Parathyroid hormone has been related with the risk of hypertension, but the matter remains controversial. We examined the association of parathyroid hormone with central blood pressure and its determinants in 622 normotensive or never-treated hypertensive subjects aged 19–72 years without diabetes, cardiovascular or renal disease, or cardiovascular medications. The methods were whole-body impedance cardiography and analyses of pulse wave and heart rate variability. Cardiovascular function was examined in sex-specific tertiles of plasma parathyroid hormone (mean concentrations 3.0, 4.3 and 6.5 pmol/L, respectively) during head-up tilt. Explanatory factors for haemodynamics were further investigated using linear regression analyses. Mean age was 45.0 (s.d. 11.7) years, BMI 26.8 (4.4) kg/m2, seated office blood pressure 141/90 (21/12) mmHg, and 309 subjects (49.7%) were male. Only five participants had elevated plasma parathyroid hormone and calcium concentrations. Highest tertile of parathyroid hormone presented with higher supine and upright aortic diastolic blood pressure (P < 0.01) and augmentation index (P < 0.01), and higher upright systemic vascular resistance (P < 0.05) than the lowest tertile. The tertiles did not present with differences in pulse wave velocity, cardiac output, or measures of heart rate variability. In linear regression analyses, parathyroid hormone was an independent explanatory factor for aortic systolic (P = 0.005) and diastolic (P = 0.002) blood pressure, augmentation index (P = 0.002), and systemic vascular resistance (P = 0.031). To conclude, parathyroid hormone was directly related to central blood pressure, wave reflection, and systemic vascular resistance in subjects without cardiovascular comorbidities and medications. Thus, parathyroid hormone may play a role in the pathophysiology of primary hypertension.
Lasse Oinonen, Antti Tikkakoski, Jenni Koskela, Arttu Eräranta, Mika Kähönen, Onni Niemelä, Jukka Mustonen, and Ilkka Pörsti
Marta Araujo-Castro, Héctor Pian, Ignacio Ruz-Caracuel, Alberto Acitores Cancela, Eider Pascual-Corrales, and Víctor Rodríguez Berrocal
To evaluate whether presurgical treatment using long-acting somatostatin receptor ligands (SRL) may change pituitary tumor consistency and improve surgical outcome in GH-secreting pituitary macroadenomas.
Retrospective study of 40 patients with GH-secreting pituitary macroadenomas operated for the first time by endoscopic transsphenoidal approach. Tumor consistency was evaluated intraoperatively and then correlated with histopathological fibrosis parameters and surgical outcomes. Surgical remission was reported based on the 2010 criteria.
The mean tumor size of GH-secreting macroadenomas was of 16.9 ± 8.2 mm and 25 were invasive pituitary adenomas (PAs). Presurgical treatment with long-acting SRL was performed in 17 patients (11 lanreotide, 6 octreotide). The cure rate was higher in those patients pre-treated with monthly doses ≥30 mg of octreotide or ≥90 mg of lanreotide than in those treated with lower doses or untreated (8/11 (72.7%) vs 11/29 (37.9%), P = 0.049). However, although the proportion of soft tumors increased as higher doses of SRL were considered in the pre-treated group, no statistical significance was reached, even when the highest approved monthly doses were used (6/6 (100%) vs 23/34 (67.7%), P = 0.102). Moreover, we found that the remission rate was similar between fibrous and soft tumors (P = 0.873) and also of surgical complications (P = 0.859), despite of the higher prevalence of Knosp >2 (P = 0.035) and very large PA (P = 0.025) in fibrous tumors than in soft tumors.
Although presurgical treatment with high doses of SRL was associated with a 2.2-fold greater chance of surgical remission, this benefit was not related with changes in tumor consistency induced by the presurgical treatment.
Cecília Cristelo, Alexandra Machado, Bruno Sarmento, and Francisco Miguel Gama
Type 1 diabetes has an increasingly greater incidence and prevalence with no cure available. Vitamin D supplementation is well documented to reduce the risk of developing type 1 diabetes. Being involved in the modulation of cathelicidin expression, the question whether cathelicidin may be one of the underlying cause arises. Cathelicidin has been implicated in both the development and the protection against type 1 diabetes by mediating the interplay between the gut microbiome, the immune system and β cell function. While its potential on type 1 diabetes treatment seems high, the understanding of its effects is still limited. This review aims to contribute to a more comprehensive understanding of the potential of vitamin D and cathelicidin as adjuvants in type 1 diabetes therapy.
Jose M Garcia, Beverly M K Biller, Márta Korbonits, Vera Popovic, Anton Luger, Christian J Strasburger, Philippe Chanson, Ronald Swerdloff, Christina Wang, Rosa Rosanna Fleming, Fredric Cohen, Nicola Ammer, Gilbert Mueller, Nicky Kelepouris, Frank Strobl, Vlady Ostrow, and Kevin C J Yuen
The macimorelin test is approved for the diagnosis of adult growth hormone deficiency (AGHD) based on its efficacy vs the insulin tolerance test (ITT). Macimorelin has a significant advantage over ITT in avoiding hypoglycemia. Analyses were conducted to determine whether macimorelin performance is affected by age, BMI, or sex, and evaluate its performance vs ITT over a range of GH cutpoints.
Post hoc analyses of data from a previous randomized phase 3 study included participants aged 18–66 years with BMI <37 kg/m2 and high (Group A), intermediate (Group B), or low (Group C) likelihood for AGHD based on pituitary history, and matched controls (Group D).
Probability of AGHD was estimated using unadjusted, age-adjusted, BMI-adjusted, and sex-adjusted logistic models. Area under the curve (AUC) of the estimated receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (range, 0–1; 1 = perfect) was compared for adjusted vs unadjusted models. Separate analyses evaluated agreement, sensitivity, and specificity for macimorelin and ITT using cutpoints of 2.8, 4.0, 5.1, and 6.5 ng/mL.
For participants in Group A (n = 41) and Group D (n = 29), unadjusted, age-adjusted, BMI-adjusted, and sex-adjusted models had ROC AUCs (95% CIs) of 0.9924 (0.9807–1), 0.9924 (0.9807–1), 0.9916 (0.9786–1), and 0.9950 (0.9861–1), respectively.
Macimorelin performance was not meaningfully affected by age, BMI, or sex, indicating robustness for AGHD diagnosis. Of the 4 GH cutpoints evaluated, the cutpoint of 5.1 ng/mL provided maximal specificity (96%) and high sensitivity (92%) and was in good overall agreement with the ITT at the same cutpoint (87%).
Enora Le Roux, Florence Menesguen, Isabelle Tejedor, Marc Popelier, Marine Halbron, Pauline Faucher, Sabine Malivoir, Graziella Pinto, Juliane Léger, Stephane Hatem, Michel Polak, Christine Poitou, and Philippe Touraine
The transition from paediatric to adult medicine involves risks of poor patient outcomes and of significant losses of patients to follow up. The research aimed to analyse the implementation in an initial cohort of patients of a new programme of transition to adult care based on a case management approach.
A longitudinal study of the case management approach to transition, initiated in a university hospital in France in September 2016.
Patients with the endocrine or metabolic disease diagnosed during childhood and transferred to adult care were included. The transition programme includes three steps based on case management: liaising with paediatric services, personalising care pathways, and liaising with structures outside the hospital (general practitioners, agencies in the educational and social sector).
The cohort included 500 patients, with malignant brain tumour (n = 56 (11%)), obesity (n = 55 (11%)), type 1 diabetes (n = 54 (11%)), or other disease (n = 335 (67%)). Their median age at transfer was 19, and the sex ratio was 0.5. At median 21 months of follow-up, 439 (88%) had a regular follow-up in or outside the hospital, 47 (9%) had irregular follow-up (absence at the last appointment or no appointment scheduled within the time recommended), 4 had stopped care on doctor’s advice, 4 had died, 3 had moved, and 3 had refused care. The programme involved 9615 case management actions; 7% of patients required more than 50 actions. Patients requiring most support were usually those affected by a rare genetic form of obesity.
Case managers successfully addressed the complex needs of patients. Over time, the cohort will provide unprecedented long-term outcome results for patients with various conditions who experienced this form of transition.
Sondra O’Callaghan and Hanford Yau
Palliation of symptoms related to malignancy-associated hypercalcemia (MAH) is essential and clinically meaningful for patients, given the continued poor prognosis, with high morbidity and mortality associated with this disease process. Historically, agents have been temporizing, having no impact on patient morbidity nor survival. We suggest that cinacalcet can be an efficacious agent to be taken orally, reducing patients’ time in the hospital/clinic settings. It is well-tolerated and maintains serum calcium levels in the normal range, while targeted cancer treatments can be employed. This has a direct, major impact on morbidity. Maintaining eucalcemia can increase quality of life, while allowing targeted therapies time to improve survival. Given that our case (and others) showed calcium reduction in MAH, there is promising evidence that cinacalcet can be more widely employed in this setting. Future consideration should be given to studies addressing the efficacy of cinacalcet in calcium normalization, improvement of quality of life, and impact on survival in patients with MAH. Though the exact mechanism of action for cinacalcet’s reduction in calcium in this setting is not currently known, we can still afford patients the possible benefit from it.
Ju-shuang Li, Tao Wang, Jing-jing Zuo, Cheng-nan Guo, Fang Peng, Shu-zhen Zhao, Hui-hui Li, Xiang-qing Hou, Yuan Lan, Ya-ping Wei, Chao Zheng, and Guang-yun Mao
Diabetic retinopathy (DR), the most common microvascular complication of diabetes and leading cause of visual impairment in adults worldwide, is suggested to be linked to abnormal lipid metabolism. The present study aims to comprehensively investigate the relationship between n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and DR. This was a propensity score matching based case–control study, including 69 pairs of DR patients and type 2 diabetic patients without DR with mean age of 56.7 ± 9.2 years. Five n-6 PUFAs were determined by UPLC-ESI-MS/MS system. Principle component regression (PCR) and multiple conditional logistic regression models were used to investigate the association of DR risk with n-6 PUFAs depending on independent training and testing sets, respectively. According to locally weighted regression model, we observed obvious negative correlation between levels of five n-6 PUFAs (linoleic acid, γ-linolenic acid, eicosadienoic acid, dihomo-γ-linolenic acid and arachidonicacid) and DR. Based on multiple PCR model, we also observed significant negative association between the five n-6 PUFAs and DR with adjusted OR (95% CI) as 0.62 (0.43,0.87). When being evaluated depending on the testing set, the association was still existed, and PCR model had excellent classification performance, in which area under the curve (AUC) was 0.88 (95% CI: 0.78, 0.99). In addition, the model also had valid calibration with a non-significant Hosmer–Lemeshow Chi-square of 9.44 (P = 0.307) in the testing set. n-6 PUFAs were inversely associated with the presence of DR, and the principle component could be potential indicator in distinguishing DR from other T2D patients.
Malgorzata Oczko-Wojciechowska, Agnieszka Czarniecka, Tomasz Gawlik, Barbara Jarzab, and Jolanta Krajewska
Medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) is a rare thyroid malignancy, which arises from parafollicular C-cells. It occurs in the hereditary or sporadic form. Hereditary type is a consequence of activation of the RET proto-oncogene by germline mutations, whereas about 80% of sporadic MTC tumors harbor somatic, mainly RET or rarely RAS mutations. According to the current ATA guidelines, a postoperative MTC risk stratification and long-term follow-up are mainly based on histopathological data, including tumor stage, the presence of lymph node and/or distant metastases (TNM classification), and serum concentration of two biomarkers: calcitonin (Ctn) and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). The type of RET germline mutation also correlates with MTC clinical characteristics. The most common and the best known RET mutation in sporadic MTC, localized at codon 918, is related to a more aggressive MTC course and poorer survival. However, even if histopathological or clinical features allow to predict a long-term prognosis, they are not sufficient to select the patients showing aggressive MTC courses requiring immediate treatment or those, who are refractory to different therapeutic methods. Besides the RET gene mutations, there are currently no other reliable molecular prognostic markers. This review summarizes the present data of genomic investigation on molecular prognostic factors in medullary thyroid cancer.
Jing Zhang, Zhiyong Zhao, Li Dong, Tao Han, Guojin Zhang, Yuntai Cao, and Junlin Zhou
Introduction and aim
It is difficult to distinguish between non-functioning pituitary macroadenomas (NFPMAs) and sellar meningiomas because of their overlapping imaging manifestations on routine MRI, especially in cases of meningiomas growing into the saddle. Here, we aimed to differentiate between these two tumors using apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values and MRI characteristics.
A total of 60 NFPMA and 52 sellar meningioma cases confirmed by the pathological analysis were retrospectively reviewed. All patients were examined via routine MRI and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) before undergoing surgery. The clinical characteristics, MRI characteristics, and max ADC (ADCmax), average ADC (ADCmean), and minimum ADC (ADCmin) values were compared between the two tumors via Chi-square test and two sample t-tests. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve and binary logistic regression analyses were conducted to determine the discrimination ability.
The ADCmax, ADCmean, and ADCmin values were significantly higher in NFPMAs compared to sellar meningiomas (P < 0.001 for all). Among ADC values, ADCmax demonstrated good performance with an AUC of 0.896 (95% CI, 0.823–0.969) and accuracy of 88.7%. A cut-off value of 0.97 × 10−3 mm2/s was used for ADCmax for differentiation between tumors. A combination of ADCmax values and clinicoradiological features showed the best discrimination ability for differential diagnosis between the two tumors, with an AUC of 0.981 (95% CI, 0.958–1.000) and accuracy of 96.9%.
A combination of ADCmax and clinicoradiological features demonstrates good discrimination ability and high accuracy for differentiation between NFPMAs and sellar meningiomas, and is a potential quantitative tool to aid in the selection of surgical techniques.
Jasmin Asberger, Thalia Erbes, Markus Jaeger, Gerta Rücker, Claudia Nöthling, Andrea Ritter, Kai Berner, Ingolf Juhasz-Böss, and Marc Hirschfeld
Breast cancer (BC) represents the most common type of cancer in females worldwide. Endocrine therapy evolved as one of the main concepts in treatment of hormone-receptor positive BC. Current research focuses on the elucidation of tumour resistance mechanisms against endocrine therapy. In a translational in vitro approach, potential regulatory effects of clinically implemented BC anti-oestrogens on ERα, its coactivators DDX5, DDX17 and other DEADbox proteins as well as on the proliferation markers cyclin D1 and Ki67 were investigated on both the RNA and protein level. BC in vitro models for hormone-receptor positive (MCF-7, T-47D) and hormone-receptor negative cells (BT-20) were subjected to endocrine therapy. Anti-oestrogen-dependent expression regulation of target genes on the transcriptional and translational level was quantified and statistically assessed. Endocrine therapy decreases the expression levels of Ki67, cyclin D1 and ERα in hormone-receptor positive cells. In the hormone-receptor negative cells, the three parameters remained stable after endocrine therapy. Endoxifen triggers a downregulation of DDX5 and DDX23 in MCF-7 cells. Fulvestrant treatment downregulates the expression levels of all investigated DEADbox proteins in MCF-7 cells. In T-47D cells, endoxifen and fulvestrant lead to a decrease of all target gene expression levels. Interestingly, endocrine therapy affects DEADbox RNA expression levels in BT-20 cells, too. However, this result could only be confirmed for DDX1, immunocytologically. The investigated DEADbox proteins appear to correlate with the oestrogen-dependent tumourigenesis in hormone-receptor positive BC and show expression alterations after endocrine treatment.