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Hans Valdemar López Krabbe Department of Growth and Reproduction, Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark
International Centre for Research and Research Training in Endocrine Disruption of Male Reproduction and Child Health (EDMaRC), Copenhagen University Hospital - Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark

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Jørgen Holm Petersen Department of Growth and Reproduction, Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark
International Centre for Research and Research Training in Endocrine Disruption of Male Reproduction and Child Health (EDMaRC), Copenhagen University Hospital - Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark
Section of Biostatistics, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark

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Louise Laub Asserhøj Department of Growth and Reproduction, Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark
International Centre for Research and Research Training in Endocrine Disruption of Male Reproduction and Child Health (EDMaRC), Copenhagen University Hospital - Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark
Department of Fertility, Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark

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Trine Holm Johannsen Department of Growth and Reproduction, Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark
International Centre for Research and Research Training in Endocrine Disruption of Male Reproduction and Child Health (EDMaRC), Copenhagen University Hospital - Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark

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Peter Christiansen Department of Growth and Reproduction, Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark
International Centre for Research and Research Training in Endocrine Disruption of Male Reproduction and Child Health (EDMaRC), Copenhagen University Hospital - Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark

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Rikke Beck Jensen Department of Growth and Reproduction, Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark
International Centre for Research and Research Training in Endocrine Disruption of Male Reproduction and Child Health (EDMaRC), Copenhagen University Hospital - Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark
Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark

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Line Hartvig Cleemann Department of Growth and Reproduction, Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark
International Centre for Research and Research Training in Endocrine Disruption of Male Reproduction and Child Health (EDMaRC), Copenhagen University Hospital - Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark

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Casper P Hagen Department of Growth and Reproduction, Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark
International Centre for Research and Research Training in Endocrine Disruption of Male Reproduction and Child Health (EDMaRC), Copenhagen University Hospital - Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark

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Lærke Priskorn Department of Growth and Reproduction, Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark
International Centre for Research and Research Training in Endocrine Disruption of Male Reproduction and Child Health (EDMaRC), Copenhagen University Hospital - Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark

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Niels Jørgensen Department of Growth and Reproduction, Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark
International Centre for Research and Research Training in Endocrine Disruption of Male Reproduction and Child Health (EDMaRC), Copenhagen University Hospital - Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark

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Katharina M Main Department of Growth and Reproduction, Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark
International Centre for Research and Research Training in Endocrine Disruption of Male Reproduction and Child Health (EDMaRC), Copenhagen University Hospital - Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark
Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark

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Anders Juul Department of Growth and Reproduction, Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark
International Centre for Research and Research Training in Endocrine Disruption of Male Reproduction and Child Health (EDMaRC), Copenhagen University Hospital - Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark
Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark

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Lise Aksglaede Department of Growth and Reproduction, Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark
International Centre for Research and Research Training in Endocrine Disruption of Male Reproduction and Child Health (EDMaRC), Copenhagen University Hospital - Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark

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Adult patients with Klinefelter syndrome (KS) are characterized by a highly variable phenotype, including tall stature, obesity, and hypergonadotropic hypogonadism, as well as an increased risk of developing insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome, and osteoporosis. Most adults need testosterone replacement therapy (TRT), whereas the use of TRT during puberty has been debated. In this retrospective, observational study, reproductive hormones and whole-body dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry-derived body composition and bone mineral content were standardized to age-related standard deviation scores in 62 patients with KS aged 5.9–20.6 years. Serum concentrations of total testosterone and inhibin B were low, whereas luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone were high in patients before TRT. Despite normal body mass index, body fat percentage and the ratio between android fat percentage and gynoid fat percentage were significantly higher in the entire group irrespective of treatment status. In patients evaluated before and during TRT, a tendency toward a more beneficial body composition with a significant reduction in the ratio between android fat percentage and gynoid fat percentage during TRT was found. Bone mineral content (BMC) did not differ from the reference, but BMC corrected for bone area was significantly lower when compared to the reference. This study confirms that patients with KS have an unfavorable body composition and an impaired bone mineral status already during childhood and adolescence. Systematic studies are needed to evaluate whether TRT during puberty will improve these parameters.

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Kimberly Kuiper Clinical Neurodevelopmental Sciences, Leiden University, Leiden, The Netherlands
Leiden Institute for Brain and Cognition, Leiden, The Netherlands

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Hanna Swaab Clinical Neurodevelopmental Sciences, Leiden University, Leiden, The Netherlands
Leiden Institute for Brain and Cognition, Leiden, The Netherlands

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Nicole Tartaglia eXtraordinarY Kids Clinic, Developmental Pediatrics, Children’s Hospital Colorado, Aurora, Colorado
Department of Pediatrics, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado

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Sophie van Rijn Clinical Neurodevelopmental Sciences, Leiden University, Leiden, The Netherlands
Leiden Institute for Brain and Cognition, Leiden, The Netherlands

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The presence of an additional X or Y chromosome (sex chromosome trisomies, SCT) is associated with an increased risk for neurodevelopmental difficulties, including socio-emotional problems, across the life span. Studying emotion regulation in young children with SCT could signal deviations in emotional development that serve as risk markers to guide clinical care. This study explored the presence and variety of emotion regulation strategies in 75 SCT children and 81 population-based controls, aged 1–7 years, during a frustration-inducing event in which physiological (heart rate) and observational data (behavioral responses) were collected. Children with SCT were equally physiologically aroused by the event as compared to controls. However, they showed more emotion regulation difficulties in terms of behavior compared to controls that were not explicable in terms of differences in general intellectual functioning. Specifically, they had a more limited range of behavioral alternatives and tended to rely longer on inefficient strategies with increasing age. The field of practice should be made aware of these early risk findings regarding emotion regulation in SCT, which may potentially lay the foundation for later socio-emotional problems, given the significant impact of emotion regulation on child and adult mental health outcomes. The current results may help to design tailored interventions to reduce the impact of the additional sex chromosome on adaptive functioning, psychopathology, and quality of life.

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Andre Madsen Hormone Laboratory, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Pharmacology, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, Norway
Department of Growth and Reproduction, Copenhagen University Hospital - Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark

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Anders Juul Department of Growth and Reproduction, Copenhagen University Hospital - Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark
International Center for Research and Research Training in Endocrine Disruption of Male Reproduction and Child Health (EDMaRC), Copenhagen University Hospital - Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark
Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark

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Lise Aksglaede Department of Growth and Reproduction, Copenhagen University Hospital - Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark
International Center for Research and Research Training in Endocrine Disruption of Male Reproduction and Child Health (EDMaRC), Copenhagen University Hospital - Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark

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Objective

Klinefelter syndrome (KS) is the most common sex chromosome disorder and genetic cause of infertility in males. A highly variable phenotype contributes to the fact that a large proportion of cases are never diagnosed. Typical hallmarks in adults include small testes and azoospermia which may prompt biochemical evaluation that typically shows extremely high follicle-stimulating hormone and low/undetectable inhibin B serum concentrations. However, in prepubertal KS individuals, biochemical parameters are largely overlapping those of prepubertal controls. We aimed to characterize clinical profiles of prepubertal boys with KS in relation to controls and to develop a novel biochemical classification model to identify KS before puberty.

Methods

Retrospective, longitudinal data from 15 prepubertal boys with KS and data from 1475 controls were used to calculate age- and sex-adjusted standard deviation scores (SDS) for height and serum concentrations of reproductive hormones and used to infer a decision tree classification model for KS.

Results

Individual reproductive hormones were low but within reference ranges and did not discriminate KS from controls. Clinical and biochemical profiles including age- and sex-adjusted SDS from multiple reference curves provided input data to train a ‘random forest’ machine learning (ML) model for the detection of KS. Applied to unseen data, the ML model achieved a classification accuracy of 78% (95% CI, 61–94%).

Conclusions

Supervised ML applied to clinically relevant variables enabled computational classification of control and KS profiles. The application of age- and sex-adjusted SDS provided robust predictions irrespective of age. Specialized ML models applied to combined reproductive hormone concentrations may be useful diagnostic tools to improve the identification of prepubertal boys with KS.

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Sophie van Rijn Clinical Neurodevelopmental Sciences, Leiden University, Wassenaarseweg, Leiden, The Netherlands
TRIXY Center of Expertise, Leiden University Treatment and Expertise Centre (LUBEC), Sandifortdreef, Leiden, The Netherlands
Leiden Institute for Brain and Cognition, Leiden University, Wassenaarseweg, Leiden, The Netherlands

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Kimberly Kuiper Clinical Neurodevelopmental Sciences, Leiden University, Wassenaarseweg, Leiden, The Netherlands
TRIXY Center of Expertise, Leiden University Treatment and Expertise Centre (LUBEC), Sandifortdreef, Leiden, The Netherlands
Leiden Institute for Brain and Cognition, Leiden University, Wassenaarseweg, Leiden, The Netherlands

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Nienke Bouw Clinical Neurodevelopmental Sciences, Leiden University, Wassenaarseweg, Leiden, The Netherlands
TRIXY Center of Expertise, Leiden University Treatment and Expertise Centre (LUBEC), Sandifortdreef, Leiden, The Netherlands
Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry/Psychology, Erasmus MC, Sophia Children’s Hospital, Dr. Molewaterplein, Rotterdam, The Netherlands

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Evelien Urbanus Clinical Neurodevelopmental Sciences, Leiden University, Wassenaarseweg, Leiden, The Netherlands
TRIXY Center of Expertise, Leiden University Treatment and Expertise Centre (LUBEC), Sandifortdreef, Leiden, The Netherlands
Department of Clinical, Neuro, and Developmental Psychology, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Van der Boechorststraat, Amsterdam, The Netherlands

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Hanna Swaab Clinical Neurodevelopmental Sciences, Leiden University, Wassenaarseweg, Leiden, The Netherlands
TRIXY Center of Expertise, Leiden University Treatment and Expertise Centre (LUBEC), Sandifortdreef, Leiden, The Netherlands
Leiden Institute for Brain and Cognition, Leiden University, Wassenaarseweg, Leiden, The Netherlands

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Investigating sex chromosome trisomies (SCTs) may help in understanding neurodevelopmental pathways underlying the risk for neurobehavioral problems and psychopathology. Knowledge about the neurobehavioral phenotype is needed to improve clinical care and early intervention for children with SCT. This is especially relevant considering the increasing number of early diagnosed children with the recent introduction of noninvasive prenatal screening. The TRIXY Early Childhood Study is a longitudinal study designed to identify early neurodevelopmental risks in children with SCT, aged 1–7 years. This review summarizes the results from the TRIXY Early Childhood Study, focusing on early behavioral symptoms in areas of autism spectrum disorder, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, and communication disorders, and underlying neurocognitive mechanisms in domains of language, emotion regulation, executive functioning, and social cognition. Behavioral symptoms were assessed through structured behavior observation and parental questionnaires. Neurocognition was measured using performance tests, eyetracking, and psychophysiological measures of arousal. In total, 209 children aged 1–7 years were included: 107 children with SCT (33 XXX, 50 XXY, and 24 XYY) and 102 age-matched population controls. Study outcomes showed early behavioral symptoms in young children with SCT, and neurocognitive vulnerabilities, already from an early age onward. Neurobehavioral and neurocognitive difficulties tended to become more pronounced with increasing age and were rather robust, independent of specific karyotype, pre/postnatal diagnosis, or ascertainment strategy. A more longitudinal perspective on neurodevelopmental ‘at-risk’ pathways is warranted, also including studies assessing the effectiveness of targeted early interventions. Neurocognitive markers that signal differences in neurodevelopment may prove to be helpful in this. Focusing on early development of language, social cognition, emotion regulation, and executive functioning may help in uncovering early essential mechanisms of (later) neurobehavioral outcome, allowing for more targeted support and early intervention.

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Veronica Astro Biological and Environmental Science and Engineering Division, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, Thuwal, Saudi Arabia

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Elisabetta Fiacco Biological and Environmental Science and Engineering Division, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, Thuwal, Saudi Arabia

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Kelly Johanna Cardona-Londoño Biological and Environmental Science and Engineering Division, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, Thuwal, Saudi Arabia

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Ilario De Toma Sequentia Biotech SL, Barcelona, Spain

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Hams Saeed Alzahrani Department of Genetic Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

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Jumana Alama Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, Faculty of Applied Medical Sciences, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

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Amal Kokandi Department of Dermatology, Faculty of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

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Taha Abo-Almagd Abdel-Meguid Hamoda Department of Urology, Faculty of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

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Majed Felemban Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, Faculty of Applied Medical Sciences, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
Center of Innovation in Personalized Medicine, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

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Antonio Adamo Biological and Environmental Science and Engineering Division, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, Thuwal, Saudi Arabia

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Objective

The transcriptional landscape of Klinefelter syndromeduring early embryogenesis remains elusive. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of X chromosome overdosage in 47,XXY males induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) obtained from patients with different genomic backgrounds and ethnicities.

Design and method

We derived and characterized 15 iPSC lines from four Saudi 47,XXY KS patients and one Saudi 46,XY male. We performed a comparative transcriptional analysis using the Saudi KS-iPSCs and a cohort of European and North American KS-iPSCs.

Results

We identified a panel of X-linked and autosomal genes commonly dysregulated in Saudi and European/North American KS-iPSCs vs 46,XY controls. Our findings demonstrate that seven PAR1 and nine non-PAR escape genes are consistently dysregulated and mostly display comparable transcriptional levels in both groups. Finally, we focused on genes commonly dysregulated in both iPSC cohorts and identified several gene-ontology categories highly relevant to KS physiopathology, including aberrant cardiac muscle contractility, skeletal muscle defects, abnormal synaptic transmission, and behavioral alterations.

Conclusions

Our results indicate that a transcriptomic signature of X chromosome overdosage in KS is potentially attributable to a subset of X-linked genes sensitive to sex chromosome dosage and escaping X inactivation, regardless of the geographical area of origin, ethnicity, and genetic makeup.

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Shanlee M Davis Department of Pediatrics, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado, USA
eXtraOrdinarY Kids Clinic, Children's Hospital Colorado, Aurora, Colorado, USA

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Rhianna Urban Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, Minnesota, USA

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Angelo D’Alessandro Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado, USA

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Julie A Reisz Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado, USA

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Christine L Chan Department of Pediatrics, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado, USA

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Megan Kelsey Department of Pediatrics, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado, USA

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Susan Howell Department of Pediatrics, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado, USA
eXtraOrdinarY Kids Clinic, Children's Hospital Colorado, Aurora, Colorado, USA

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Nicole Tartaglia Department of Pediatrics, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado, USA
eXtraOrdinarY Kids Clinic, Children's Hospital Colorado, Aurora, Colorado, USA

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Philip Zeitler Department of Pediatrics, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado, USA
eXtraOrdinarY Kids Clinic, Children's Hospital Colorado, Aurora, Colorado, USA

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Peter Baker II Department of Pediatrics, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado, USA

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Conditions related to cardiometabolic disease, including metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes, are common among men with Klinefelter syndrome (KS). The molecular mechanisms underlying this aberrant metabolism in KS are largely unknown, although there is an assumption that chronic testosterone deficiency plays a role. This cross-sectional study compared plasma metabolites in 31 pubertal adolescent males with KS to 32 controls of similar age (14 ± 2 years), pubertal stage, and body mass index z-score of 0.1 ± 1.2 and then between testosterone-treated (n = 16) and untreated males with KS. The plasma metabolome in males with KS was distinctly different from that in controls, with 22% of measured metabolites having a differential abundance and seven metabolites nearly completely separating KS from controls (area under the curve > 0.9, P < 0.0001). Multiple saturated free fatty acids were higher in KS, while mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids were lower, and the top significantly enriched pathway was mitochondrial β-oxidation of long-chain saturated fatty acids (enrichment ratio 16, P < 0.0001). In contrast, there were no observed differences in metabolite concentrations between testosterone-treated and untreated individuals with KS. In conclusion, the plasma metabolome profile in adolescent males with KS is distinctly different from that in males without KS independent of age, obesity, pubertal development, or testosterone treatment status and is suggestive of differences in mitochondrial β-oxidation.

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Claus H Gravholt Department of Endocrinology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark
Department of Molecular Medicine, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark
Department of Clinical Medicine, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark

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Alberto Ferlin Department of Medicine, Unit of Andrology and Reproductive Medicine, University of Padova, Padova, Italy

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Joerg Gromoll Centre of Reproductive Medicine and Andrology, Münster, Germany

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Anders Juul Department of Growth and Reproduction Copenhagen University Hospital - Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark
Department of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark

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Armin Raznahan Section on Developmental Neurogenomics, National Institute of Mental Health Intramural Research Program, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA

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Sophie van Rijn Clinical Neurodevelopmental Sciences, Leiden University, Leiden, The Netherlands and TRIXY Center of Expertise, Leiden University Treatment and Expertise Centre (LUBEC), Leiden, The Netherlands

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Alan D Rogol Department of Pediatrics, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia, USA

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Anne Skakkebæk Department of Molecular Medicine, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark
Department of Clinical Medicine, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark
Department of Clinical Genetics, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark

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Nicole Tartaglia Department of Pediatrics, Developmental Pediatrics, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado, USA

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Hanna Swaab Clinical Neurodevelopmental Sciences, Leiden University, Leiden, The Netherlands and TRIXY Center of Expertise, Leiden University Treatment and Expertise Centre (LUBEC), Leiden, The Netherlands

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The 3rd International Workshop on Klinefelter Syndrome, Trisomy X, and 47,XYY syndrome was held in Leiden, the Netherlands, on September 12–14, 2022.

Here, we review new data presented at the workshop and discuss scientific and clinical trajectories. We focus on shortcomings in knowledge and therefore point out future areas for research.

We focus on the genetics and genomics of supernumerary sex chromosome syndromes with new data being presented. Most knowledge centre specifically on Klinefelter syndrome, where aspects on testosterone deficiency and the relation to bone, muscle and fat were discussed, as was infertility and the treatment thereof. Both trisomy X and 47,XYY syndrome are frequently affected by infertility.

Transitioning of males with Klinefelter syndrome was addressed, as this seemingly simple process in practise is often difficult.

It is now realized that neurocognitive changes are pervasive in all supernumerary sex chromosome syndromes, which were extensively discussed. New intervention projects were also described, and exciting new data concerning these were presented.

Advocacy organizations were present, describing the enormous burden carried by parents when having to explain their child’s specific syndrome to most professionals whenever in contact with health care and education systems. It was also pointed out that most countries do not have health care systems that diagnose patients with supernumerary sex chromosome syndromes, thus pinpointing a clear deficiency in the current genetic testing and care models.

At the end of the workshop, a roadmap towards the development of new international clinical care guidelines for Klinefelter syndrome was decided.

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