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Open access

Leyre Lorente-Poch, Sílvia Rifà-Terricabras, Juan José Sancho, Danilo Torselli-Valladares, Sofia González-Ortiz, and Antonio Sitges-Serra

Objective:

Permanent hypoparathyroidism is an uncommon disease resulting most frequently from neck surgery. It has been associated with visceral calcifications but few studies have specifically this in patients with post-surgical hypoparathyroidism. The aim of the present study was to assess the prevalence of basal ganglia and carotid artery calcifications in patients with long-term post-thyroidectomy hypoparathyroidism compared with a control population.

Design:

Case–control study.

Methods:

A cross-sectional review comparing 29 consecutive patients with permanent postoperative hypoparathyroidism followed-up in a tertiary reference unit for Endocrine Surgery with a contemporary control group of 501 patients who had an emergency brain CT scan. Clinical variables and prevalence of basal ganglia and carotid artery calcifications were recorded.

Results:

From a cohort of 46 patients diagnosed with permanent hypoparathyroidism, 29 were included in the study. The mean duration of disease was 9.2 ± 7 years. Age, diabetes, hypertension, smoking and dyslipidemia were similarly distributed in case and control groups. The prevalence of carotid artery and basal ganglia calcifications was 4 and 20 times more frequent in patients with permanent hypoparathyroidism, respectively. After propensity score matching of the 28 the female patients, 68 controls were matched for age and presence of cardiovascular factors. Cases showed a four-fold prevalence of basal ganglia calcifications, whereas that of carotid calcifications was similar between cases and controls.

Conclusion:

A high prevalence of basal ganglia calcifications was observed in patients with post-surgical permanent hypoparathyroidism. It remains unclear whether carotid artery calcification may also be increased.

Open access

Sanjeet Kumar Jaiswal, Vijaya Sarathi, Saba Samad Memon, Robin Garg, Gaurav Malhotra, Priyanka Verma, Ravikumar Shah, Manjeet Kaur Sehemby, Virendra A Patil, Swati Jadhav, Anurag Ranjan Lila, Nalini S Shah, and Tushar R Bandgar

Introduction:

177Lu-DOTATATE-based peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) is a promising therapy for metastatic and/or inoperable pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma (PPGL). We aim to evaluate the efficacy and safety of and identify predictors of response to 177Lu-DOTATATE therapy in metastatic and/or inoperable PPGL.

Methods:

This retrospective study involved 15 patients of metastatic or unresectable PPGL, who received 177Lu-DOTATATE PRRT therapy. Clinical, biochemical (plasma-free normetanephrine), and radiological (anatomical and functional) responses were compared before and after the last therapy.

Results:

A total of 15 patients (4 PCC, 4 sPGL, 5 HNPGL, 1 PCC + sPGL, 1 HNPGL + sPGL) were included. The median duration of follow up was 27 (range: 11–62) months from the start of PRRT. Based on the RECIST (1.1) criteria, progressive disease was seen in three (20%), stable disease in eight (53%), partial response in one (7%), and minor response in three (20%) and controlled disease in 12 (80%). On linear regression analysis the presence of PGL (P= 0.044) and baseline SUVmax >21 (P < 0.0001) were significant positive predictors of early response to PRRT. Encouraging safety profiles were noted with no long term nephrotoxicity and hematotoxicity.

Conclusion:

177Lu-DOTATATE therapy is an effective and safe modality of treatment for patients with metastatic/inoperable PPGL. Although it is not prudent to withhold PRRT in metastatic PPGL with baseline SUVmax < 21, baseline SUVmax >21 can be used to predict early response to PRRT.

Open access

Ling Hu, Ting Li, Xiao-Ling Yin, and Yi Zou

Objective:

The purpose of this study was to explore the prevalence of thyroid nodules (TN) and metabolic syndrome (MS) and to analyze the correlation between TN and the components of MS.

Methods:

A total of 1526 subjects were divided into two groups: a TN group and a non-thyroid nodules (NTN) group. The height, weight, blood pressure, fasting blood glucose level, fasting plasma insulin level, serum lipid profile, uric acid level, serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) level, free triiodothyronine (FT3) level, and free thyroxine (FT4) level of each patient were measured. Insulin resistance (IR) was estimated by homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Fatty liver and TN were detected by color Doppler ultrasonography.

Results:

(i) The overall prevalence of TN was 39.5%; it was significantly higher in women than in men (P < 0.01) and progressively increased with age in both sexes. (ii) The overall prevalence of MS was 25.6%; it was significantly higher in men than in women (P < 0.01) and progressively increased with age in both sexes. (iii) FT3 was significantly lower in the TN group than in the NTN group (P < 0.01). (iv) BMI, triglycerides, and HOMA-IR were higher in the TN group than in the NTN group (P < 0.05). (v) The existence of TN was significantly associated with overweight/obesity (OR = 1.03, 95% CI = 1.024–1.089), and with insulin resistance (IR) (OR = 1.98, 95% CI = 1.645–2.368), after adjusting for age and sex.

Conclusions:

The prevalence of thyroid nodules and metabolic syndrome in the Nanchang area increases with age, and overweight/obesity and IR in patients are associated with thyroid nodules.

Open access

Ling Zhou, Ruixue Zhang, Shuangyan Yang, Yaguang Zhang, and Dandan Shi

Background:

Our previous study revealed that astragaloside IV (AS-IV) effectively improved gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) by reducing hepatic gluconeogenesis. Due to the importance of placental oxidative stress, we further explored the protective role of AS-IV on placental oxidative stress in GDM.

Methods:

First, non-pregnant mice were orally administrated with AS-IV to evaluate its safety and effect. Then GDM mice were orally administered with AS-IV for 20 days and its effect on the symptoms of GDM, placental oxidative stress, secretions of inflammatory cytokines, as well as toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)/NF-κB signaling pathway, were evaluated.

Results:

AS-IV had no adverse effect on non-pregnant mice. On the other hand, AS-IV significantly attenuated the GDM-induced hyperglycemia, glucose intolerance, insulin resistance, placental oxidative stress, productions of inflammatory cytokines and the activation of TLR4/NF-κB pathway.

Conclusion:

AS-IV effectively protected against GDM by alleviating placental oxidative stress and inflammation, in which TLR4/NF-κB might be involved.

Open access

Zhenzhen Wang, Xiangying Zhu, Xiaohui Yu, Haixia Guan, Lei Zhao, Yixia Zhang, Yuge Li, Liang Sang, Yuchen Han, Yushu Li, Zhongyan Shan, and Weiping Teng

Purpose:

To determine the diagnostic efficiency of the ATA classification and ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (FNA) results in identifying the risk factors of malignancy, we analyzed the thyroid nodules of patients who underwent thyroidectomy and compared preoperative ATA classifications with FNA results.

Methods:

We retrospectively analyzed 274 nodules of 196 patients who underwent ultrasonography, FNA and thyroidectomy. Histopathological findings of thyroid nodules were considered as the Au standard in the analysis of the diagnostic efficiency of the ATA classification and FNA results. Univariate analysis and binary multivariate logistic regression analysis were applied to identify the ultrasound features associated with malignancy.

Results:

The overall malignancy rate of 274 nodules was 41.6%. The areas under the ROC curves (AUCs) for the ATA classification and FNA results were 0.88 and 0.878, respectively (P < 0.001). The sensitivity and specificity of the ATA classification were 86 and 86.9%, whereas those of FNA results were 68.5 and 91.4%, respectively. The specificity (98.7%) and sensitivity (94.3%) increased after the combined use of the ATA classification and FNA results. Taller-than-wide shape, microcalcifications, hypoechogenicity and irregular margins were independent risk factors for malignancy. Microcalcifications had the highest OR (7.58), and taller-than-wide shape had the highest specificity in BSRTC I, II, III and IV cytology.

Conclusion:

The diagnostic efficiency of the ATA classification and FNA results in identifying malignant nodules was high, and the use of both criteria improved the diagnostic accuracy. Taller-than-wide shape, microcalcifications, hypoechogenicity and irregular margins were independent risk factors for malignancy.

Open access

Riying Liang, Meijun Wang, Chang Fu, Hua Liang, Hongrong Deng, Ying Tan, Fen Xu, and Mengyin Cai

Background:

Obesity is associated with the development and progression of chronic kidney disease. Emerging evidence suggests that glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist could reduce renal damage and albuminuria. Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) was considered as a crucial regulator in metabolism-related kidney disease. Herein, the role of SIRT1 in liraglutide-ameliorated high-fat diet (HFD)-induced kidney injury was illustrated.

Methods:

Male C57BL/6 mice were fed HFD for 20 weeks to induce kidney injury that was then treated with liraglutide for 8 weeks to estimate its protective effect on the kidney. Also, the mechanism of the drug in SV40 MES 13 (SV40) mouse mesangial cells was elucidated.

Results:

Liraglutide treatment ameliorated HFD-induced metabolic disorders, including hyperglycemia, increasing body weight, and insulin resistance. In addition, kidney weight, urine albumin-to-creatinine, and kidney morphological changes such as vacuolated tubules, glomerulomegaly, thickened glomerular basement membrane, and tubulointerstitial fibrosis were also significantly ameliorated. Furthermore, apoptotic cells and apoptosis markers were downregulated in the kidney of liraglutide-treated mice. In addition, the expression of SIRT1 protein was upregulated, whereas thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP), which serves as a mediator of oxidative stress and apoptosis in metabolism disease, was downregulated by liraglutide. In SV40 cells, the effect of liraglutide on reversing the upregulation of cleaved caspase-3 induced by high glucose (30 mM) was hampered when SIRT1 was knocked down; also, the downregulation of TXNIP by liraglutide was blocked.

Conclusions:

Liraglutide might have a beneficial effect on metabolism-related kidney damage by inhibiting apoptosis via activation of SIRT1 and suppression of TXNIP pathway.

Open access

Lijuan Fu, Jinhuan Ma, Sumei Yan, and Qijun Si

Background:

Whether polymorphisms in VDR gene affect the risk of postmenopausal osteoporosis or not remain unclear. Thus, the authors performed a meta-analysis to more robustly assess associations between polymorphisms in VDR gene and the risk of postmenopausal osteoporosis by integrating the results of previous literature.

Methods:

Medline, Embase, Wanfang, VIP and CNKI were searched comprehensively for eligible literature, and 67 genetic association studies were finally selected to be included in this meta-analysis.

Results:

We found that ApaI rs7975232 (dominant comparison: OR = 0.77, P = 0.007; allele comparison: OR = 0.81, P = 0.04), BsmI rs1544410 (dominant comparison: OR = 0.69, P = 0.002; allele comparison: OR = 0.78, P = 0.008) and TaqI rs731236 (recessive comparison: OR = 1.32 , P = 0.01) polymorphisms were significantly associated with the risk of postmenopausal osteoporosis in Caucasians, whereas FokI rs10735810 polymorphism was significantly associated with the risk of postmenopausal osteoporosis in Asians (dominant comparison: OR = 0.61, P = 0.0001; recessive comparison: OR = 2.02, P = 0.001; allele comparison: OR = 0.68, P = 0.002).

Conclusions:

This meta-analysis shows that ApaI rs7975232, BsmI rs1544410 and TaqI rs731236 polymorphisms may affect the risk of postmenopausal osteoporosis in Caucasians, while BsmI rs1544410 polymorphism may affect the risk of postmenopausal osteoporosis in Asians.

Open access

Abdul K Siraj, Rong Bu, Maham Arshad, Kaleem Iqbal, Sandeep Kumar Parvathareddy, Tariq Masoodi, Laila Omar Ghazwani, Saif S Al-Sobhi, Fouad Al-Dayel, and Khawla S Al-Kuraya

Thyroid cancer is the most frequent endocrine cancer with an increasing incidence rate worldwide and is the second most common malignancy among females in Saudi Arabia. Papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) is the most common subtype. Germline pathogenic variants in the proofreading domain of the POLE and POLD1 genes predispose to several types of cancers. However, the role of pathogenic variants of these two genes in PTC remains unknown. Capture sequencing, Sanger sequencing and immunohistochemistry were performed on 300 PTC cases from the Middle Eastern region. One germline pathogenic variant each of POLE (1/300, 0.33%) and POLD1 (1/300, 0.33%) genes was identified. Low expression of POLD1 was detected in 46.5% (133/286) of cases and was significantly associated with the follicular variant of PTC (P = 0.0006), distant metastasis (P = 0.0033) and stage IV tumours (P = 0.0081). However, no somatic pathogenic variant was detected in POLE gene. Furthermore, low expression of POLE was noted in 61.7% (175/284) of cases with no significant clinicopathological associations. Our study shows that pathogenic variant in the POLE and POLD1 proofreading domain is a cause of PTC and low expression of POLD1 is associated with poor prognostic markers in the Middle Eastern population. Further studies from different geographic populations are needed to determine the frequency and spectrum of proofreading domain pathogenic variants in POLE and POLD1 genes and in PTC from different ethnicities.

Open access

Myrian Velasco, Rosa Isela Ortiz-Huidobro, Carlos Larqué, Yuriko Itzel Sánchez-Zamora, José Romo-Yáñez, and Marcia Hiriart

Objective:

We assessed the sex-specific differences in the molecular mechanisms of insulin resistance in muscle and adipose tissue, in a MS rat model induced by a high sucrose diet.

Methods:

Male, female, and ovariectomized female Wistar rats were randomly distributed in control and high-sucrose diet (HSD) groups, supplemented for 24 weeks with 20% sucrose in the drinking water. At the end, we assessed parameters related to MS, analyzing the effects of the HSD on critical nodes of the insulin signaling pathway in muscle and adipose tissue.

Results:

At the end of the treatment, HSD groups of both sexes developed obesity, with a 15, 33 and 23% of body weight gain in male, female, and OVX groups respectively, compared with controls; mainly related to hypertrophy of peripancreatic and gonadal adipose tissue. They also developed hypertriglyceridemia, and liver steatosis, with the last being worse in the HSD females. Compared to the control groups, HSD rats had higher IL1B and TNFA levels and insulin resistance. HSD females were more intolerant to glucose than HSD males. Our observations suggest that insulin resistance mechanisms include an increase in phosphorylated AKT(S473) form in HSD male and female groups and a decrease in phosphorylated P70S6K1(T389) in the HSD male groups from peripancreatic adipose tissue. While in gonadal adipose tissue the phosphorylated form of AKT decreased in HSD females, but not in HSD males. Finally, HSD groups showed a reduction in p-AKT levels in gastrocnemius muscle.

Conclusion:

A high-sucrose diet induces MS and insulin resistance with sex-associated differences and in a tissue-specific manner.

Open access

Yu Ah Hong, Kyung-Do Han, Jae-Seung Yun, Eun Sil Sil, Seung-Hyun Ko, and Sungjin Chung

Objective:

Although short adult height has been associated with an increasing variety of diseases and all-cause death, no reliable data exist on the association between adult height and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in diabetic patients. We investigated the relationship between short adult height, development of ESRD, and mortality in type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM).

Methods:

This nationwide population-based cohort study analyzed clinical data from a total of 2,621,907 subjects aged ≥30 years with type 2 DM between January 1, 2009 and December 31, 2012, using the National Health Insurance Database in Korea.

Results:

During a 6.9-year follow-up period, 220,457 subjects (8.4%) died, and 28,704 subjects (1.1%) started dialysis. Short adult height significantly increased the incidence of ESRD and all-cause mortality in the overall cohort analysis. In multivariable Cox models, hazard ratios (HR) for the development of ESRD comparing the highest and lowest quartiles of adult height were 0.86 (95% CI 0.83–0.89). All-cause mortality also decreased with the highest height compared to patients with the lowest height, after fully adjusting for confounding variables (HR 0.79, 95% CI 0.78–0.81). Adult height had an inverse relationship to newly diagnosed ESRD (male: HR 0.86, 95% CI 0.83–0.90, female: HR 0.84, 95% CI 0.79–0.90) and all-cause mortality (male: HR 0.81, 95% CI 0.79–0.82, female: HR 0.80, 95% CI 0.78–0.82).

Conclusions:

Short adult height is strongly associated with the increased risk of ESRD development and all-cause mortality in type 2 DM.