Despite recent improvements in the composition of the diet, lower mineral bone density and overweight tendencies are incoherently described in patients with phenylketonuria (PKU). The impact of dietary factors and plasma phenylalanine levels on growth, BMI, body composition, and bone mineral density was investigated in our cohort of patients with hyperphenylalaninemia (HPA) with or without dietary treatment. The anthropometric, metabolic, BMI and other nutritional indicators and bone mineral density were compared between the group of 96 treated patients with PKU (58 classic PKU (cPKU) and 38 patients with moderate-mild PKU defined as non-classic PKU (non-cPKU)) and the untreated group of 62 patients with benign HPA. Having compared the treated and untreated groups, there were normal outcomes and no statistically significant differences in BMI, body composition, and bone mineral density. Lower body height standard deviation scores were observed in the treated as compared to the untreated group (P < 0.001), but the difference was not significant when analyzing patients older than 18 years; however, cPKU adults were shorter compared to non-cPKU treated adults (P = 0.012). Interestingly, the whole-body fat was statistically higher in non-cPKU as compared to cPKU patients. In conclusion, the dietary treatment ensured adequate nutrition without significant consequences in BMI, body composition, and bone mineral density. A low protein diet may have delayed the growth in childhood, but the treated patients gained a normal final height. Mild untreated hyperphenylalaninemia characteristic for benign HPA had no negative physiological effect on bone mineral density.
Mojca Zerjav Tansek, Ana Bertoncel, Brina Sebez, Janez Zibert, Urh Groselj, Tadej Battelino, and Magdalena Avbelj Stefanija
Cheng Han Ng, Yip Han Chin, Marcus Hon Qin Tan, Jun Xuan Ng, Samantha Peiling Yang, Jolene Jiayu Kiew, and Chin Meng Khoo
Primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) is a common condition affecting people of all ages and is mainly treated with parathyroidectomy. Cinacalcet has been widely used in secondary or tertiary hyperparathyroidism, but the use of cinacalcet in PHPT is less clear.
Searches were conducted in Medline and Embase for cinacalcet use in PHPT from induction to 10 April 2020. Articles and conferences abstracts describing the use of cinacalcet for PHPT in prospective or retrospective cohorts and randomized controlled trials restricted to English language only. We initially identified 1301 abstracts. Each article went extraction by two blinded authors on a structured proforma. Continuous outcomes were pooled with weight mean difference (WMD). Quality of included articles was assessed with Newcastle Ottwa Scale and Cochrane Risk of Bias 2.0.
Twenty-eight articles were included. Normalization rate of serum Ca levels was reported at 90% (CI: 0.82 to 0.96). Serum levels of Ca and PTH levels were significantly reduced (Ca, WMD: 1.647, CI: −1.922 to −1.371; PTH, WMD: −31.218, CI: −41.671 to −20.765) and phosphate levels significantly increased (WMD: 0.498, CI: 0.400 to 0.596) after cinacalcet therapy. The higher the baseline Ca levels, the greater Ca reduction with cinacalcet treatment. Age and gender did not modify the effect of cinacalcet on serum Ca levels.
The results from the meta-analysis support the use of cinacalcet as an alternative or bridging therapy to treat hypercalcemia in people with PHPT.
Mark R Postma, Pia Burman, and André P van Beek
Adult-onset growth hormone deficiency (AGHD) is usually the last deficiency to be substituted in hypopituitarism. In children with documented GH deficiency, treatment without delay is crucial for achieving optimal effects on growth and development. In adults, it is not known whether a delay in treatment initiation influences biochemical response and the favourable physiological effects resulting from GH replacement therapy (GHRT).
A total of 1085 GH-deficient adults from KIMS (Pfizer International Metabolic Database) were included, adequately replaced with all pituitary hormones except for GH at baseline. Patients were stratified by sex and age (20–50 years and ≥50 years) and subsequently divided into two groups below and above the median duration of unsubstituted AGHD for that subgroup. The median time of unsubstituted GHD for the total cohort was 2.53 years (P5 = 0.35, P95 = 24.42).
Beneficial effects of 4 years of GHRT were observed on lipids and quality of life in all subgroups. A decrease in waist circumference was observed only in older (>50 years) patients. There was no difference in IGF-I SDS and in GH dose required to normalize IGF-I in patients with a duration of unsubstituted AGHD above or below the median. No relevant differences were found between the groups for anthropometric measures, cardiovascular risk factors and quality of life scores.
In contrast to GHD in children and adolescents, no difference could be established in treatment response between early or late initiation of GHRT in AGHD in terms of required GH dose, IGF-I, metabolic health and quality of life.
David Koeckerling, Jeremy W Tomlinson, and Jeremy F Cobbold
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is a chronic liver disease which is closely associated with components of the metabolic syndrome. Its high clinical burden results from the growing prevalence, inherent cardiometabolic risk and potential of progressing to cirrhosis. Patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease show variable rates of disease progression through a histological spectrum ranging from steatosis to steatohepatitis with or without fibrosis. The presence and severity of fibrosis are the most important prognostic factors in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. This necessitates risk stratification of patients by fibrosis stage using combinations of non-invasive methods, such as composite scoring systems and/or transient elastography. A multidisciplinary approach to treatment is advised, centred on amelioration of cardiometabolic risk through lifestyle and pharmacological interventions. Despite the current lack of licensed, liver-targeted pharmacotherapy, several promising agents are undergoing late-phase clinical trials to complement standard management in patients with advanced disease. This review summarises the current concepts in diagnosis and disease progression of non-alcoholic liver disease, focusing on pragmatic approaches to risk assessment and management in both primary and secondary care settings.
Chunliang Yang, Junyi Li, Fei Sun, Haifeng Zhou, Jia Yang, and Chao Yang
Hyperglycemia is the consequence of blood glucose dysregulation and a driving force of diabetic complications including retinopathy, nephropathy and cardiovascular diseases. The serum and glucocorticoid inducible kinase-1 (SGK1) has been suggested in the modulation of various pathophysiological activities. However, the role of SGK1 in blood glucose homeostasis remains less appreciated. In this review, we intend to summarize the function of SGK1 in glucose level regulation and to examine the evidence supporting the therapeutic potential of SGK1 inhibitors in hyperglycemia. Ample evidence points to the controversial roles of SGK1 in pancreatic insulin secretion and peripheral insulin sensitivity, which reflects the complex interplay between SGK1 activation and blood glucose fluctuation. Furthermore, SGK1 is engaged in glucose absorption and excretion in intestine and kidney and participates in the progression of hyperglycemia-induced secondary organ damage. As a net effect, blockage of SGK1 activation via either pharmacological inhibition or genetic manipulation seems to be helpful in glucose control at varying diabetic stages.
Yuka Goto, Yoshie Otsuka, Kenji Ashida, Ayako Nagayama, Nao Hasuzawa, Shimpei Iwata, Kento Hara, Munehisa Tsuruta, Nobuhiko Wada, Seiichi Motomura, Yuji Tajiri, and Masatoshi Nomura
Background and Aims:
It is currently unclear whether sodium–glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor administration can improve the insulin sensitivity as well as rapidly reduce plasma glucose concentrations in humans during the early phase of treatment initiation. This study aimed to investigate the effect of SGLT2 inhibitor on insulin sensitivity in the early phase of treatment initiation.
Methods and Results
This single-center, open label, and single-arm prospective study recruited 20 patients (14 men) with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We examined the patients’ metabolic parameters before and 1 week after SGLT2 inhibitor (10 mg/day of empagliflozin) administration. The glucose infusion rate (GIR) was evaluated using the euglycemic hyperinsulinemic glucose clamp technique. Changes in laboratory and anthropometric parameters before and after SGLT2 inhibitor administration were analyzed according to the change in the GIR. The BMI, body fat amount, skeletal muscle amount, systolic blood pressure, and triglyceride level significantly decreased along with the treatment, while urinary glucose level and log GIR value significantly increased. Notably, changes in the GIR after SGLT2 inhibitor administration, which indicated improvement in peripheral insulin sensitivity, were negatively correlated with T2DM duration and positively with reduction in fluctuation of daily plasma glucose profiles before and after treatment.
SGLT2 inhibitor improved insulin sensitivity in the skeletal muscle independent of anthropometric changes. Patients with short duration of T2DM and insulin resistance can be good candidates for short-term SGLT2 inhibitor administration to improve insulin sensitivity in the skeletal muscle.
Ferdinand Roelfsema, Peter Y Liu, Rebecca Yang, Paul Takahashi, and Johannes D Veldhuis
Interleukin-2 (IL-2), one of the proinflammatory cytokines, is used in the treatment of certain malignancies. In some studies, transient increases in cortisol and ACTH secretion occurred. Thus, this agent may be used as an experimental probe of adrenal cortisol secretion.
This study quantifies the effects of low and moderate doses of IL-2 on cortisol secretion and assesses the modulation by age, dose and body composition.
Mayo Clinical Translational Research Unit.
Study comprised 35 healthy men, 17 young and 18 older.
Randomized prospective double-blind saline-controlled study of IL-2 administration in two doses with concurrent 10-min blood sampling for 24 h.
Deconvolution analysis and approximate entropy of cortisol secretion.
Low-dose IL-2 administration increased nocturnal pulsatile cortisol secretion from 1460 ± 160 to 2120 ± 220 nmol/L/8 h in young subjects and from 1680 ± 105 to 1960 ± 125 nmol/L/8 h (treatment P < 0.0001, but more in young than older, P = 0.02). Comparable results were obtained for total cortisol secretion (P treatment <0.0001, age effect P = 0.005). The higher IL-2 dose caused a large increase in young (P < 0.0001), but not in older (P = 0.90) subjects. This dose also increased approximate entropy from 0.877 ± 0.041 to 1.024 ± 0.049 (P = 0.008), pointing to reduced secretory orderliness. Incremental cortisol (nocturnal) secretion correlated negatively with visceral fat mass (R = −0.41, P = 0.019).
In healthy men, IL-2 injection drives pulsatile cortisol secretion in a dose-dependent way in young, but not older, individuals and erodes cortisol secretory orderliness at a higher dose in young subjects. Cortisol responses are diminished with increasing abdominal visceral fat mass.
Anne Jouinot, Juliane Lippert, Martin Fassnacht, Bruno de La Villeon, Amandine Septier, Mario Neou, Karine Perlemoine, Silke Appenzeller, Mathilde Sibony, Sébastien Gaujoux, Bertrand Dousset, Rossella Libe, Lionel Groussin, Cristina L Ronchi, Guillaume Assié, and Jérôme Bertherat
The prognosis of adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is heterogeneous. Genomic studies have identified ACC subgroups characterized by specific molecular alterations, including features measured at DNA level (somatic mutations, chromosome alterations, DNA methylation), which are closely associated with outcome. The aim of this study was to evaluate intratumor heterogeneity of prognostic molecular markers at the DNA level.
Two different tissue samples (primary tumor, local recurrence or metastasis) were analyzed in 26 patients who underwent surgery for primary or recurrent ACC. DNA-related biomarkers with prognostic role were investigated in frozen and paraffin-embedded samples. Somatic mutations of p53/Rb and Wnt/β-catenin pathways were assessed using next-generation sequencing (n = 26), chromosome alteration profiles were determined using SNP arrays (n = 14) and methylation profiles were determined using four-gene bisulfite pyrosequencing (n = 12).
Somatic mutations for ZNRF3, TP53, CTNN1B and CDKN2A were found in 7, 6, 6 and 4 patients, respectively, with intratumor heterogeneity in 8/26 patients (31%). Chromosome alteration profiles were ‘Noisy’ (numerous and anarchic alterations) in 8/14 and ‘Chromosomal’ (extended patterns of loss of heterozygosity) in 5/14 of the study samples. For these profiles, no intratumor heterogeneity was observed. Methylation profiles were hypermethylated in 5/12 and non-hypermethylated in 7/12 of the study samples. Intratumor heterogeneity of methylation profiles was observed in 2/12 patients (17%).
Intratumor heterogeneity impacts DNA-related molecular markers. While somatic mutation can differ, prognostic DNA methylation and chromosome alteration profile seem rather stable and might be more robust for the prognostic assessment.
V G Pluimakers, M van Waas, C W N Looman, M P de Maat, R de Jonge, P Delhanty, M Huisman, F U S Mattace-Raso, M M van den Heuvel-Eibrink, and S J C M M Neggers
Augmented survival of childhood nephroblastoma and neuroblastoma has increased long-term side effects such as metabolic syndrome (MetS). Risk stratification is difficult after abdominal radiation because waist circumference underestimates adiposity. We aimed to develop a strategy for determining MetS in irradiated survivors using an integrated biomarker profile and vascular ultrasonography.
The NCEP-ATPIII MetS-components, 14 additional serum biomarkers and 9 vascular measurements were assessed in a single-centre cohort of childhood nephroblastoma (n = 67) and neuroblastoma (n = 36) survivors and controls (n = 61). Multivariable regression models were used to study treatment effects. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to study all biomarkers in a combined analysis, to identify patterns and correlations.
After 27.5 years of follow-up, MetS occurred more often in survivors (14%) than controls (3%). Abdominal radiotherapy and nephrectomy, to a lesser extent, were associated with MetS and separate components and with several biomarker abnormalities. PCA of biomarkers revealed a pattern on PC1 from favourable lipid markers (HDL-cholesterol, adiponectin) towards unfavourable markers (triglycerides, LDL-cholesterol, apoB, uric acid). Abdominal radiotherapy was associated with the unfavourable biomarker profile (β = 1.45, P = 0.001). Vascular measurements were not of added diagnostic value.
Long-term childhood nephro- and neuroblastoma survivors frequently develop MetS. Additional assessment of biomarkers identified in PCA – adiponectin, LDL, apoB, and uric acid – may be used especially in abdominally irradiated survivors, to classify MetS as alternative for waist circumference. Vascular ultrasonography was not of added value.
Xue-Jiao Yang, Le-Yang Zhang, Qing-Hua Ma, Hong-Peng Sun, Yong Xu, Xing Chen, and Chen-Wei Pan
We aimed to examine the associations of platelet parameters with the presence of metabolic syndrome in community-dwelling older Chinese adults.
Study sample was from the Weitang Geriatric Diseases Study, which included 4338 individuals aged 60 years or above. The mean age of the participants was 68 years. Metabolic syndrome was defined based on the Adult Treatment Panel III criteria. Platelet parameters were assessed using an automated hematology analyzer. Multiple logistic regression models were fitted to examine relationships between the platelet parameters and the presence of metabolic syndrome after adjusting for potential confounders.
The adjusted odds ratio (95% CI) of metabolic syndrome for the highest quartile of platelet parameters (platelet count, mean platelet volume, plateletcrit, platelet distribution width, platelet larger cell ratio) when compared to the lowest quartile were 1.32 (1.06, 1.64), 1.00 (0.81, 1.24), 1.37 (1.10, 1.71), 1.45 (1.14, 1.83), 1.11 (0.89, 1.39), respectively. Hypertension and diabetes modified the relationship between platelet distribution width and metabolic syndrome with the associations being significant in hypertensive and non-diabetic groups. The levels of platelet distribution width increased with the risk of metabolic syndrome in men but not in women.
The levels of platelet count, plateletcrit and platelet distribution width increased in older adults with metabolic syndrome, suggesting that these parameters may be useful biomarkers for further risk appraisal of metabolic syndrome in aged population.