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Open access

Ida Staby, Jesper Krogh, Marianne Klose, Jonas Baekdal, Ulla Feldt-Rasmussen, Lars Poulsgaard, Jacob Bertram Springborg, and Mikkel Andreassen

Introduction: Patients with pituitary adenomas undergoing transsphenoidal surgery require pre- and post-surgery examination of pituitary hormones. There is currently no consensus on how to evaluate the adrenal axis post-surgery. The aims of this study were to investigate factors that may predict postoperative adrenal insufficiency (AI) and to investigate the overall effect of transsphenoidal surgery on the pituitary function.

Methods: One-hundred-and-forty-three consecutive patients who had undergone transsphenoidal surgery for pituitary adenomas were included. Data on tumour size, pituitary function pre-surgery, plasma basal cortisol measured within 48 hours post-surgery and pituitary function 6 months post-surgery were collected. Patients with AI prior to surgery, perioperative glucocorticoid treatment, Cushing’s disease and no re-evaluation after 1 month were excluded (n=93) in the basal cortisol analysis.

Results: Low plasma basal cortisol post-surgery, tumour size and previous pituitary surgery were predictors of AI (all p<0.05). A basal cortisol cut-off concentration of 300 nmol/L predicted AI 6 months post-surgery with a sensitivity and negative predictive value of 100%, specificity of 81% and positive predictive value of 25%. New gonadal, thyroid and adrenal axis insufficiencies accounted for 2%, 10% and 10%, respectively. The corresponding recovery rates were 17%, 7% and 24%, respectively

Conclusion: Transsphenoidal surgery had an overall beneficial effect on pituitary endocrine function. Low basal plasma cortisol measured within 48 hours after surgery, tumour size and previous surgery were identified as risk factors for AI. Measurement of basal cortisol post-surgery may help identifying patients at risk of developing AI.

Open access

Olav Inge Håskjold, Henrik Stenestø Foshaug, Therese Benedikte Iversen, Helga Charlotte Kjøren, and Vegard Heimly Brun

Objective: The basis of thyroid nodule diagnostics is ultrasound guided fine needle biopsy with cytological evaluation (FNC), if US appearance is not clearly benign. The aim of this study was to investigate the predictive potential of dedicated, expert high resolution ultrasound, to see if histopathological entities of thyroid nodules can be diagnosed without invasive FNC biopsies.

Design: Prospective case cohort study.

Methods: 180 patients with 221 thyroid nodules were examined with ultrasound and prospectively assigned to the expected histopathological diagnosis: colloid nodule, adenomatoid colloid nodule, follicular adenoma, follicular carcinoma, follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma, papillary thyroid carcinoma, or other thyroid cancer. In 101 of these, we later obtained histopathological reports for comparison.

Results: Overall accuracy for classification into discrete histopathological categories by expert ultrasound was 71.3% and Cohen’s Kappa was 0.62. The sensitivity and specificity for detecting malignancy was 97.3% and 78.1%. The diagnostic accuracy for malignancy was 85.1%. ACR-TIRADS scores for the same nodules had a sensitivity of 97.3%, specificity of 26.6%, and accuracy of 52.5%.

Conclusion: Dedicated expert high-resolution ultrasound without FNC can reliably distinguish benign versus malignant nodules, but also differentiate between several histopathological entities in thyroid nodules. There is potential for a reduction in the number of invasive FNC biopsies and diagnostic operations.

Open access

Valentina Guarnotta, Silvia Lucchese, Mariagrazia Irene Mineo, Donatella Mangione, Renato Venezia, Piero Luigi Almasio, and Carla Giordano

Objective: The aim of this study is to clarify, in girls with premature pubarche (PP), the influence of premature androgenization on the prevalence of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).

Design and patients: Ninety-nine PP girls, 63 who developed PCOS and 36 who did not develop PCOS, were cross-sectionally included. Clinical, anthropometric, and metabolic parameters were evaluated to find predictive factors of PCOS.

Results: Young females with PP showed a PCOS prevalence of 64% and showed higher prevalence of familial history of diabetes (p= 0.004) and lower prevalence of underweight (p= 0.025) than PP-NO-PCOS. In addition, girls with PP-PCOS showed higher BMI (p<0.001), waist circumference (p<0.001), total testosterone (p= 0.026), visceral adiposity index (VAI) (p= 0.013), total cholesterol (p<0.001), LDL-cholesterol (p<0.001), non-HDL-cholesterol (p<0.001) and lower age of menarche (p=0.015), ISI-Matsuda (p<0.001), DIo (p= 0.002), HDL-cholesterol (p= 0.026) than PP-NO-PCOS. Multivariate analysis showed that WC (p=0.049), ISI-Matsuda (p<0.001), oral disposition index (DIo) (p<0.001), VAI (p<0.001), total testosterone (p<0.001) and LDL-cholesterol (p<0.001) are independent predictive factors for PCOS in girls with PP.

Conclusions: Our study established a strong association between multiple risk factors and development of PCOS in PP girls. These risk factors are predominantly related to the regulation of glucose, lipid, and androgen metabolism. Among these factors, WC, ISI-Matsuda, DIo, VAI, total testosterone and LDL-cholesterol predict PCOS.

Open access

Weidi Wang, Lingjun Kong, Hongkun Guo, and Xiangjin Chen

Abstract

Background

The presence of clinically negative nodules on the contralateral lobe is common in patients with unilateral papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (PTMC). The appropriate operational strategies of contralateral thyroid nodules remain controversial. In this study, we analyzed clinical features that could be predictors for malignancy of contralateral thyroid nodules coexisting with diagnosed unilateral PTMC.

Methods

The literatures published from January 2000 to December 2019 were searched in PubMed, Cochrane Library, Embase, Web of Science, CNKI, and Wan Fang database. Odds ratio (OR) with 95% CI was used to describe categorical variables. Heterogeneity among studies was examined by the Q test and I2 test; potential publication bias was detected by Harbord test and ‘trim and fill’ method.

Results

In this meta-analysis, 2541 studies were searched and 8 studies were finally included. The results showed that the rate of carcinoma in contralateral nodules was 23% (OR = 0.23, 95% CI = 0.18–0.29). The pooled data indicated that contralateral malignancy was not associated with age, gender, primary lesion size, ipsilateral central lymph node metastasis and multifocality of contralateral lesion. The following variables have correlations with an increased risk of contralateral malignancy: multifocality of primary carcinomas (OR = 3.93, 95% CI = 2.70–5.73, P < 0.0001), capsular invasion (OR = 1.61, 95% CI = 1.10–2.36, P = 0.01), and Hashimoto's thyroiditis (OR = 1.57, 95% CI = 1.13–2.20, P = 0.008).

Conclusions

Based on our meta-analysis, the rate at which contralateral malignancies are preoperatively misdiagnosed as benign is 23%. The risk factors for contralateral malignancy in unilateral PTMC patients with contralateral clinical negative nodules include multifocality of primary carcinomas, capsular invasion, and Hashimoto's thyroiditis.

Open access

Meihua Jin, Woo Kyung Lee, Mi-Hyeon You, Ahreum Jang, Sheue-yann Cheng, Won Gu Kim, Min Ji Jeon, and Yu-Mi Lee

Background

Catabolism of serine via serine hydroxymethyltransferase2 (SHMT2) through the mitochondrial one-carbon unit pathway is important in tumorigenesis. Therefore, SHMT2 may play a role in thyroid cancer.

Methods

Thyroid tissue samples and The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database were used to evaluate SHMT2 expression in thyroid tissues and the association with clinical outcomes.

Results

SHMT2 protein expression was evaluated in thyroid tissues consisting of 52 benign nodules, 129 papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTC) and matched normal samples, and 20 anaplastic thyroid carcinomas (ATC). ATCs presented the highest (95.0%) positivity of SMHT2 protein expression. PTCs showed the second highest (73.6%) positivity of SHMT2 expression, which was significantly higher than that of benign nodules (19.2%, P = 0.016) and normal thyroid tissues (0%, P < 0.001). Analysis of TCGA data showed that SHMT2 messenger RNA (mRNA) expression was significantly higher in tumors than in normal tissues (P < 0.001). When we classified thyroid cancer into high and low groups according to SHMT2 mRNA expression levels, the thyroid differentiation score for the high SHMT2 group was significantly lower than that of the low SHMT2 group (P < 0.001). There was also a significant correlation between SHMT2 mRNA expression and the stemness index (r = 0.41, P < 0.001). The high SHMT2 group had more advanced TNM stages and shorter progression-free survival rates than the low SHMT2 group (P < 0.01 and P = 0.007, respectively).

Conclusion

SHMT2 expression is higher in thyroid cancers than normal or benign tissues and is associated with de-differentiation and poor clinical outcomes. Thus, SHMT2 might be useful as a diagnostic and prognostic marker for thyroid cancer.

Open access

Po-Chung Cheng and Chia-Hung Kao

Objective. Coronary heart disease (CHD) is a prevalent complication of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The proatherogenic low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol is an established risk factor of cardiovascular disease, and evidence also suggests that postprandial plasma glucose (PPG) levels closely delineate CHD mortality in diabetes. The investigators hypothesized that the addition of telehealth consultation to standard antidiabetic therapy may help to reduce postprandial glucose variability and plasma LDL cholesterol levels in patients with T2DM.

Methods. This cross-sectional study enrolled patients with newly diagnosed T2DM who received standard antidiabetic therapy with or without additional telehealth consultation. Participants received blood tests for plasma lipid profile and glucose levels at diagnosis of diabetes and after one month of therapeutic intervention. Laboratory results were compared between treatment groups to determine the efficacy of complementary telehealth consultation.

Results. Three hundred and seventy-five participants were enrolled. The standard treatment group had considerably greater levels of plasma LDL cholesterol than recipients of telehealth consultation (110 mg/dL vs. 93.1 mg/dL, P<0.001). Moreover, patients receiving standard treatment had greater levels of fasting plasma glucose (104 mg/dL vs. 98.5 mg/dL, P = 0.027), 2-hour PPG (169 mg/dL vs. 111 mg/dL, P<0.001), and postprandial glucose variability (65.4 mg/dL vs. 12.8 mg/dL, P<0.001) than participants under telehealth consultation.

Conclusions. Telemedicine in addition to standard antidiabetic therapy helped to reduce plasma LDL cholesterol levels and postprandial glucose variability in patients with newly diagnosed T2DM. Therefore, telehealth consultation is a suitable complement to pharmacologic therapy for diabetic patients to assist in the management of proatherogenic dyslipidemia and postprandial glucose variability.

Open access

Dimitra Argyro Vassiliadi, Ioannis Ilias, Maria Pratikaki, Edison Jahaj, Alice G Vassiliou, Maria Detsika, Kleio Ampelakiotou, Marina Koulenti, Konstantinos N Manolopoulos, Stamatis Tsipilis, Evdokia Gavrielatou, Aristidis Diamantopoulos, Alexandros Zacharis, Nicolaos Athanasiou, Stylianos Orfanos, Anastasia Kotanidou, Stylianos Tsagarakis, and Ioanna Dimopoulou

Objective

Following the evolution of COVID-19 pandemic, reports pointed on a high prevalence of thyroiditis-related thyrotoxicosis. Interpretation of thyroid tests during illness, however, is hampered by changes occurring in the context of non-thyroidal illness syndrome (NTIS). In order to elucidate these findings, we studied thyroid function in carefully selected cohorts of COVID-19 positive and negative patients.

Design

Cohort observational study.

Methods

We measured TSH, FT4, T3 within 24 h of admission in 196 patients without thyroid disease and/or confounding medications. In this study, 102 patients were SARS-CoV-2 positive; 41 admitted in the ICU, 46 in the ward and 15 outpatients. Controls consisted of 94 SARS-CoV-2 negative patients; 39 in the ICU and 55 in the ward. We designated the thyroid hormone patterns as consistent with NTIS, thyrotoxicosis and hypothyroidism.

Results

A NTIS pattern was encountered in 60% of ICU and 36% of ward patients, with similar frequencies between SARS-CoV-2 positive and negative patients (46.0% vs 46.8%, P = NS). A thyrotoxicosis pattern was observed in 14.6% SARS-CoV-2 ICU patients vs 7.7% in ICU negative (P = NS) and, overall in 8.8% of SARS-CoV-2 positive vs 7.4% of negative patients. In these patients, thyroglobulin levels were similar to those with normal thyroid function or NTIS. The hypothyroidism pattern was rare.

Conclusions

NTIS pattern is common and relates to the severity of disease rather than SARS-CoV-2 infection. A thyrotoxicosis pattern is less frequently observed with similar frequency between patients with and without COVID-19. It is suggested that thyroid hormone monitoring in COVID-19 should not differ from other critically ill patients.

Open access

Tatsuya Kondo, Nobukazu Miyakawa, Sayaka Kitano, Takuro Watanabe, Rieko Goto, Mary Ann Suico, Miki Sato, Yuki Takaki, Masaji Sakaguchi, Motoyuki Igata, Junji Kawashima, Hiroyuki Motoshima, Takeshi Matsumura, Hirofumi Kai, and Eiichi Araki

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is often accompanied by metabolic disorders such as metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Heat shock response (HSR) is one of the most important homeostatic abilities but is deteriorated by chronic metabolic insults. Heat shock (HS) with an appropriate mild electrical stimulation (MES) activates HSR and improves metabolic abnormalities including insulin resistance, hyperglycemia and inflammation in metabolic disorders. To analyze the effects of HS + MES treatment on NAFLD biomarkers, three cohorts including healthy men (two times/week, n = 10), patients with metabolic syndrome (four times/week, n = 40), and patients with T2DM (n = 100; four times/week (n = 40) and two, four, seven times/week (n = 20 each)) treated with HS + MES were retrospectively analyzed. The healthy subjects showed no significant alterations in NAFLD biomarkers after the treatment. In patients with metabolic syndrome, many of the NAFLD steatosis markers, including fatty liver index, NAFLD-liver fat score, liver/spleen ratio and hepatic steatosis index and NAFLD fibrosis marker, aspartate aminotransferase/alanine aminotransferase (AST/ALT) ratio, were improved upon the treatment. In patients with T2DM, all investigated NAFLD steatosis markers were improved and NAFLD fibrosis markers such as the AST/ALT ratio, fibrosis-4 index and NAFLD-fibrosis score were improved upon the treatment. Thus, HS + MES, a physical intervention, may become a novel treatment strategy for NAFLD as well as metabolic disorders.

Open access

H Vlaardingerbroek, E L T van den Akker, and A C S Hokken-Koelega

Obesity is reaching an epidemic state and has a major impact on health and economy. In most cases, obesity is caused by lifestyle factors. However, the risk of becoming obese differs highly between people. Individual's differences in lifestyle, genetic, and neuroendocrine factors play a role in satiety, hunger and regulation of body weight. In a small percentage of children and adults with obesity, an underlying hormonal or genetic cause can be found. The aim of this review is to present and compare data on the extreme ends of the obesity and undernutrition spectrum in patients with Prader–Willi syndrome (PWS), Bardet–Biedl syndrome (BBS), acquired hypothalamic obesity in craniopharyngioma patients, and anorexia nervosa. This may give more insight into the role of neuroendocrine factors and might give direction for future research in conditions of severe obesity and underweight.

Open access

Lei Hu, Xiao Liu, Chong Pei, Li Xie, and Nianan He

Objective

We evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of perinodular stiffness, four risk stratification systems (RSSs) (KWAK-TIRADS, ACR-TIRADS, EU-TIRADS, and C-TIRADS), and the combination of perinodular stiffness and the four RSSs in differentiating malignant from benign thyroid nodules (TNs).

Methods

A total of 788 TNs in 726 patients were examined with conventional ultrasound (US) examination and sound touch elastography (STE). All TNs were classified by each of the four RSSs. The stiffness inside (E) the TNs was measured by STE. The stiffness of the 2.0-mm perinodular region (Eshell) was measured with the Shell measurement function of STE. The diagnostic performances of four RSSs, the E values, and the Eshell values were evaluated. All TNs were further divided into subgroups based on size (≤ 10 mm group and > 10 mm group).

Results

Ninety-six TNs were classified as benign and 692 as malignant. Among the single-method approaches, ACR-TIRADS showed the highest AUC (0.77) for differentiating malignant from benign TNs for all TNs included. Eshell showed the highest AUC (0.75) in differentiating malignant from benign TNs for TNs with sizes ≤ 10 mm, and there were no significant differences in AUC among all single methods for diagnosis of TNs with sizes > 10 mm (P > 0.05). The combination of C-TIRADS and Eshell/E yielded the highest AUC for all TNs (0.83) and for TNs with size ≤ 10 mm (0.85) compared with other combinations.

Conclusions

Eshell/E combined with conventional US improves the diagnostic accuracy in TNs and may reduce unnecessary fine-needle aspiration.