Browse

You are looking at 151 - 160 of 742 items for

Open access

Jakob Høgild Langdahl, Anja Lisbeth Frederiksen, John Vissing, Morten Frost, Knud Bonnet Yderstræde and Per Heden Andersen

Aim

This case–control study aimed to examine impairments in glucose metabolism in non-diabetic carriers of the mitochondrial mutation m.3243A>G by evaluating insulin secretion capacity and sensitivity.

Methods

Glucose metabolism was investigated in 23 non-diabetic m.3243A>G carriers and age-, sex- and BMI-matched healthy controls with an extended 4-h oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Insulin sensitivity index and acute insulin response were estimated on the basis of the OGTT. This was accompanied by examination of body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), maximum aerobic capacity and a Recent Physical Activity Questionnaire (RPAQ).

Results

Fasting p-glucose, s-insulin and s-c-peptide levels did not differ between m.3243A>G carriers and controls. Insulin sensitivity index (BIGTT-S1) was significantly lower in the m.3243A>G carriers, but there was no difference in the acute insulin response between groups. P-lactate levels were higher in carriers throughout the OGTT. VO2max, but not BMI, waist and hip circumferences, lean and fat body mass%, MET or grip strength, was lower in mutation carriers. BIGTT-S1 remained lower in mutation carriers after adjustment for multiple confounding factors including VO2max in regression analyses.

Conclusions

Glucose metabolism in m.3243A>G carriers was characterized by reduced insulin sensitivity, which could represent the earliest phase in the pathogenesis of m.3243A>G-associated diabetes.

Open access

K G Samsom, L M van Veenendaal, G D Valk, M R Vriens, M E T Tesselaar and J G van den Berg

Background

Small-intestinal neuroendocrine tumours (SI-NETs) represent a heterogeneous group of rare tumours. In recent years, basic research in SI-NETs has attempted to unravel the molecular events underlying SI-NET tumorigenesis.

Aim

We aim to provide an overview of the current literature regarding prognostic and predictive molecular factors in patients with SI-NETs.

Method

A PubMed search was conducted on (epi)genetic prognostic factors in SI-NETs from 2000 until 2019.

Results

The search yielded 1522 articles of which 20 reviews and 35 original studies were selected for further evaluation. SI-NETs are mutationally quiet tumours with a different genetic make-up compared to pancreatic NETs. Loss of heterozygosity at chromosome 18 is the most frequent genomic aberration (44–100%) followed by mutations of CDKN1B in 8%. Prognostic analyses were performed in 16 studies, of which 8 found a significant (epi)genetic association for survival or progression. Loss of heterozygosity at chromosome 18, gains of chromosome 4, 5, 7, 14 and 20p, copy gain of the SRC gene and low expression of RASSF1A and P16 were associated with poorer survival. In comparison with genetic mutations, epigenetic alterations are significantly more common in SI-NETs and may represent more promising targets in the treatment of SI-NETs.

Conclusion

SI-NETs are mutationally silent tumours. No biomarkers have been identified yet that can easily be adopted into current clinical decision making. SI-NETs may represent a heterogeneous disease and larger international studies are warranted to translate molecular findings into precision oncology.

Open access

Gaëtan Prévost, Marie Picot, Marie-Anne Le Solliec, Arnaud Arabo, Hind Berrahmoune, Mouna El Mehdi, Saloua Cherifi, Alexandre Benani, Emmanuelle Nédélec, Françoise Gobet, Valéry Brunel, Jérôme Leprince, Hervé Lefebvre, Youssef Anouar and Nicolas Chartrel

Objective

Recent studies performed in mice revealed that the neuropeptide 26RFa regulates glucose homeostasis by acting as an incretin and by increasing insulin sensitivity. However, in humans, an association between 26RFa and the regulation of glucose homeostasis is poorly documented. In this study, we have thus investigated in detail the distribution of 26RFa and its receptor, GPR103, in the gut and the pancreas, and determined the response of this peptidergic system to an oral glucose challenge in obese patients.

Design and methods

Distribution of 26RFa and GPR103 was examined by immunohistochemistry using gut and pancreas tissue sections. Circulating 26RFa was determined using a specific radioimmunoassay in plasma samples collected during an oral glucose tolerance test.

Results

26RFa and GPR103 are present all along the gut but are more abundant in the stomach and duodenum. In the stomach, the peptide and its receptor are highly expressed in the gastric glands, whereas in the duodenum, ileum and colon they are present in the enterocytes and the goblet cells. In the pancreatic islets, the 26RFa/GPR103 system is mostly present in the β cells. During an oral glucose tolerance test, plasma 26RFa profile is different between obese patients and healthy volunteers, and we found strong positive correlations between 26RFa blood levels and the BMI, and with various parameters of insulin secretion and insulin resistance.

Conclusion

The present data suggest an involvement of the 26RFa/GPR103 peptidergic system in the control of human glucose homeostasis.

Open access

Eva Jakobsson Ung, Ann-Charlotte Olofsson, Ida Björkman, Tobias Hallén, Daniel S Olsson, Oskar Ragnarsson, Thomas Skoglund, Sofie Jakobsson and Gudmundur Johannsson

Objective

Experiences and need of support during surgery and start of replacement therapy in patients with pituitary tumours are highly unknown. This study aimed at exploring patient experiences during pre- and postoperative care and recovery after pituitary surgery in patients with a pituitary tumour.

Methods

Within a qualitative study design, 16 consecutive patients who underwent surgery for pituitary tumours were repeatedly interviewed. In total, 42 interviews were performed before and after surgery. Analysis was performed using qualitative interpretation.

Results

Suffering a pituitary tumour was overwhelming for many patients and struggling with existential issues was common. Patients expressed loneliness and vulnerability before and after surgery. How professionals handled information in connection with diagnosis greatly affected the patients. Other patients with the same diagnosis were experienced as the greatest support. Normalisation of bodily symptoms and relationships with others were reported during postoperative recovery. However, a fear that the tumour would return was present.

Conclusions

Patients with pituitary tumours need structured support, including peer support, which acknowledges physical, cognitive as well as emotional and existential concerns. Information related to diagnosis and surgery should be adapted in relation to the loneliness and the existential seriousness of the situation. Care and support for patients with pituitary tumours should preferably be organised based on continuity and an unbroken care pathway from the first pre-operative evaluation through to postoperative care and the start of a life-long endocrine treatment and tumour surveillance.

Open access

Marloes Emous, Merel van den Broek, Ragnhild B Wijma, Loek J M de Heide, Gertjan van Dijk, Anke Laskewitz, Erik Totté, Bruce H R Wolffenbuttel and André P van Beek

Objective

Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) is an effective way to induce sustainable weight loss and can be complicated by postprandial hyperinsulinaemic hypoglycaemia (PHH). To study the prevalence and the mechanisms behind the occurrence of hypoglycaemia after a mixed meal tolerance test (MMTT) in patients with primary RYGB.

Design

This is a cross-sectional study of patients 4 years after primary RYGB.

Methods

From a total population of 550 patients, a random sample of 44 patients completed the total test procedures. A standardized mixed meal was used as stimulus. Venous blood samples were collected at baseline, every 10 min during the first half hour and every 30 min until 210 min after the start. Symptoms were assessed by questionnaires. Hypoglycaemia is defined as a blood glucose level below 3.3 mmol/L.

Results

The prevalence of postprandial hypoglycaemia was 48% and was asymptomatic in all patients. Development of hypoglycaemia was more frequent in patients with lower weight at surgery (P = 0.045), with higher weight loss after surgery (P = 0.011), and with higher insulin sensitivity calculated by the homeostasis model assessment indexes (HOMA2-IR, P = 0.014) and enhanced beta cell function (insulinogenic index at 20 min, P = 0.001).

Conclusion

In a randomly selected population 4 years after primary RYGB surgery, 48% of patients developed a hypoglycaemic event during an MMTT without symptoms, suggesting the presence of hypoglycaemia unawareness in these patients. The findings in this study suggest that the pathophysiology of PHH is multifactorial.

Open access

Boju Pan, Anqi Wang, Junyi Pang, Yuhan Zhang, Ming Cui, Jian Sun and Zhiyong Liang

Introduction

PD-L1 is associated with prognosis and immunotherapeutic response in patients with malignancies. In previous studies, PD-L1 expression was detected in many endocrine tumors. However, the PD-L1 expression status in parathyroid tumors is unknown.

Methods

We included 26 parathyroid carcinoma and 37 adenoma samples, as well as the corresponding patient information. PD-L1 was stained using the FDA-approved PD-L1 IHC 22C3 pharmDx and Ventana PD-L1 (SP263) assays, and staining was assessed by the estimated percentages of positive tumor cells and immune cells, respectively.

Results

We classified the PD-L1 expression in the parathyroid tumors into four groups: (0) <1%, (1) 1–4%, (2) 5–9% and (3) ≥10% positive. With the SP263 clone, 37 (carcinoma:adenoma = 18:19) samples scored 0, 13 (carcinoma:adenoma = 4:9) scored 1, 7 (carcinoma:adenoma = 1:6) scored 2 and 6 (carcinoma:adenoma = 3:3) scored 3. However, in the series of cases using the 22C3 clone, 45 (carcinoma:adenoma = 20:25) samples scored 0, 10 (carcinoma: adenoma = 3:7) scored 1, 5 (carcinoma:adenoma = 1:4) scored 2, and 3 (carcinoma:adenoma = 2:1) scored 3. Concerning tumor-infiltrating immune cells, 57 samples were negative and six were positive with SP263, and 59 were negative and four were positive with 22C3. Moreover, PD-L1 expression was negatively correlated with the Ki-67 index and mitotic rate in parathyroid tumors depending on the different clones. However, the results indicated only moderate consistency between the SP263 and 22C3 clones in parathyroid tumors.

Conclusion

We found deficient PD-L1 expression in the majority of parathyroid tumors. However, the PD-L1 expression score in parathyroid tumors depended greatly on the antibody clone used.

Open access

Chan Sub Park, Jihye Choi, Min-Ki Seong, Sung-Eun Hong, Jae-Sung Kim, In-Chul Park, Hyesil Seol, Woo Chul Noh and Hyun-Ah Kim

Estradiol is a key factor for tumorigenesis and prognosis of hormone receptor-positive breast cancer. Adipocytes are one source of estradiol in patients with breast cancer. Recent studies have shown that phosphorylated ribosomal protein S6 kinase-1 plays a critical role in adipogenesis. Therefore, estrogen depletion therapy might have beneficial effects in phosphorylated ribosomal protein S6 kinase-1-positive breast cancer. This study was conducted to evaluate the value of phosphorylated ribosomal protein S6 kinase-1 as a marker for gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist treatment, a form of estrogen depletion therapy, for premenopausal patients with HR-positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative breast cancer. We reviewed the medical records of 296 premenopausal patients with hormone receptor-positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative primary invasive breast cancer treated between 2008 and 2015. Phosphorylated ribosomal protein S6 kinase-1 positivity was defined by immunohistochemical staining scores of 1+, 2+ and 3+, whereas a score of 0 was considered negative. Phosphorylated ribosomal protein S6 kinase-1-positive tumors were found in 74.0% of the patients. In the phosphorylated ribosomal protein S6 kinase-1-positive group, disease-free survival of patients treated with a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist was significantly longer than that of patients treated without a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (mean 106.7 months vs mean 91.1 months, P = 0.018). Phosphorylated ribosomal protein S6 kinase-1 is a potential biomarker for predicting the efficacy of gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist therapy in premenopausal patients with hormone receptor-positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative breast cancer.

Open access

Manjunath Goroshi, Swati S Jadhav, Vijaya Sarathi, Anurag R Lila, Virendra A Patil, Ravikumar Shah, Priya Hira, Rajaram Sharma, Shettepppa Goroshi, Gwendolyn Fernandes, Amey Rojekar, Abhay Dalvi, Ganesh Bakshi, Gagan Prakash, Nalini S Shah and Tushar R Bandgar

Rationale and introduction

To evaluate the computerised tomography (CT) characteristics of phaeochromocytoma (PCC) that differentiate them from other non-benign adrenal masses such as adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC), primary adrenal lymphoma (PAL) and adrenal metastases (AM).

Methods

This retrospective study was conducted at a tertiary health care institute from Western India. Patients presented between January 2013 and August 2016 with histological diagnosis of PCC or other non-benign adrenal mass having adequate reviewable imaging data comprising all four CECT phases were included.

Results

The study cohort consisted of 72 adrenal masses from 66 patients (33 PCC, 22 ACC, 4 PAL, 13 AM). Unlike other masses, majority of PCC (25/33) showed peak enhancement in early arterial phase (EAP). PCC had significantly higher attenuation in EAP and early venous phase (EVP), and higher calculated percentage arterial enhancement (PAE) and percentage venous enhancement (PVE) than other adrenal masses (P < 0.001). For diagnosis of PCC with 100% specificity, PAE value ≥100% and EAP attenuation ≥100 HU had 78.8 and 63.6% sensitivity respectively. ACC were significantly larger in size as compared to PCC and metastasis. The adreniform shape was exclusively found in PAL (two out of four) and AM (4 out of 13). None of the enhancement, wash-in or washout characteristics were discriminatory among ACC, PAL and AM.

Conclusion

Peak enhancement in EAP, PAE value ≥100% and EAP attenuation ≥100 HU differentiate PCC from other malignant adrenal masses with high specificity.

Open access

Sylvia Thiele, Anke Hannemann, Maria Winzer, Ulrike Baschant, Heike Weidner, Matthias Nauck, Rajesh V Thakker, Martin Bornhäuser, Lorenz C Hofbauer and Martina Rauner

Glucocorticoids (GC) are used for the treatment of inflammatory diseases, including various forms of arthritis. However, their use is limited, amongst others, by adverse effects on bone. The Wnt and bone formation inhibitor sclerostin was recently implicated in the pathogenesis of GC-induced osteoporosis. However, data are ambiguous. The aim of this study was to assess the regulation of sclerostin by GC using several mouse models with high GC levels and two independent cohorts of patients treated with GC. Male 24-week-old C57BL/6 and 18-week-old DBA/1 mice exposed to GC and 12-week-old mice with endogenous hypercortisolism displayed reduced bone formation as indicated by reduced levels of P1NP and increased serum sclerostin levels. The expression of sclerostin in femoral bone tissue and GC-treated bone marrow stromal cells, however, was not consistently altered. In contrast, GC dose- and time-dependently suppressed sclerostin at mRNA and protein levels in human mesenchymal stromal cells, and this effect was GC receptor dependent. In line with the human cell culture data, patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA, n = 101) and polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR, n = 21) who were exposed to GC had lower serum levels of sclerostin than healthy age- and sex-matched controls (−40%, P < 0.01 and −26.5%, P < 0.001, respectively). In summary, sclerostin appears to be differentially regulated by GC in mice and humans as it is suppressed by GCs in humans but is not consistently altered in mice. Further studies are required to delineate the differences between GC regulation of sclerostin in mice and humans and assess whether sclerostin mediates GC-induced osteoporosis in humans.

Open access

Changjiao Yan, Meiling Huang, Xin Li, Ting Wang and Rui Ling

Objective

To investigate the mutant status of BRAF gene and analyze its relationship to epidemiological risk factors and clinical outcomes among patients with papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) in the largest, single-institution Chinese cohort to date.

Methods

The medical records of 2048 PTC patients were reviewed in this retrospective study. Single-factor and multiple logistic regression analyses were applied to identify risk factors for BRAF V600E mutation. Survival outcomes including distant metastatic and persistent or recurrent PTC were examined, with a mean follow-up time of 23.4 (5–47) months.

Results

The BRAF V600E mutation was present in 83.7% of patients (1715 of 2048). Correlation was found between BRAF V600E mutation and several epidemiological features, including age, concomitant hypertension and Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT). For the clinicopathological features, BRAF V600E was significantly associated with bilateral multifocality (odds ratio (OR) 1.233, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.063–1.431, P < 0.01) and less lateral lymph node metastases (OR 0.496, 95% CI 0.357–0.689, P < 0.01). Smaller tumor size and advanced disease stage were significant in single-factor analyses but became insignificant after multivariate adjustment. No association was found between BRAF V600E mutation and extrathyroidal invasion, distant metastatic and disease persistence or recurrence.

Conclusion

Part of epidemiological features are independent risk or protective factors for BRAF V600E mutation. The presence of BRAF V600E mutation is not an aggressive prognosis on poor clinical outcomes in PTC. However, the high prevalence of BRAF V600E may provide guidance for surgery strategy and opportunity for targeted treatment in recurrent and advanced stage disease.