Browse

You are looking at 71 - 80 of 873 items for

  • All content x
Clear All
Open access

Hauke Thomsen, Xinjun Li, Kristina Sundquist, Jan Sundquist, Asta Försti, and Kari Hemminki

Design

Addison’s disease (AD) is a rare autoimmune disease (AID) of the adrenal cortex, present as an isolated AD or part of autoimmune polyendocrine syndromes (APSs) 1 and 2. Although AD patients present with a number of AID co-morbidities, population-based family studies are scarce, and we aimed to carry out an unbiased study on AD and related AIDs.

Methods

We collected data on patients diagnosed with AIDs in Swedish hospitals and calculated standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) in families for concordant AD and for other AIDs, the latter as discordant relative risks.

Results

The number of AD patients was 2852, which accounted for 0.4% of all hospitalized AIDs. A total of 62 persons (3.6%) were diagnosed with familial AD. The SIR for siblings was remarkably high, reaching 909 for singleton siblings diagnosed before age 10 years. It was 32 in those diagnosed past age 29 years and the risk for twins was 323. SIR was 9.44 for offspring of affected parents. AD was associated with 11 other AIDs, including thyroid AIDs and type 1 diabetes and some rarer AIDs such as Guillain–Barre syndrome, myasthenia gravis, polymyalgia rheumatica and Sjögren’s syndrome.

Conclusions

The familial risk for AD was very high implicating genetic etiology, which for juvenile siblings may be ascribed to APS-1. The adult part of sibling risk was probably contributed by recessive polygenic inheritance. AD was associated with many common AIDs; some of these were known co-morbidities in AD patients while some other appeared to more specific for a familial setting.

Open access

Anastasia Ibba, Francesca Corrias, Chiara Guzzetti, Letizia Casula, Mariacarolina Salerno, Natascia di Iorgi, Gianluca Tornese, Giuseppa Patti, Giorgio Radetti, Mohamad Maghnie, Marco Cappa, and Sandro Loche

A number of studies have evaluated the role of IGF1 measurement in the diagnosis of growth hormone deficiency (GHD). This study aimed to evaluate the accuracy and the best cut-off of IGF1 SDS in the diagnosis of GHD in a large cohort of short children and adolescents. One-hundred and forty-two children and adolescents with GHD ((63 organic/genetic (OGHD), 79 idiopathic (IGHD)) and 658 short non-GHD children (median age 10.4 years) were included in the analysis. The two groups were subdivided according to age (G1 <6, G2 6 <9, G3 9 <12, G4 ≥12) and to pubertal status. Serum IGFI was measured by the same chemiluminescence assay in all samples and expressed as age- and sex-based SDS. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to evaluate the optimal IGF1 SDS cut-off and the diagnostic accuracy. Median IGF1 SDS was significantly lower in the GHD than in non-GHD patients. The area under the curve (AUC) was 0.69, with the best IGF1 cut-off of −1.5 SDS (sensitivity 67.61%, specificity 62.62%). The AUC was 0.75 for OGHD and 0.63 for IGHD. The accuracy was better in the pubertal (AUC = 0.81) than the prepubertal group (AUC = 0.64). In our cohort, IGF1 measurement has poor accuracy in discriminating GHD from non-GHD. Our findings confirm and reinforce the belief that IGF1 values should not be used alone in the diagnosis of GHD but should be interpreted in combination with other clinical and biochemical parameters.

Open access

Salman Razvi, Sanaa Mrabeti, and Markus Luster

The current standard of care for hypothyroidism is levothyroxine (LT4) monotherapy to reduce levels of thyrotropin (thyroid-stimulating hormone, TSH) within its reference range and amelioration of any symptoms. A substantial minority continues to report hypothyroid-like symptoms despite optimized TSH, however. These symptoms are not specific to thyroid dysfunction and are frequent among the euthyroid population, creating a therapeutic dilemma for the treating clinician as well as the patient. We present a concise, narrative review of the clinical research and evidence-based guidance on the management of this challenging population. The clinician may endeavor to ensure that the serum TSH is within the target range. However, the symptomatic patient may turn to alternative non-evidence-based therapies in the hope of obtaining relief. Accordingly, it is important for the clinician to check for conditions unrelated to the thyroid that could account for the ongoing symptoms such as other autoimmune conditions, anemia or mental health disorders. Systematic and thorough investigation of the potential causes of persistent symptoms while receiving LT4 therapy will resolve the problem for most patients. There may be some patients that may benefit from additional treatment with liothyronine (LT3), although it is unclear as yet as to which patient group may benefit the most from combined LT4 + LT3 therapy. In the future, personalized treatment with LT4 + LT3 may be of benefit for some patients with persistent symptoms of hypothyroidism such as those with polymorphisms in the deiodinase enzyme 2 (DIO2). For now, this remains a subject for research.

Open access

Pernille Bækgaard Udesen, Dorte Glintborg, Anja Elaine Sørensen, Rikke Svendsen, Nanna Louise Skov Nielsen, Marie Louise Muff Wissing, Marianne Skovsager Andersen, Anne Lis Mikkelsen Englund, and Louise Torp Dalgaard

Metformin is associated with increased insulin sensitivity, whereas oral contraceptive pills (OCP) could increase the risk for type 2 diabetes (T2D) in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Certain miRNAs might serve as biomarkers for the risk of T2D. The aim of this study was to investigate changes in circulating miRNA levels during treatment with metformin and OCP in women with PCOS. Sixty-five women with PCOS according to Rotterdam criteria were randomized to metformin (2 g/day), metformin + OCP (150 mg desogestrel + 30 µg ethinylestradiol) or OCP alone for 12 months. Serum miRNA analysis was performed with individual RT-qPCR or Taqman low density array cards of 22 selected miRNAs previously related to PCOS, glucose and/or lipid metabolism. miR-122 and miR-29a levels were decreased after treatment with metformin compared with metformin + OCP and OCP group: miR-122: log2 difference −0.7 (P = 0.01) and −0.7 (P = 0.02), miR-29a: log2 difference −0.5 (P = 0.01) and −0.4 (P = 0.04), while miR-223 levels were decreased in the metformin + OCP group after treatment: log2 difference −0.5 (P = 0.02). During the treatment period, a significant weight loss was observed in the metformin group compared with the OCP group. In the OCP group, miRNA levels were unchanged during the treatment period. Levels of circulating miRNAs associated with lipid and glucose metabolism decreased during metformin treatment. Changes in miRNA levels in the metformin group could be explained by the simultaneous weight loss in the same group. These results support the notion that metformin treatment alone may be superior for metabolic health compared with OCP.

Open access

Selina Mäkinen, Neeta Datta, Yen H Nguyen, Petro Kyrylenko, Markku Laakso, and Heikki A Koistinen

Objectives

Simvastatin use is associated with muscular side effects, and increased risk for type 2 diabetes (T2D). In clinical use, simvastatin is administered in inactive lipophilic lactone-form, which is then converted to active acid-form in the body. Here, we have investigated if lactone- and acid-form simvastatin differentially affect glucose metabolism and mitochondrial respiration in primary human skeletal muscle cells.

Methods

Muscle cells were exposed separately to lactone- and acid-form simvastatin for 48 h. After pre-exposure, glucose uptake and glycogen synthesis were measured using radioactive tracers; insulin signalling was detected with Western blotting; and glycolysis, mitochondrial oxygen consumption and ATP production were measured with Seahorse XFe96 analyzer.

Results

Lactone-form simvastatin increased glucose uptake and glycogen synthesis, whereas acid-form simvastatin did not affect glucose uptake and decreased glycogen synthesis. Phosphorylation of insulin signalling targets Akt substrate 160 kDa (AS160) and glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) was upregulated with lactone-, but not with acid-form simvastatin. Exposure to both forms of simvastatin led to a decrease in glycolysis and glycolytic capacity, as well as to a decrease in mitochondrial respiration and ATP production.

Conclusions

These data suggest that lactone- and acid-forms of simvastatin exhibit differential effects on non-oxidative glucose metabolism as lactone-form increases and acid-form impairs glucose storage into glycogen, suggesting impaired insulin sensitivity in response to acid-form simvastatin. Both forms profoundly impair oxidative glucose metabolism and energy production in human skeletal muscle cells. These effects may contribute to muscular side effects and risk for T2D observed with simvastatin use.

Open access

Hei Yi Vivian Pak, Andrew Lansdown, Peter Taylor, Dafydd Aled Rees, John Stephen Davies, and Caroline Hayhurst

Objective

Acromegaly is a rare condition and there is often a long path to diagnosis for many patients. We sought to explore patient’s perceptions and understanding of acromegaly, to examine the quality of communication and find gaps in the information provided at diagnosis.

Design

A prospective study using qualitative research methodology and grounded theory. A semi-structured interview was conducted with 18 patients treated for acromegaly in a single tertiary centre and verbatim transcripts were thematically analysed for overarching themes.

Results

Eighteen patients with acromegaly were interviewed. The mean age of participants was 52 (range 30–72). Four overarching themes emerged; (1) Patients rely on online resources to understand acromegaly in the time between diagnosis and tertiary care clinic; (2) There is not enough support available for patients; (3) Patients have a basic understanding of acromegaly and associated conditions, but the long-term impact is underestimated; and (4) Patients initially felt intimidated by the multidisciplinary team panel, but overall found it useful.

Conclusion

Acromegalic patients have a strong need for information at the point of initial diagnosis, in particular online resources and interaction with other experienced patients. Wider dissemination of patient educational resources into primary and secondary care settings may improve overall patient satisfaction, treatment adherence and subsequent health care provider–patient relationships.

Open access

Xiaojie Wang, Zhiyuan Chen, Ziyi Li, Bo Chen, Yong Qi, Guowei Li, and Jonathan D Adachi

Background

Several epidemiological studies have demonstrated the risk factors for fall, while few studies investigated the association between frailty and risk of fall in diabetic patients aged ≥45 years.

Methods

In this multicity observational study, participants with type 2 diabetes aged ≥45 years were enrolled. Frailty status was measured by a frailty index (FI) of deficit accumulation. We used multivariable regression models to examine the relationship between frailty and fall in diabetic patients, and further investigated the associations between frailty and fall in varied subgroups.

Results

A total of 2049 participants with type 2 diabetes were identified in our study. Our results showed a per-s.d. and a per-0.01 increment of FI were associated with an increased risk of fall, with a fully adjusted OR of 1.89 (95% CI: 1.50, 2.38), 1.06 (95% CI: 1.04, 1.09), respectively. The effects were magnified when frailty was considered as dichotomous, with an OR of 3.08 (95% CI: 2.18, 4.34). In further subgroup analyses, we found that the females, the older, rural residents, individuals with no sitting toilet, people with poor balance performance and those in poor health status were susceptible to fall. Especially, for the risk of fall in the older, a per-s.d. increase of FI corresponded to an OR of 2.46 (95% CI: 1.68, 3.62). When frailty was regarded as a binary variable, the effect increased to 4.62 (95% CI: 2.54, 8.38) in the older subgroup.

Conclusion

Frailty was associated with a higher risk of fall in people with type 2 diabetes, and the effects were higher in vulnerable groups. This evidence suggested that more attention should be paid to vulnerable groups for fall prevention.

Open access

Pan Chen, Liqin Pan, Wensi Huang, Huijuan Feng, Wei Ouyang, Juqing Wu, Jing Wang, Yuying Deng, Jiaxin Luo, and Yanying Chen

Objective

To evaluate the relationship between the BRAF V600E mutation in lymph node metastasis (LNM) and its invasive characteristics in papillary thyroid cancer (PTC).

Material and methods

A total of 373 PTC patients were enrolled in this study conducted at Zhujiang Hospital of Southern Medical University between January 2017 and December 2018. PTCs with cervical lymph node metastases were verified pathohistologically, and primary tumors and LNM were examined for the BRAF V600E mutation. Patients were excluded from the study if the BRAF V600E mutation was examined only in primary tumors or only in LNM.

Results

Of the 373 patients examined, BRAF V600E mutation frequency in primary tumors was slightly higher than in LNM (81.5% vs 78.0%, P = 0.000), the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) was 0.865 (95% CI 0.835–0.890). The BRAF V600E mutation in both primary tumor and LNM negatively correlated with the size of the largest metastatic focus of LNM (Odds ratio, OR = 0.297, 95% CI 0.143–0.616, P = 0.001; OR = 0.242, 95% CI 0.119–0.492, P = 0.000, respectively). There was no relationship between BRAF V600E mutation in LNM and the number, extranodal extension or stage of LNM (P > 0.05).

Conclusion

The BRAF V600E mutation in LNM may not be related to the invasive characteristics of LNM in PTC.

Open access

Guido Zavatta and Bart L Clarke

The first adjunctive hormone therapy for chronic hypoparathyroidism, recombinant human parathyroid hormone (1–84) (rhPTH(1–84)) was approved by the FDA in January 2015. Since the approval of rhPTH(1–84), growing interest has developed in other agents to treat this disorder in both the scientific community and among pharmaceutical companies. For several reasons, conventional therapy with calcium and activated vitamin D supplementation, magnesium supplementation as needed, and occasionally thiazide-type diuretic therapy remains the mainstay of treatment, while endocrinologists and patients are constantly challenged by limitations of conventional treatment. Serum calcium fluctuations, increased urinary calcium, hyperphosphatemia, and a constellation of symptoms that limit mental and physical functioning are frequently associated with conventional therapy. Understanding how conventional treatment and hormone therapy work in terms of pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics is key to effectively managing chronic hypoparathyroidism. Multiple questions remain regarding the effectiveness of PTH adjunctive therapy in preventing or slowing the onset and progression of the classical complications of hypoparathyroidism, such as chronic kidney disease, calcium-containing kidney stones, cataracts, or basal ganglia calcification. Several studies point toward an improvement in the quality of life during replacement therapy. This review will discuss current clinical and research challenges posed by treatment of chronic hypoparathyroidism.

Key points:

  • Conventional therapy with calcium and activated forms of vitamin D are currently the mainstays of treatment for most patients with chronic hypoparathyroidism.
  • Hormone therapy can be administered through FDA-approved once-daily rhPTH(1–84), or off-label multiple-daily injections of teriparatide. The former is the only FDA-approved drug, with safety and efficacy supported by a randomized placebo-controlled trial and open-label long-term extension trial data.
  • Twice-daily teriparatide has been used in children safely for up to 10 years.
  • New pharmacological options that replace the deficient hormone wi ll likely be available within the next few years.
Open access

Raja Padidela, Moira S Cheung, Vrinda Saraff, and Poonam Dharmaraj

X-linked hypophosphataemia (XLH) is caused by a pathogenic variant in the PHEX gene, which leads to elevated circulating FGF23. High FGF23 causes hypophosphataemia, reduced active vitamin D concentration and clinically manifests as rickets in children and osteomalacia in children and adults. Conventional therapy for XLH includes oral phosphate and active vitamin D analogues but does not specifically treat the underlying pathophysiology of elevated FGF23-induced hypophosphataemia. In addition, adherence to conventional therapy is limited by frequent daily dosing and side effects such as gastrointestinal symptoms, secondary hyperparathyroidism and nephrocalcinosis. Burosumab, a recombinant human IgG1 MAB that binds to and inhibits the activity of FGF23, is administered subcutaneously every 2 weeks. In clinical trials (phase 2 and 3) burosumab was shown to improve phosphate homeostasis that consequently resolves the skeletal/non-skeletal manifestations of XLH. Burosumab was licensed in Europe (February 2018) with the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence, UK approving use within its marketing authorisation in October 2018. In this publication, the British Paediatric and Adolescent Bone Group (BPABG) reviewed current evidence and provide expert recommendations for care pathway and management of XLH with burosumab.