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Open access

Fizzah Iqbal, William Adams, Ioannis Dimitropoulos, Samiul Muquit, and Daniel Flanagan

Background

Pituitary apoplexy is an acute syndrome of haemorrhage or infarction into the pituitary. The condition is relatively well described. Less well described is sub-acute presentation of the same condition

Objective

To compare the clinical presentation and natural history of subacute pituitary haemorrhage/ infarction with pituitary apoplexy (acute).

Method

Retrospective analysis of a consecutive cohort of 55 patients (33 with pituitary apoplexy, 22 with subacute disease) presenting to University Hospital Plymouth between 1994 and 2019. Comparison of the clinical, endocrinological and radiological features at presentation. Comparison of clinical treatment and subsequent outcomes for the two groups

Results

There were no significant differences in predisposing factors for the two groups. Acute headache was more frequent in the acute group. Chronic headache was common in both groups prior to presentation. Low sodium was more common at presentation in the acute group (11/26 vs 2/19 p= 0.02) otherwise there were no differences in endocrine deficit at presentation. A significant proportion showed an improvement in endocrine function at follow up (acute 8/31, subacute 5/21 p = 1.0). MRI characteristics were variable at presentation and follow up in both groups. Ring enhancement with contrast was more frequent in acute (14/20 vs 3/11 p= 0.03). This appearance resolved at follow up in the majority.

Conclusions

Pituitary apoplexy has a characteristic and dramatic presentation. Subacute pituitary haemorrhage/ infarction shows similar natural history and outcome. These would appear to represent a spectrum of the same condition.

Open access

Justyna Modrzynska, Christine F Klein, Kasper Iversen, Henning Bundgaard, Bolette Hartmann, Maike Moss, Nikolaj Rittig, Niels Moeller, Jens J Holst, and Nicolai J Wewer Albrechtsen

Objective: Glucagon and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) originate from the common precursor, proglucagon, and their plasma concentrations have been reported to be increased during inflammatory conditions. Increased blood glucose levels are frequently observed in septic patients, and therefore we hypothesized that glucagon, but not GLP-1, is increased in individuals with inflammation.

Design: Prospective longitudinal cohort study.

Materials and Methods: We measured glucagon and GLP-1 in plasma sampled consecutively in three cohorts consisting of patients with infective endocarditis (n=16), urosepsis (n=28) and post-operative inflammation following percutaneous aortic valve implantation or thoracic endovascular aortic repair (n=5). Correlations between C-Reactive Protein (CRP), a marker of systemic inflammation, and glucagon and GLP-1 concentrations were investigated. Additionally, glucagon and GLP-1 concentrations were measured after a bolus infusion of lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 1ng/kg) in nine healthy young males.

Results: Glucagon and CRP were positively and significantly correlated (r=0.27; P=0.0003), whereas no significant association between GLP-1 and CRP was found (r=0.08, P=0.30). LPS infusion resulted in acute systemic inflammation reflected by increased temperature, pulse, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and concomitantly increased concentrations of glucagon (P<0.05) but not GLP-1.

Conclusions :Systemic inflammation caused by bacterial infections or developed as a non-infected condition is associated with increased plasma concentration of glucagon, but not GLP-1. Hyperglucagonemia may contribute to the impaired glucose control in patients with systemic inflammatory diseases.

Open access

Marta Araujo-Castro, Héctor Pian, Ignacio Ruz-Caracuel, Alberto Acitores Cancela, Eider Pascual-Corrales, and Víctor Rodríguez Berrocal

Purpose

To evaluate whether presurgical treatment using long-acting somatostatin receptor ligands (SRL) may change pituitary tumor consistency and improve surgical outcome in GH-secreting pituitary macroadenomas.

Methods

Retrospective study of 40 patients with GH-secreting pituitary macroadenomas operated for the first time by endoscopic transsphenoidal approach. Tumor consistency was evaluated intraoperatively and then correlated with histopathological fibrosis parameters and surgical outcomes. Surgical remission was reported based on the 2010 criteria.

Results

The mean tumor size of GH-secreting macroadenomas was of 16.9 ± 8.2 mm and 25 were invasive pituitary adenomas (PAs). Presurgical treatment with long-acting SRL was performed in 17 patients (11 lanreotide, 6 octreotide). The cure rate was higher in those patients pre-treated with monthly doses ≥30 mg of octreotide or ≥90 mg of lanreotide than in those treated with lower doses or untreated (8/11 (72.7%) vs 11/29 (37.9%), P = 0.049). However, although the proportion of soft tumors increased as higher doses of SRL were considered in the pre-treated group, no statistical significance was reached, even when the highest approved monthly doses were used (6/6 (100%) vs 23/34 (67.7%), P = 0.102). Moreover, we found that the remission rate was similar between fibrous and soft tumors (P = 0.873) and also of surgical complications (P = 0.859), despite of the higher prevalence of Knosp >2 (P = 0.035) and very large PA (P = 0.025) in fibrous tumors than in soft tumors.

Conclusions

Although presurgical treatment with high doses of SRL was associated with a 2.2-fold greater chance of surgical remission, this benefit was not related with changes in tumor consistency induced by the presurgical treatment.

Open access

Erik Rösner, Daniel Kaemmerer, Elisa Neubauer, Jörg Sänger, and Amelie Lupp

Programmed death protein 1 (PD-1) and its ligand, PD-L1, have emerged as promising therapeutic targets for many types of cancer that overexpress PD-L1. However, data on PD-L1 expression levels in bronchopulmonary neuroendocrine neoplasms (BP-NEN) are limited and contradictory. In the present study, a total of 298 archived, formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded BP-NEN samples from 97 patients diagnosed with typical carcinoid (TC), atypical carcinoid (AC), small cell lung cancer (SCLC), or large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the lung (LCNEC) were evaluated for PD-L1 expression by immunohistochemistry using the highly sensitive monoclonal anti-PD-L1 antibody 73-10. PD-L1 expression levels were semiquantitatively estimated by tumour grading. Of the 298 BP-NEN samples, 85% were positive for PD-L1 expression. PD-L1 immunostaining predominantly localized to the plasma membrane of both tumour cells and tumour-infiltrating immune cells. SCLC and LCNEC exhibited significantly higher PD-L1 expression levels than TC or AC. PD-L1 expression levels were also higher in patients with lymph node or distant metastases, in patients who smoked, and in patients who died during the follow-up period. Moreover, PD-L1 expression levels correlated positively with tumour grading, Ki-67 index and the expression of the chemokine receptor CXCR4 and negatively with the levels of somatostatin receptor 1 and chromogranin A. High tumour PD-L1 levels were associated with poor patient outcomes. In conclusion, PD-L1 expression is common in BP-NEN, increases with malignancy, and is associated with poor prognosis. Therefore, targeting the PD-1/PD-L1 axis could be a promising strategy for treating BP-NEN. PD-L1 may also represent a useful prognostic biomarker for this tumour entity.

Open access

Isabelle Flechtner, Magali Viaud, Dulanjalee Kariyawasam, Marie Perrissin-Fabert, Maud Bidet, Anne Bachelot, Philippe Touraine, Philippe Labrune, Pascale De Lonlay, Michel Polak, and Galactosemia Study Group Galactosemia Study Group

Classic galactosemia is a rare inborn error of galactose metabolism with a birth prevalence of about 1/30 000-60 000. Long-term complications occurring despite dietary treatment consist of premature ovarian insufficiency (POI) and neurodevelopmental impairments. We performed with the French Reference Centers for Rare Diseases a multisite collaborative questionnaire survey for classic galactosemic patients. Its primary objective was to assess their puberty, pregnancy, gonadotrop axis, and pelvic morphology by ultrasound The secondary objective was to determine predictive factors for potent pregnancy without oocyte donation. Completed questionnaires from 103 patients, 56 females (median age, 19 years [5-52 years]) and 47 males (median age, 19 years [3-45 years]), were analyzed. Among the 45 females older than 11 years old, mean age for breast development first stage was 12 years; spontaneous menarche occurred in 25 females at a mean age of 14.6 years. After puberty, 60% of females had irregular menstrual cycles and 50% experienced amenorrhea at a median age of 30 years [15;42]. All age-groups confounded, FSH was above normal range for 65% of the patients, anti-Müllerian hormone and inhibin B were below the normal range according to age, and the ovaries were small with few or no follicles detected. Among the 5 females who sought to conceive, 4 had pregnancies. Among the 47 males, 1 had cryptorchidism, all have normal testicular function and none had tried to conceive. Thus, spontaneous puberty and POI are both common in this population. Spontaneous menarche seems to be the best predictive factor for successful spontaneous pregnancy.

Open access

Cristina Romei, Teresa Ramone, Chiara Mulè, Alessandro Prete, Virginia Cappagli, Loredana Lorusso, Liborio Torregrossa, Fulvio Basolo, Raffele Ciampi, and Rossella Elisei

A statistically significant higher prevalence of the RET p.Met918Thr somatic mutation, identified by direct sequencing, was previously reported in MTC >2 cm than in smaller tumors. Aim of this study was to correlate the full RET and RAS mutation profile, identified by a Next Generation Sequencing approach, with the growth rate, proliferation and tumor size of MTC. Data of 149 sporadic MTC patients were correlated with RET mutations and Ki67 positivity. Eighty-one cases had a somatic RET mutation, 40 a RAS mutation and 28 were negative. A statistically significant higher prevalence of RET mutations was found in MTC >2 cm. A higher prevalence of RET more aggressive mutations, higher allelic frequencies and, higher percentage of Ki67 positive cells were found in larger tumors which had also a worse outcome.

Our study highlights the predominant role of RET somatic mutations in MTC tumorigenesis. We demonstrate that RET mutation prevalence and allelic frequency (AF) are significantly higher in larger tumors. Based on these results, we can conclude that RET mutated C-cells’s growth and proliferation are more rapid than those of non-mutated cells and give origin to bigger and more aggressive MTC.

Open access

Cecília Cristelo, Alexandra Machado, Bruno Sarmento, and Francisco Miguel Gama

Type 1 diabetes has an increasingly greater incidence and prevalence with no cure available. Vitamin D supplementation is well documented to reduce the risk of developing type 1 diabetes. Being involved in the modulation of cathelicidin expression, the question whether cathelicidin may be one of the underlying cause arises. Cathelicidin has been implicated in both the development and the protection against type 1 diabetes by mediating the interplay between the gut microbiome, the immune system and β cell function. While its potential on type 1 diabetes treatment seems high, the understanding of its effects is still limited. This review aims to contribute to a more comprehensive understanding of the potential of vitamin D and cathelicidin as adjuvants in type 1 diabetes therapy.

Open access

Jose M Garcia, Beverly M K Biller, Márta Korbonits, Vera Popovic, Anton Luger, Christian J Strasburger, Philippe Chanson, Ronald Swerdloff, Christina Wang, Rosa Rosanna Fleming, Fredric Cohen, Nicola Ammer, Gilbert Mueller, Nicky Kelepouris, Frank Strobl, Vlady Ostrow, and Kevin C J Yuen

Abstract

Objective

The macimorelin test is approved for the diagnosis of adult growth hormone deficiency (AGHD) based on its efficacy vs the insulin tolerance test (ITT). Macimorelin has a significant advantage over ITT in avoiding hypoglycemia. Analyses were conducted to determine whether macimorelin performance is affected by age, BMI, or sex, and evaluate its performance vs ITT over a range of GH cutpoints.

Design

Post hoc analyses of data from a previous randomized phase 3 study included participants aged 18–66 years with BMI <37 kg/m2 and high (Group A), intermediate (Group B), or low (Group C) likelihood for AGHD based on pituitary history, and matched controls (Group D).

Methods

Probability of AGHD was estimated using unadjusted, age-adjusted, BMI-adjusted, and sex-adjusted logistic models. Area under the curve (AUC) of the estimated receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (range, 0–1; 1 = perfect) was compared for adjusted vs unadjusted models. Separate analyses evaluated agreement, sensitivity, and specificity for macimorelin and ITT using cutpoints of 2.8, 4.0, 5.1, and 6.5 ng/mL.

Results

For participants in Group A (n = 41) and Group D (n = 29), unadjusted, age-adjusted, BMI-adjusted, and sex-adjusted models had ROC AUCs (95% CIs) of 0.9924 (0.9807–1), 0.9924 (0.9807–1), 0.9916 (0.9786–1), and 0.9950 (0.9861–1), respectively.

Conclusions

Macimorelin performance was not meaningfully affected by age, BMI, or sex, indicating robustness for AGHD diagnosis. Of the 4 GH cutpoints evaluated, the cutpoint of 5.1 ng/mL provided maximal specificity (96%) and high sensitivity (92%) and was in good overall agreement with the ITT at the same cutpoint (87%).

Open access

Anouar Aznou, Rick I. Meijer, Dani�l H van Raalte, Martin den Heijer, Annemieke C Heijboer, and Renate T De Jongh

Objective

The mechanisms underlying the development of peripheral insulin resistance are complex.

Several studies have linked sclerostin, an osteocyte-derived inhibitor of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway, to obesity and insulin resistance. The aim of this study was to investigate 1) whether serum sclerostin is associated with insulin sensitivity in lean and/or obese women; and 2) whether hyperinsulinemia affects serum sclerostin concentrations.

Design

A cross-sectional study.

Methods

Insulin sensitivity was measured in lean (BMI<25 kg·m-2) and obese (BMI > 30 kg·m-2) women using a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp. Serum sclerostin was measured at baseline and during the clamp procedure.

Results

We studied 21 lean and 22 obese women with a median age of 40 and 43

years and a median BMI of 22.4 and 33.5 kg·m-2, respectively. Obese women had higher

serum sclerostin than lean women (122±33 vs 93±33 nmol/L, p<0.01). Higher serum

sclerostin was associated with lower insulin sensitivity in obese, but not in lean individuals

(difference in M value between highest and lowest quartile: -7.02 mg⋅kg−1⋅min−1, p =

0.03 and 1.59 mg⋅kg−1⋅min−1, p = 0.50, respectively). Hyperinsulinemia did not affect serum

sclerostin in lean nor obese women (p>0.5).

Conclusion

Serum sclerostin is negatively associated with insulin sensitivity as measured

with the hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp in obese, but not lean women. This indicates a potential role of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway in regulating insulin sensitivity particularly in obese individuals. Our findings remain hypothesis-generating and should be confirmed by additional studies.

Open access

Britt J van Keulen, Michelle Romijn, Bibian van der Voorn, Marita de Waard, Michaela F. Hartmann, Johannes B. van Goudoever, Stefan A. Wudy, Joost Rotteveel, and Martijn J.j. Finken

Objective

Sex-specific differences in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity might explain why male preterm infants are at higher risk of neonatal mortality and morbidity than their female counterparts. We examined whether male and female preterm infants differed in cortisol production and metabolism at 10 days post-partum.

Design and methods

This prospective study included 36 preterm born infants (18 boys) with a very low birth weight (VLBW) (<1.500 gram). At 10 days postnatal age, urine was collected over a 4- to 6-hr period. Glucocorticoid metabolites were measured using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Main outcome measures were: (1) cortisol excretion rate, (2) sum of all glucocorticoid metabolites, as an index of corticosteroid excretion rate, and (3) ratio of 11-OH/11-OXO metabolites, as an estimate of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11β-HSD) activity. Differences between sexes, including interaction with Score of Neonatal Acute Physiology Perinatal Extension-II (SNAPPE II), sepsis and bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), were assessed.

Results

No differences between sexes were found for cortisol excretion rate, corticosteroid excretion rate or 11β-HSD activity. Interaction was observed between: sex and SNAPPE II score on 11β-HSD activity (p=0.04) and sex and BPD on cortisol excretion rate (p=0.04).

Conclusion

This study did not provide evidence for sex-specific differences in adrenocortical function in preterm VLBW infants on a group level. However, in an interaction model sex differences became manifest under stressful circumstances. These patterns might provide clues for the male disadvantage in neonatal mortality and morbidity following preterm birth. However, due to the small sample size, the data should be seen as hypothesis generating.