Browse

You are looking at 31 - 40 of 813 items for

  • All content x
Clear All
Open access

Zhenzhen Wang, Xiangying Zhu, Xiaohui Yu, Haixia Guan, Lei Zhao, Yixia Zhang, Yuge Li, Liang Sang, Yuchen Han, Yushu Li, Zhongyan Shan, and Weiping Teng

Purpose:

To determine the diagnostic efficiency of the ATA classification and ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (FNA) results in identifying the risk factors of malignancy, we analyzed the thyroid nodules of patients who underwent thyroidectomy and compared preoperative ATA classifications with FNA results.

Methods:

We retrospectively analyzed 274 nodules of 196 patients who underwent ultrasonography, FNA and thyroidectomy. Histopathological findings of thyroid nodules were considered as the Au standard in the analysis of the diagnostic efficiency of the ATA classification and FNA results. Univariate analysis and binary multivariate logistic regression analysis were applied to identify the ultrasound features associated with malignancy.

Results:

The overall malignancy rate of 274 nodules was 41.6%. The areas under the ROC curves (AUCs) for the ATA classification and FNA results were 0.88 and 0.878, respectively (P < 0.001). The sensitivity and specificity of the ATA classification were 86 and 86.9%, whereas those of FNA results were 68.5 and 91.4%, respectively. The specificity (98.7%) and sensitivity (94.3%) increased after the combined use of the ATA classification and FNA results. Taller-than-wide shape, microcalcifications, hypoechogenicity and irregular margins were independent risk factors for malignancy. Microcalcifications had the highest OR (7.58), and taller-than-wide shape had the highest specificity in BSRTC I, II, III and IV cytology.

Conclusion:

The diagnostic efficiency of the ATA classification and FNA results in identifying malignant nodules was high, and the use of both criteria improved the diagnostic accuracy. Taller-than-wide shape, microcalcifications, hypoechogenicity and irregular margins were independent risk factors for malignancy.

Open access

Marra Jai Aghajani, Tao Yang, Ulf Schmitz, Alexander James, Charles Eugenio McCafferty, Paul DeSouza, Navin Niles, and Tara L Roberts

Programmed cell death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) has recently been shown to play a role in the regulation of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT); however, the relationship between PD-L1 expression, EMT and the inflammatory tumour microenvironment has yet to be investigated in thyroid cancer. To address this issue, we examined the expression of CD8, PD-L1 and the EMT markers E-cadherin and vimentin in a cohort of 74 papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) patients and investigated the association of these with clinicopathologic characteristics and disease-free survival (DFS). The relationship between PD-L1 and EMT was further examined in three thyroid cancer cell lines via western blot and live cell imaging. In order to expand our in vitro findings, the normalised gene expression profiles of 516 thyroid cancer patients were retrieved and analysed from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). PD-L1 positivity was significantly higher in PTC patients exhibiting a mesenchymal phenotype (p = 0.012). Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that PD-L1 (p = 0.045), CD8 (p = 0.038) and EMT status (p = 0.038) were all significant predictors for DFS. Sub-analysis confirmed that the poorest DFS was evident in PD-L1 positive patients with EMT features and negative CD8 expression (p < 0.0001). IFN-γ treatment induced upregulation of PD-L1 and significantly promoted an EMT phenotype in two thyroid cancer cell lines. Our findings suggest that PD-L1 signalling may play a role in stimulating EMT in thyroid cancer. EMT, CD8 and PD-L1 expression may serve as valuable predictive biomarkers in patients with PTC.

Open access

Riying Liang, Meijun Wang, Chang Fu, Hua Liang, Hongrong Deng, Ying Tan, Fen Xu, and Mengyin Cai

Background:

Obesity is associated with the development and progression of chronic kidney disease. Emerging evidence suggests that glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist could reduce renal damage and albuminuria. Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) was considered as a crucial regulator in metabolism-related kidney disease. Herein, the role of SIRT1 in liraglutide-ameliorated high-fat diet (HFD)-induced kidney injury was illustrated.

Methods:

Male C57BL/6 mice were fed HFD for 20 weeks to induce kidney injury that was then treated with liraglutide for 8 weeks to estimate its protective effect on the kidney. Also, the mechanism of the drug in SV40 MES 13 (SV40) mouse mesangial cells was elucidated.

Results:

Liraglutide treatment ameliorated HFD-induced metabolic disorders, including hyperglycemia, increasing body weight, and insulin resistance. In addition, kidney weight, urine albumin-to-creatinine, and kidney morphological changes such as vacuolated tubules, glomerulomegaly, thickened glomerular basement membrane, and tubulointerstitial fibrosis were also significantly ameliorated. Furthermore, apoptotic cells and apoptosis markers were downregulated in the kidney of liraglutide-treated mice. In addition, the expression of SIRT1 protein was upregulated, whereas thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP), which serves as a mediator of oxidative stress and apoptosis in metabolism disease, was downregulated by liraglutide. In SV40 cells, the effect of liraglutide on reversing the upregulation of cleaved caspase-3 induced by high glucose (30 mM) was hampered when SIRT1 was knocked down; also, the downregulation of TXNIP by liraglutide was blocked.

Conclusions:

Liraglutide might have a beneficial effect on metabolism-related kidney damage by inhibiting apoptosis via activation of SIRT1 and suppression of TXNIP pathway.

Open access

Lijuan Fu, Jinhuan Ma, Sumei Yan, and Qijun Si

Background:

Whether polymorphisms in VDR gene affect the risk of postmenopausal osteoporosis or not remain unclear. Thus, the authors performed a meta-analysis to more robustly assess associations between polymorphisms in VDR gene and the risk of postmenopausal osteoporosis by integrating the results of previous literature.

Methods:

Medline, Embase, Wanfang, VIP and CNKI were searched comprehensively for eligible literature, and 67 genetic association studies were finally selected to be included in this meta-analysis.

Results:

We found that ApaI rs7975232 (dominant comparison: OR = 0.77, P = 0.007; allele comparison: OR = 0.81, P = 0.04), BsmI rs1544410 (dominant comparison: OR = 0.69, P = 0.002; allele comparison: OR = 0.78, P = 0.008) and TaqI rs731236 (recessive comparison: OR = 1.32 , P = 0.01) polymorphisms were significantly associated with the risk of postmenopausal osteoporosis in Caucasians, whereas FokI rs10735810 polymorphism was significantly associated with the risk of postmenopausal osteoporosis in Asians (dominant comparison: OR = 0.61, P = 0.0001; recessive comparison: OR = 2.02, P = 0.001; allele comparison: OR = 0.68, P = 0.002).

Conclusions:

This meta-analysis shows that ApaI rs7975232, BsmI rs1544410 and TaqI rs731236 polymorphisms may affect the risk of postmenopausal osteoporosis in Caucasians, while BsmI rs1544410 polymorphism may affect the risk of postmenopausal osteoporosis in Asians.

Open access

Abdul K Siraj, Rong Bu, Maham Arshad, Kaleem Iqbal, Sandeep Kumar Parvathareddy, Tariq Masoodi, Laila Omar Ghazwani, Saif S Al-Sobhi, Fouad Al-Dayel, and Khawla S Al-Kuraya

Thyroid cancer is the most frequent endocrine cancer with an increasing incidence rate worldwide and is the second most common malignancy among females in Saudi Arabia. Papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) is the most common subtype. Germline pathogenic variants in the proofreading domain of the POLE and POLD1 genes predispose to several types of cancers. However, the role of pathogenic variants of these two genes in PTC remains unknown. Capture sequencing, Sanger sequencing and immunohistochemistry were performed on 300 PTC cases from the Middle Eastern region. One germline pathogenic variant each of POLE (1/300, 0.33%) and POLD1 (1/300, 0.33%) genes was identified. Low expression of POLD1 was detected in 46.5% (133/286) of cases and was significantly associated with the follicular variant of PTC (P = 0.0006), distant metastasis (P = 0.0033) and stage IV tumours (P = 0.0081). However, no somatic pathogenic variant was detected in POLE gene. Furthermore, low expression of POLE was noted in 61.7% (175/284) of cases with no significant clinicopathological associations. Our study shows that pathogenic variant in the POLE and POLD1 proofreading domain is a cause of PTC and low expression of POLD1 is associated with poor prognostic markers in the Middle Eastern population. Further studies from different geographic populations are needed to determine the frequency and spectrum of proofreading domain pathogenic variants in POLE and POLD1 genes and in PTC from different ethnicities.

Open access

Myrian Velasco, Rosa Isela Ortiz-Huidobro, Carlos Larqué, Yuriko Itzel Sánchez-Zamora, José Romo-Yáñez, and Marcia Hiriart

Objective:

We assessed the sex-specific differences in the molecular mechanisms of insulin resistance in muscle and adipose tissue, in a MS rat model induced by a high sucrose diet.

Methods:

Male, female, and ovariectomized female Wistar rats were randomly distributed in control and high-sucrose diet (HSD) groups, supplemented for 24 weeks with 20% sucrose in the drinking water. At the end, we assessed parameters related to MS, analyzing the effects of the HSD on critical nodes of the insulin signaling pathway in muscle and adipose tissue.

Results:

At the end of the treatment, HSD groups of both sexes developed obesity, with a 15, 33 and 23% of body weight gain in male, female, and OVX groups respectively, compared with controls; mainly related to hypertrophy of peripancreatic and gonadal adipose tissue. They also developed hypertriglyceridemia, and liver steatosis, with the last being worse in the HSD females. Compared to the control groups, HSD rats had higher IL1B and TNFA levels and insulin resistance. HSD females were more intolerant to glucose than HSD males. Our observations suggest that insulin resistance mechanisms include an increase in phosphorylated AKT(S473) form in HSD male and female groups and a decrease in phosphorylated P70S6K1(T389) in the HSD male groups from peripancreatic adipose tissue. While in gonadal adipose tissue the phosphorylated form of AKT decreased in HSD females, but not in HSD males. Finally, HSD groups showed a reduction in p-AKT levels in gastrocnemius muscle.

Conclusion:

A high-sucrose diet induces MS and insulin resistance with sex-associated differences and in a tissue-specific manner.

Open access

Yu Ah Hong, Kyung-Do Han, Jae-Seung Yun, Eun Sil Sil, Seung-Hyun Ko, and Sungjin Chung

Objective:

Although short adult height has been associated with an increasing variety of diseases and all-cause death, no reliable data exist on the association between adult height and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in diabetic patients. We investigated the relationship between short adult height, development of ESRD, and mortality in type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM).

Methods:

This nationwide population-based cohort study analyzed clinical data from a total of 2,621,907 subjects aged ≥30 years with type 2 DM between January 1, 2009 and December 31, 2012, using the National Health Insurance Database in Korea.

Results:

During a 6.9-year follow-up period, 220,457 subjects (8.4%) died, and 28,704 subjects (1.1%) started dialysis. Short adult height significantly increased the incidence of ESRD and all-cause mortality in the overall cohort analysis. In multivariable Cox models, hazard ratios (HR) for the development of ESRD comparing the highest and lowest quartiles of adult height were 0.86 (95% CI 0.83–0.89). All-cause mortality also decreased with the highest height compared to patients with the lowest height, after fully adjusting for confounding variables (HR 0.79, 95% CI 0.78–0.81). Adult height had an inverse relationship to newly diagnosed ESRD (male: HR 0.86, 95% CI 0.83–0.90, female: HR 0.84, 95% CI 0.79–0.90) and all-cause mortality (male: HR 0.81, 95% CI 0.79–0.82, female: HR 0.80, 95% CI 0.78–0.82).

Conclusions:

Short adult height is strongly associated with the increased risk of ESRD development and all-cause mortality in type 2 DM.

Open access

Jülide Durmuşoğlu, Henri J L M Timmers, Pepijn van Houten, Hans F Langenhuijsen, Ad R M M Hermus, and Annenienke C van de Ven

Background:

Adrenocortical carcinoma is a rare malignancy with a poor prognosis. We hypothesized that patients with adrenocortical carcinoma are at high risk for venous thromboembolism, given the numerous risk factors such as malignancy, abdominal surgery, immobility and hormonal excess. The aim of this study was to determine retrospectively the incidence of venous thromboembolisms after surgical treatment in patients with adrenocortical carcinoma.

Materials and methods:

A retrospective study was performed, collecting data from all patients diagnosed with adrenocortical carcinoma from 2003 to 2018 at the Radboud University Medical Centre, The Netherlands.

Results:

In 34 patients, eight postoperative venous thromboembolisms, all pulmonary embolisms, were diagnosed in the first 6 months after adrenalectomy (23.5%). In addition, one patient developed pulmonary embolism just prior to surgery and one patient 7 years after surgery. Five of the eight patients with postoperative venous thromboembolisms presented with symptomatic pulmonary embolism whereas the other three pulmonary embolisms were incidentally found on regular follow up CT scans. Seven of the eight venous thromboembolisms occurred within 10 weeks after surgery. Seven of the eight patients had advanced stage adrenocortical carcinoma and four patients already received low-molecular weight heparin during the development of the venous thromboembolism. There was one case of fatal pulmonary embolism in a patient with a cortisol producing tumor with pulmonary metastases, despite the use of a therapeutic dose thromboprophylaxis.

Conclusion:

Patients with adrenocortical carcinoma are at high risk of developing postoperative venous thromboembolisms. Prolonged postoperative thromboprophylaxis could be considered in these patients.

Open access

Barbara J Boucher

Our knowledge of vitamin D has come a long way since the 100 years it took for doctors to accept, between 1860 and 1890, that both sunlight and cod liver oil (a well-known folk remedy) cured and prevented rickets. Vitamins D2/D3 were discovered exactly a hundred years ago, and over the last 50 years vitamin D has been found to have many effects on virtually all human tissues and not just on bone health, while mechanisms affecting the actions of vitamin D at the cellular level are increasingly understood, but deficiency persists globally. Observational studies in humans have shown that better provision of vitamin D is strongly associated, dose-wise, with reductions in current and future health risks in line with the known actions of vitamin D. Randomised controlled trials, commonly accepted as providing a ‘gold standard’ for assessing the efficacy of new forms of treatment, have frequently failed to provide supportive evidence for the expected health benefits of supplementation. Such RCTs, however, have used designs evolved for testing drugs while vitamin D is a nutrient; the appreciation of this difference is critical to identifying health benefits from existing RCT data and for improving future RCT design. This report aims, therefore, to provide a brief overview of the evidence for a range of non-bony health benefits of vitamin D repletion; to discuss specific aspects of vitamin D biology that can confound RCT design and how to allow for them.

Open access

Sylvain Roumeau, Joannice Thevenon, Lemlih Ouchchane, Salwan Maqdasy, Marie Batisse-Lignier, Christian Duale, Nathalie Pham Dang, Philippe Caron, Igor Tauveron, and Laurent Devoize

Objective:

The dental and periodontal impact of GH/IGF-1 hypersecretion has been poorly investigated until now. Our aim is to precisely describe the oro-dental state of acromegalic patients and to study the impact of GH/IGF-1 hypersecretion on patients’ reported oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL).

Methods:

After collecting characteristics of their disease, acromegalic patients answered the GOHAI questionnaire assessing their OHRQoL, the AcroQoL questionnaire and then benefited from a complete stomatological and radiological examination (orthopantomogram systematically, retro-alveolar radiography or Cone Beam CT if necessary).

Results:

In total, 29 patients aged 59.1 ± 16.0 years were included. The average DMFT index (sum of Decayed, Missing and Filled Teeth per patient) was 19.0 ± 7.8. 16/29 patients had a gingivitis and 18/29 a mild to moderate chronic periodontitis, but no case of severe chronic periodontitis was found, probably because the frequency of a protective thick gingival biotype was increased (9/29). No case of generalized gingival hypertrophy or diffuse hypercementosis was observed. According to the Add-GOHAI score, only 8/26 patients had a satisfactory OHRQoL. This parameter was correlated to the acromegaly-specific quality of life according to the AcroQoL score. Interestingly, 11/29 patients had bulky oral bony outgrowths (OBO), such as large maxillary or mandibular tori and multiple vestibular exostosis.

Conclusions:

The unsatisfactory OHRQoL reported by acromegalic patients contrasts with a rather good objective oro-dental state and annual oral examination seems relevant in this population. Finally, we report that huge OBO could be helpful signposts for the diagnosis of acromegaly.