at six months after achieved euthyroid state with LT4 with calculating their increased or decreased delta changes (∆↑ or ∆↓) in longitudinal arm among LT4- hypothyroid groups.

Results: Significantly elevated ANGPTL3,4 and 8 among hypothyroid groups than healthy subjects were reduced with LT4. Multivariate analysis revealed ANGPTLs as independent predictors of cardiovascular functions and the contributors for ANGPTL levels: ANGPTL3,4 for impaired FMD% and ANGPTL8 for LVmass among naïve-SCH; ANGPTL3 for EF% and ANGPTL8 for CIMT in naïve-OH; ∆↓ ANGPTL3 for ∆↓ ASI meanwhile ∆↑ freeT4 for ∆↓ ANGPTL3, ∆↓ fasting glucose, ∆↓ triglyceride and ∆↓ thyroid peroxidase antibody for ∆↓ ANGPTL4 among LT4-SCH. ∆↓ ANGPTL4 for ∆↓ MPI and ∆↓ LVmass meanwhile ∆↓ TSH and ∆↓ triglyceride for ∆↓ ntributors for ANGPTL level: ANGPTL3,4 for impaired FMD% and ANGPTL8 for LVmass among naïve-SCH; ANGPTL3 for EF% and g LT4-OH.

Conclusion: Elevated ANGPTL3,4,8 levels are differentially independent predictors of endothelial and cardiac function and reduced with LT4 in SCH and OH.

Open access

Xue-Lian Zhang, Xinyi Zhao, Yong Wu, Wen-qing Huang, Jun-jiang Chen, Peijie Hu, Wei Liu, Yi-Wen Chen, Jin Hao, Rong-Rong Xie, Hsiao Chang Chan, Ye Chun Ruan, Hui Chen, and Jinghui Guo

Objective: The beneficial effect of angiotensin(1–7), via the activation of its receptor, MAS-1, has been noted in diabetes treatment; however, how angiotensin(1–7) or MAS-1 affects insulin secretion remains elusive and whether endogenous level of angiotensin(1–7) or MAS-1 is altered in diabetic individuals remains unexplored. We recently identified an important role of CFTR, a cAMP-activated Cl- channel, in regulation of insulin secretion. Here, we tested possible involvement of CFTR in mediating angiotensin(1–7)’s effect on insulin secretion and measured the level of angiotensin(1–7), MAS-1 as well as CFTR in the blood of individuals with or without type 2 diabetes.

Methods: Angiotensin(1–7)/MAS-1/CFTR pathway was determined by specific inhibitors, gene manipulation, western blotting as well as insulin ELISA in a pancreatic β cell line, RINm5F. Human blood samples were collected from 333 individuals with (n=197) and without (n=136) type 2 diabetes. Angiotensin(1–7), MAS-1 and CFTR level in the human blood were determined by ELISA.

Results: In RINm5F cells, angiotensin(1–7) induced intracellular cAMP increase, CREB activation, enhanced CFTR expression and potentiated glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, which were abolished by a selective CFTR inhibitor, RNAi-knockdown of CFTR, or inhibition of MAS-1. In human subjects, the blood levels of MAS-1 and CFTR, but not angiotensin(1–7), were significantly higher in individuals with type 2 diabetes as compared to those in non-diabetic healthy subjects. In addition, blood levels of MAS-1 and CFTR were in significant positive correlation in type-2-diabetic but not non-diabetic subjects.

Conclusion: These results suggested MAS-1 and CFTR as key players in mediating angiotensin(1–7)-promoted insulin secretion in pancreatic β cells; MAS-1 and CFTR are positively correlated and both upregulated in type 2 diabetes.

Open access

Xun Gong, Lili You, Feng Li, Qingyu Chen, Chaogang Chen, Xiaoyun Zhang, Xiuwei Zhang, Wenting Xuan, Kan Sun, Guojuan Lao, Chuan Wang, Yan Li, Mingtong Xu, Meng Ren, and Li Yan

Objective

Adiponectin is an adipocyte-derived hormone with an important role in glucose metabolism. The present study explored the effect of adiponectin in diverse population groups on pre-diabetes and newly diagnosed diabetes.

Methods

A total of 3300 individuals were enrolled and their data were collected in the analyses dataset from December 2018 to October 2019. Cluster analysis was conducted based on age, BMI, waistline, body fat, systolic blood pressure, triglycerides, and glycosylated hemoglobin 1c. Cluster analysis divided the participants into four groups: a young-healthy group, an elderly-hypertension group, a high glucose–lipid group, and an obese group. Odds ratio (OR) and 95% CIs were calculated using multivariate logistic regression analysis.

Results

Compared with the first quartile of adiponectin, the risk of pre-diabetes of fourth quartile was decreased 61% (aOR = 0.39, 95% CI (0.20–0.73)) in the young-healthy group; and the risk of diabetes of fourth quartile was decreased 85% (aOR = 0.15, 95% CI (0.02–0.67)) in the obese group. There were no significant correlations between the adiponectin level and diabetes/pre-diabetes in the other two groups. Additionally, receiver operating characteristic curve analysis indicated that adiponectin could significantly improve the diagnosis based on models in the young-healthy group (from 0.640 to 0.675) and the obese group (from 0.714 to 0.761).

Conclusions

Increased adiponectin levels were associated with decreased risk of pre-diabetes in the young-healthy population, and with a decreased the risk of diabetes in the obese population. An increased adiponectin level is an independent protective factor for pre-diabetes and diabetes in a specific population in south China.

Open access

Xi Zhang, Xiurong Shen, Wan Zhou, Mengyun Xu, Yan Xing, Jianping Weng, Shandong Ye, Suowen Xu, Zhi Zhang, and Wei Wang

A variety of studies have demonstrated the role of lipocalin 2 (LCN2) in both diabetes and neurological disorders. Nevertheless, the relationship between LCN2 and diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) needs to be elucidated in humans. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the association of LCN2 with DPN in type 2 diabetes (T2D). A total of 207 participants with T2D and 40 participants with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) were included in this study. All participants were classified into DPN group and non-DPN (NDPN) group based on the Toronto Clinical Neuropathy Scoring (TCNS). Demographic and biochemical parameters were measured. Serum LCN2 levels were determined using an ELISA technique. Serum LCN2 levels in NGT group were lower than those in either DPN group (P = 0.000) or NDPN group (P = 0.043), while serum LCN2 levels in DPN group were higher than NDPN group (P = 0.001). Moreover, serum LCN2 levels positively correlated to TCNS scores, which reflects neuropathy severity (r = 0.438, P = 0.000). Multivariate stepwise regression analysis showed that BMI, triglycerides, and diastolic pressure were independently associated with serum LCN2 in DPN. Additionally, logistic regression analysis demonstrated that LCN2 (odds ratio (OR) = 1.009) and diabetes duration (OR = 1.058) were independently associated with the occurrence of DPN in T2D. Our report reveals the association of serum LCN2 with DPN in T2D. LCN2 might be used to evaluate DPN severity and serve a role in the pathogenesis of DPN.

Open access

Rongpeng Gong, Gang Luo, Mingxiang Wang, Lingbo Ma, Shengnan Sun, and Xiaoxing Wei

Background

Clinical data on the relationship between triglycerides (TG)/HDL ratio and insulin resistance (IR) suggest that TG/HDL ratio may be a risk factor for IR. However, there is evidence that different races have different risk of developing IR. The relationship on TG/HDL ratio and IR in various populations needs to be improved. Therefore, we investigated whether TG/HDL ratio was linked to IR in different groups in the United States after controlling for other covariates.

Methods

The current research was conducted in a cross-sectional manner. From 2009 to 2018, the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) had a total of 49,696 participants, all of whom were Americans. The target-independent variable was TG/HDL ratio measured at baseline, and the dependent variable was IR. Additionally, the BMI, waist circumference, education, race, smoking, alcohol use, alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, and other covariates were also included in this analysis.

Results

The average age of the 10,132 participants was 48.6 ± 18.4 years, and approximately 4936 (48.7%) were males. After correcting for confounders, fully adjusted logistic regression revealed that TG/HDL ratio was correlated with IR (odds ratio = 1.51, 95% CI 1.42–1.59). A nonlinear interaction between TG/HDL ratio and IR was discovered, with a point of 1.06. The impact sizes and CIs on the left and right sides of the inflection point were 6.28 (4.66–8.45) and 1.69 (1.45–1.97), respectively. According to subgroup analysis, the correlation was strong in females, alcohol users, and diabetes patients. Meanwhile, the inverse pattern was observed in the aged, obese, high-income, and smoking populations.

Conclusion

In the American population, the TG/HDL ratio is positively associated with IR in a nonlinear interaction pattern.

Open access

Reem Al Argan, Abdulaziz Ramadhan, Ramanakumar V Agnihotram, Jeffrey Chankowsky, and Juan Rivera

Hypopituitarism tends to occur in large pituitary adenomas. However, similar tumors could present with strikingly different hormonal deficiencies. In this study, we looked at MRI characteristics in non-functioning pituitary adenomas (NFPA), which could predict secondary adrenal insufficiency (SAI) and central hypothyroidism (CHT). We reviewed the files of patients with NFPA attending our clinic. Tumor size, invasiveness, MR-signal intensity, and gadolinium enhancement in preoperative MRI were recorded along with documented presurgical hypopituitarism profile. Logistic regression was used to predict SAI, CHT, or both (SAI/CHT) based on MRI and demographic parameters. Receiver operating characteristic curves were used to determine their diagnostic utility. One hundred twenty-one patients were included in the study. Older age (P = 0.021), male sex (P = 0.043), stalk deviation (P < 0.0001), contrast enhancement (P = 0.029), and optic chiasma compression (P = 0.012) were associated with SAI/CHT. Adenoma vertical height, largest diameter, and estimated volume were also strongly associated with SAI/CHT (P < 0.0001). These associations remained significant in a multivariate analysis. No tumor smaller than 12 mm in vertical height, 17 mm in largest diameter, or 0.9 cm3 in volume was associated with SAI/CHT. At cut-off ≥18 mm for vertical height, ≥23 mm for largest diameter, and ≥3.2 cm3 the sensitivity was around 90–92% for detecting SAI/CHT. Only vertical height was significantly associated with any one or more pituitary hormonal deficit (P = 0.001). In conclusion, adenoma size, independent of the measurement used, remains the best predictor of SAI/CHT in NFPA. Dynamic testing to rule out SAI is probably indicated in adenomas larger than 18 mm vertical height, 23 mm largest diameter and 3.2 cm3 adenoma volume.