Browse

You are looking at 71 - 80 of 1,402 items for

Katica Bajuk Studen Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Centre Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia
Faculty of Medicine, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia

Search for other papers by Katica Bajuk Studen in
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Simona Gaberšček Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Centre Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia
Faculty of Medicine, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia

Search for other papers by Simona Gaberšček in
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Edvard Pirnat Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Centre Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia

Search for other papers by Edvard Pirnat in
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Nataša Bedernjak Bajuk Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Centre Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia

Search for other papers by Nataša Bedernjak Bajuk in
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Andreja Vendramin Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Centre Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia

Search for other papers by Andreja Vendramin in
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Vito Majcen Department of Nuclear Medicine, SB Celje, Celje, Slovenia

Search for other papers by Vito Majcen in
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
, and
Katja Zaletel Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Centre Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia
Faculty of Medicine, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia

Search for other papers by Katja Zaletel in
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close

Objective

The optimal corticosteroid treatment regimen for subacute thyroiditis has not yet been established. To avoid side effects, tapering of the initial dose of corticosteroid is recommended. With reducing dose, the symptoms can recur.

Design

In a prospective clinical study, a 30-day methylprednisolone (MPSL) treatment protocol with a starting dose of 24 mg/day and tapered by 4 mg every 5 days was assessed for effectiveness and safety regarding possible adrenal insufficiency.

Methods

Fifty-nine patients with subacute thyroiditis were included. At visit 1, after establishing the diagnosis, a short stimulation adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) test was performed and methylprednisolone treatment was prescribed. At visit 2 (40 ± 5 days after visit 1), clinical, laboratory (including short stimulation ACTH test), and ultrasound evaluation were repeated.

Results

Forty-eight patients (81.4%) were cured by the prescribed protocol, having significantly lower cortisol levels after stimulation at visit 1 than patients who were not cured (mean, 674.9 nmol/L and 764.0 nmol/L, respectively, P = 0.012). Seven patients (12.3%) developed adrenal insufficiency; this group had significantly lower cortisol levels after stimulation at visit 1 than patients without adrenal insufficiency development (mean, 561.5 nmol/L and 704.7 nmol/L, respectively, P = 0.005). Using stimulated cortisol level at visit 1 as the explanatory variable, logistic models were optimized to determine treatment efficacy (AUC = 0.745, optimal threshold 729 nmol/L, specificity 71%, sensitivity 73%) and adrenal function (AUC = 0.861, optimal threshold 629 nmol/L, specificity 73%, sensitivity 100%).

Conclusions

The described protocol was efficient for more than 80% of patients. Using this protocol, the corticosteroid treatment interval is shorter than proposed in current guidelines.

Significance statement

A short but effective protocol for treatment of subacute thyroiditis with methylprednisolone is presented in this article. Using this protocol, the treatment interval is shorter than proposed in current guidelines. Its safety regarding possible adrenal insufficiency is assessed.

Open access
Michael C Velarde Institute of Biology, College of Science, University of the Philippines Diliman, Quezon, Metro Manila, Philippines

Search for other papers by Michael C Velarde in
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Mikaela Erlinda M Bucu Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, College of Medicine, University of the Philippines Manila, Metro Manila, Philippines

Search for other papers by Mikaela Erlinda M Bucu in
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
, and
Maria Antonia E Habana Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, College of Medicine, University of the Philippines Manila, Metro Manila, Philippines

Search for other papers by Maria Antonia E Habana in
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close

Endometriosis is a chronic, debilitating disease characterized by the growth of endometrial tissues outside the endometrium. Its prevalence seems to differ across ethnicities, with the disease affecting and presenting with advanced stages in Asians more than any other race. Despite this, data on endometriosis in Asians is limited, and there seems to be a lack of support for endometriosis research in Asia. Hence, this review aims to consolidate the available literature on endometriosis in Asians to identify the gaps in knowledge regarding its occurrence in this population and emphasize the need to address the disease in this part of the world. Certain genetic, dietary, and environmental factors that predominate in Asians compared to other ethnicities may potentially impact endometriosis. Understanding these differences is essential in providing innovative strategies for reducing health disparities in endometriosis incidence and presentation across ethnic groups, thus improving disease management and health outcomes.

Open access
Rebeca Esquivel-Zuniga Department of Pediatrics, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia, USA

Search for other papers by Rebeca Esquivel-Zuniga in
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
and
Alan D Rogol Department of Pediatrics, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia, USA

Search for other papers by Alan D Rogol in
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close

Hypogonadism is a clinical syndrome resulting from failure to produce physiological concentrations of sex steroid hormones with accompanying symptoms, such as slowed growth and delayed pubertal maturation. Hypogonadism may arise from gonadal disease (primary hypogonadism), dysfunction of the hypothalamic–pituitary axis (secondary hypogonadism) or functional hypogonadism. Disrupted puberty (delayed or absent) leading to hypogonadism can have a significant impact on both the physical and psychosocial well-being of adolescents with lasting effects. The diagnosis of hypogonadism in teenagers can be challenging as the most common cause of delayed puberty in both sexes is self-limited, also known as constitutional delay of growth and puberty (CDGP). Although an underlying congenital cause should always be considered in a teenager with hypogonadism, acquired conditions such as obesity, diabetes mellitus, other chronic diseases and medications have all been associated with low sex steroid hormone levels. In this review, we highlight some forms of functional hypogonadism in adolescents and the clinical challenges to differentiate normal variants from pathological states.

Open access
Giuseppe Lisco Interdisciplinary Department of Medicine, Section of Internal Medicine, Geriatrics, Endocrinology and Rare Diseases, School of Medicine, University of Bari “Aldo Moro”, Piazza Giulio Cesare, Bari, Italy

Search for other papers by Giuseppe Lisco in
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Anna De Tullio Interdisciplinary Department of Medicine, Section of Internal Medicine, Geriatrics, Endocrinology and Rare Diseases, School of Medicine, University of Bari “Aldo Moro”, Piazza Giulio Cesare, Bari, Italy

Search for other papers by Anna De Tullio in
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Olga Disoteo Diabetology Unit, ASST Grande Ospedale Metropolitano Niguarda, Milan, Italy

Search for other papers by Olga Disoteo in
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Giuseppina Piazzolla Interdisciplinary Department of Medicine, Section of Internal Medicine, Geriatrics, Endocrinology and Rare Diseases, School of Medicine, University of Bari “Aldo Moro”, Piazza Giulio Cesare, Bari, Italy

Search for other papers by Giuseppina Piazzolla in
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Edoardo Guastamacchia Interdisciplinary Department of Medicine, Section of Internal Medicine, Geriatrics, Endocrinology and Rare Diseases, School of Medicine, University of Bari “Aldo Moro”, Piazza Giulio Cesare, Bari, Italy

Search for other papers by Edoardo Guastamacchia in
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Carlo Sabbà Interdisciplinary Department of Medicine, Section of Internal Medicine, Geriatrics, Endocrinology and Rare Diseases, School of Medicine, University of Bari “Aldo Moro”, Piazza Giulio Cesare, Bari, Italy

Search for other papers by Carlo Sabbà in
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Vincenzo De Geronimo Unit of Endocrinology, Policlinico Morgagni CCD, Catania, Italy

Search for other papers by Vincenzo De Geronimo in
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Enrico Papini Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Regina Apostolorum Hospital, Rome, Italy

Search for other papers by Enrico Papini in
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
, and
Vincenzo Triggiani Interdisciplinary Department of Medicine, Section of Internal Medicine, Geriatrics, Endocrinology and Rare Diseases, School of Medicine, University of Bari “Aldo Moro”, Piazza Giulio Cesare, Bari, Italy

Search for other papers by Vincenzo Triggiani in
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close

Glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RAs) have changed considerably the management of type 2 diabetes (T2D). However, recently published data from retrospective cohort studies suggest that chronic exposure to GLP-1RAs in T2D may increase the risk of papillary and medullary thyroid cancer. In this perspective, the role of the incretin system in thyroid carcinogenesis has been reviewed and critically commented on, aiming to understand if the time has arrived to be concerned about the risk. Although evidence suggested, speculative hypotheses should be verified, and further studies are urgently needed to clarify the issue.

Open access
Yasmin Shibli Abu Raya Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology, Gynecological Research Laboratory, Hillel Yaffe Medical Center, Hadera, Israel

Search for other papers by Yasmin Shibli Abu Raya in
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Asaf Bilgory Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology, Gynecological Research Laboratory, Hillel Yaffe Medical Center, Hadera, Israel

Search for other papers by Asaf Bilgory in
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Nardin Aslih Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology, Gynecological Research Laboratory, Hillel Yaffe Medical Center, Hadera, Israel

Search for other papers by Nardin Aslih in
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Yuval Atzmon Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology, Gynecological Research Laboratory, Hillel Yaffe Medical Center, Hadera, Israel

Search for other papers by Yuval Atzmon in
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Maya Shavit Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology, Gynecological Research Laboratory, Hillel Yaffe Medical Center, Hadera, Israel

Search for other papers by Maya Shavit in
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Daniela Estrada Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology, Gynecological Research Laboratory, Hillel Yaffe Medical Center, Hadera, Israel

Search for other papers by Daniela Estrada in
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Moamina Sharqawi Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology, Gynecological Research Laboratory, Hillel Yaffe Medical Center, Hadera, Israel

Search for other papers by Moamina Sharqawi in
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
, and
Einat Shalom-Paz Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology, Gynecological Research Laboratory, Hillel Yaffe Medical Center, Hadera, Israel
Ruth and Bruce Rappaport School of Medicine, The Technion Institute of Technology, Haifa, Israel

Search for other papers by Einat Shalom-Paz in
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close

This study evaluated β-human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) changes during the early period of pregnancy in an attempt to predict successful pregnancy outcomes in ART. It determined the median values of the β-hCG and the 2-day β-hCG increments of clinical vs biochemical pregnancies. The results of fresh day 3 embryo, frozen day 3 embryo, and frozen day 5 embryo transfers were evaluated. The cutoff values of β-hCG and the 2-day increments predicting clinical pregnancy and delivery were determined. All women who underwent embryo transfer and had a singleton pregnancy from January 2017 to December 2019 were included. As expected, clinical pregnancies had higher initial median β-hCG values compared to biochemical pregnancies (fresh day 3 (400 vs 73 mIU/mL), frozen day 3 (600 vs 268.5 mIU/mL) and frozen day 5 (937 vs 317 mIU/mL)). Nonetheless, the abortion rate was significantly lower in the group with β-hCG above the cutoff values in fresh (141 mIU/mL) and frozen (354.5 mIU/mL) cleavage stage transfers (17.2% vs 44%, P < 0.001 and 18.5% vs 38%, P = 0.003, respectively). Blastocyst transfers resulted in higher median initial β-hCG compared to cleavage embryo transfers (937 vs 600 mIU/mL), and the initial β-hCG values from frozen cleavage embryos were higher compared to fresh cleavage embryos (600 vs 400 mIU/mL). Earlier implantation in frozen cycles may be caused by freezing–thawing procedures. Moreover, in fresh cycles, negative effects of the hormonal milieu of fresh cycles may delay implantation. These results indicate that high initial β-hCG and high 2-day β-hCG increments demonstrated better outcomes, including more clinical pregnancies and fewer abortions.

Open access
Meghnaa Hebbar College of Medical and Dental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, United Kingdom

Search for other papers by Meghnaa Hebbar in
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Halimah Khalil College of Medical and Dental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, United Kingdom

Search for other papers by Halimah Khalil in
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Nawal Zia College of Medical and Dental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, United Kingdom

Search for other papers by Nawal Zia in
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Jameela Sheikh College of Medical and Dental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, United Kingdom

Search for other papers by Jameela Sheikh in
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Eka Melson University of Leicester, Leicester, United Kingdom

Search for other papers by Eka Melson in
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Meri Davitadze Clinic NeoLab, Tbilisi, Georgia

Search for other papers by Meri Davitadze in
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Helena Gleeson Department of Endocrinology, Queen Elizabeth Hospital, University Hospitals Birmingham NHS Foundation Trust, Birmingham, United Kingdom

Search for other papers by Helena Gleeson in
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Tejal Lathia Apollo Hospitals, Mumbai, India

Search for other papers by Tejal Lathia in
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Chitra Selvan Department of Endocrinology, M S Ramaiah Medical College, Bengaluru, India

Search for other papers by Chitra Selvan in
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Punith Kempegowda Clinic NeoLab, Tbilisi, Georgia
Department of Endocrinology, Queen Elizabeth Hospital, University Hospitals Birmingham NHS Foundation Trust, Birmingham, United Kingdom

Search for other papers by Punith Kempegowda in
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
, and
PCOS SEva Working Group
Search for other papers by PCOS SEva Working Group in
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
PCOS SEva Working Group

With increasing evidence of emotional well-being disorders associated with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), effective screening processes are of utmost importance. We studied the impact of using questionnaires to screen for emotional and psychosexual well-being across different models of care for PCOS. We analysed the data from the surveys to assess the difference in the prevalence of emotional and psychosexual ill-being across ethnicity and region. In this prospective cohort study, we invited all women attending consultations for PCOS in Birmingham, UK, and Bengaluru and Navi Mumbai, India. Those who consented to participate in the study were invited to complete a pre-clinic survey about socio-demographic data, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), Body Image Concern Inventory (BICI), Beliefs about Obese Person scale (BAOP), and Female Sexual Function Index score (FSFI) and a post-clinic survey on clinic experience, lifestyle advice, and specialist referral. A total of 115 women were included in this study. The rate of questionnaire completion was 98.3% (113/115), 97.4% (112/115), 93.04% (107/115), and 84.3% (97/115) for HADS, BICI, BAOP, and FSFI, respectively. In the post-clinic survey, 28.8% reported they were screened for anxiety, 27.1% for depression, and 45.8% for body image concerns. The prevalence of anxiety, depression, and body dysmorphic disorder through pre-clinic survey was 56.5% (50.0% UK vs 59.5% India, P = 0.483), 16.5% (13.9% UK vs 17.7% India, P = 0.529), and 29.6% (36.1% UK vs 26.6% India, P = 0.208), respectively. Surveys with validated questionnaires can improve screening for emotional and psychosexual well-being associated with PCOS which may be missed by ad hoc screening during consultations.

Open access
Margarida Brito Department of Medical Oncology, Instituto Português de Oncologia de Lisboa Francisco Gentil, Lisboa, Portugal

Search for other papers by Margarida Brito in
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Susana Prazeres Department of Clinical Pathology, Instituto Português de Oncologia de Lisboa Francisco Gentil, Lisboa, Portugal

Search for other papers by Susana Prazeres in
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
, and
Marta Malheiros Department of Clinical Pathology, Instituto Português de Oncologia de Lisboa Francisco Gentil, Lisboa, Portugal

Search for other papers by Marta Malheiros in
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close

Background

Fulvestrant resembles estradiol in its structure. Reports have been published concerning fulvestrant measured as estradiol by the immunoassays. This may induce falsely elevated estradiol results and wrongly impact medical decisions. Our aim was to confirm the interference of fulvestrant on estradiol concentration and test a method to identify the false results.

Methods

Four serum samples with low estradiol levels were spiked with fulvestrant at various concentrations. Estradiol was then measured directly on serum (Dir), after a 1:5 dilution (Dil), and a ratio Dil/Dir was estimated. On the second part of the study, estradiol results (Dir, Dil and ratio Dil/Dir) from 14 women treated with fulvestrant were analysed, as well as from 14 patients not under this treatment.

Results

The addition of exogenous fulvestrant to the serum samples induced a gradual rise on estradiol concentration with a mean ratio for the Dil/Dir samples of 2.1 ± 0.4 (range 1.7–2.9). Patients on fulvestrant treatment experienced a mean ratio for the Dil/Dir estradiol sample of 2.4 ± 0.4 (range 1.6–3.0). In the control group, a mean estradiol ratio Dil/Dir of 1.1 ± 0.1 was observed (range 0.8–1.3). No correlation between the number of days after fulvestrant injection and estradiol result (r = 0.531) was observed.

Conclusion

Our study confirmed the interference of fulvestrant in the estradiol measurement by immunoassay. When fulvestrant was present, the estradiol ratio for Dil/Dir sample was about 2. In the control group, the ratio was around 1. The estradiol Dil/Dir ratio is a simple tool which can be used to identify fulvestrant false immunoassay estradiol results.

Open access
Chaiho Jeong Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Republic of Korea

Search for other papers by Chaiho Jeong in
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Bongseong Kim Department of Medical Statistics, Soongsil University of Korea, Seoul, Republic of Korea

Search for other papers by Bongseong Kim in
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Jinyoung Kim Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Republic of Korea

Search for other papers by Jinyoung Kim in
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Hansang Baek Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Republic of Korea

Search for other papers by Hansang Baek in
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Mee Kyoung Kim Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Republic of Korea

Search for other papers by Mee Kyoung Kim in
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Tae-Seo Sohn Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Republic of Korea

Search for other papers by Tae-Seo Sohn in
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Ki-Hyun Baek Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Republic of Korea

Search for other papers by Ki-Hyun Baek in
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Ki-Ho Song Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Republic of Korea

Search for other papers by Ki-Ho Song in
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Hyun-Shik Son Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Republic of Korea

Search for other papers by Hyun-Shik Son in
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Kyungdo Han Department of Medical Statistics, Soongsil University of Korea, Seoul, Republic of Korea

Search for other papers by Kyungdo Han in
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
, and
Hyuk-Sang Kwon Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Republic of Korea

Search for other papers by Hyuk-Sang Kwon in
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close

Objective

Real-world-based population data about the optimal low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) level for preventing cardiovascular disease in very high-risk populations is scarce.

Methods

From 2009 to 2012, 26,922 people aged ≥ 40 years with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) who had a history of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) were analyzed. Data from the Korean National Health Insurance System were used. They were followed up to the date of a cardiovascular event or the time to death, or until December 31, 2018. Endpoints were recurrent PCI, newly stroke or heart failure, cardiovascular death, and all-cause death. Participants were divided into the following categories according to LDL-C level: <55 mg/dL, 55–69 mg/dL, 70–99 mg/dL, 100–129 mg/dL, 130–159 mg/dL, and ≥ 160 mg/dL.

Results

Compared to LDL-C < 55 mg/dL, the hazard ratios (HR) for re-PCI and stroke increased linearly with increasing LDL-C level in the population < 65 years. However, in ≥ 65 years old, HRs for re-PCI and stroke in LDL-C = 55–69 mg/dL were 0.97 (95% CI: 0.85–1.11) and 0.96 (95% CI: 0.79–2.23), respectively. The optimal range with the lowest HR for heart failure and all-cause mortality were LDL-C = 70–99 mg/dL and LDL-C = 55–69 mg/dL, respectively, in all age groups (HR: 0.99, 95% CI: 0.91–1.08 and HR: 0.91, 95% CI: 0.81–1.01).

Conclusion

LDL-C level below 55 mg/dL appears to be optimal in T2DM patients with established cardiovascular disease aged < 65 years, while an LDL-C level of 55–69 mg/dL may be optimal for preventing recurrent PCI and stroke in patients over 65 years old.

Open access
Nancy Martini Laboratorio de Investigaciones en Osteopatías y Metabolismo Mineral (LIOMM-UNLP-CICPBA), Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, La Plata, Argentina

Search for other papers by Nancy Martini in
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Lucas Streckwall Laboratorio de Investigaciones en Osteopatías y Metabolismo Mineral (LIOMM-UNLP-CICPBA), Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, La Plata, Argentina

Search for other papers by Lucas Streckwall in
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
, and
Antonio Desmond McCarthy Laboratorio de Investigaciones en Osteopatías y Metabolismo Mineral (LIOMM-UNLP-CICPBA), Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, La Plata, Argentina

Search for other papers by Antonio Desmond McCarthy in
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close

In post-menopausal women, aged individuals, and patients with diabetes mellitus or chronic renal disease, bone mineral density (BMD) decreases while the vasculature accumulates arterial calcifications (ACs). AC can be found in the tunica intima and/or in the tunica media. Prospective studies have shown that patients with initially low BMD and/or the presence of fragility fractures have at follow-up a significantly increased risk for coronary and cerebrovascular events and for overall cardiovascular mortality. Similarly, patients presenting with abdominal aorta calcifications (an easily quantifiable marker of vascular pathology) show a significant decrease in the BMD (and an increase in the fragility) of bones irrigated by branches of the abdominal aorta, such as the hip and lumbar spine. AC induction is an ectopic tissue biomineralization process promoted by osteogenic transdifferentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells as well as by local and systemic secreted factors. In many cases, the same regulatory molecules modulate bone metabolism but in reverse. Investigation of animal and in vitro models has identified several potential mechanisms for this reciprocal bone–vascular regulation, such as vitamin K and D sufficiency, advanced glycation end-products–RAGE interaction, osteoprotegerin/RANKL/RANK, Fetuin A, oestrogen deficiency and phytooestrogen supplementation, microbiota and its relation to diet, among others. Complete elucidation of these potential mechanisms, as well as their clinical validation via controlled studies, will provide a basis for pharmacological intervention that could simultaneously promote bone and vascular health.

Open access
Rong Xu Center for Endocrine Metabolism and Immune Diseases, Lu He Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China
Beijing Key Laboratory of Diabetes Research and Care, Beijing, China

Search for other papers by Rong Xu in
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Difei Lian Center for Endocrine Metabolism and Immune Diseases, Lu He Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China
Beijing Key Laboratory of Diabetes Research and Care, Beijing, China

Search for other papers by Difei Lian in
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Yan Xie Center for Endocrine Metabolism and Immune Diseases, Lu He Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China
Beijing Key Laboratory of Diabetes Research and Care, Beijing, China

Search for other papers by Yan Xie in
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Lin Mu Center for Endocrine Metabolism and Immune Diseases, Lu He Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China
Beijing Key Laboratory of Diabetes Research and Care, Beijing, China

Search for other papers by Lin Mu in
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Yali Wu Center for Endocrine Metabolism and Immune Diseases, Lu He Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China
Beijing Key Laboratory of Diabetes Research and Care, Beijing, China

Search for other papers by Yali Wu in
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Zhilei Chen Center for Endocrine Metabolism and Immune Diseases, Lu He Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China
Beijing Key Laboratory of Diabetes Research and Care, Beijing, China

Search for other papers by Zhilei Chen in
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
, and
Baoyu Zhang Center for Endocrine Metabolism and Immune Diseases, Lu He Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China
Beijing Key Laboratory of Diabetes Research and Care, Beijing, China

Search for other papers by Baoyu Zhang in
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close

Osteoporosis (OP) is a systemic bone disease in which bone density and quality decrease and bone fragility increases due to a variety of causes, making it prone to fractures. The development of OP is closely related to oxidative stress. Uric acid (UA) is the end product of purine metabolism in the human body. Extracellular UA has antioxidant properties and is thought to have a protective effect on bone metabolism. However, the process of UA degradation can lead to intracellular oxidative stress, which together with UA-induced inflammatory factors, leads to increased bone destruction. In addition, UA can inhibit vitamin D production, resulting in secondary hyperparathyroidism and further exacerbating UA-associated bone loss. This review summarizes the relationship between serum UA levels and bone mineral density, bone turnover markers, and so on, in the hope of providing new insights into the pathogenesis and treatment of OP.

Open access