Browse

You are looking at 191 - 200 of 1,150 items for

  • Refine by Access: Open Access content only x
Clear All
Open access

Sakina Kherra, Wendy Forsyth Paterson, Filiz Mine Cizmecioglu, Jeremy Huw Jones, Mariam Kourime, Heba Hassan Elsedfy, Sameh Tawfik, Andreas Kyriakou, Mohamad Guftar Shaikh, and Malcolm David Cairns Donaldson

Background

Hypogonadism is a key feature of Prader–Willi syndrome (PWS) but clear strategies for hormone replacement are lacking.

Objective

To evaluate the gonadal status and outcome in patients attending a Scottish PWS clinic from 1991 to 2019.

Methods

In 93 (35F:56M) patients, median follow-up 11.2 years, gonadal and pubertal status were assessed clinically. Pelvic ultrasound findings and basal/stimulated gonadotrophins were compared with age-matched controls.

Results

Females:of 22 patients aged > 11, 9 had reached B4–5, while 5 were still at B2–3, and 6 remained prepubertal. Eight patients experienced menarche aged 9.8–21.4 years, none with a normal cycle. Uterine length and ovarian volumes were normal but uterine configuration remained immature, with low follicular counts. Gonadotrophins were unremarkable, serum oestradiol 129 (70–520) pmol/L. Only 5 patients received oestrogen replacement. Males:fifty-four (96%) patients were cryptorchid (9 unilateral). Weekly hCG injections resulted in unilateral/bilateral descent in 2/1 of 25 patients. Of 37 boys aged > 11, 14 (9 with failed/untreated bilateral cryptorchidism) failed to progress beyond G1, 15 arrested at G2–3 (testes 3–10 mL), and 8 reached G4–5. Gonadotrophins were unremarkable except in boys at G2–5 in whom FSH was elevated: 12.3/27.3 vs 3.25/6.26 U/L in controls (P < 0.001). In males aged > 13, testosterone was 3.1 (0.5–8.4) nmol/L. Androgen therapy, given from 13.5 to 29.2 years, was stopped in 4/24 patients owing to behavioural problems.

Conclusion

Despite invariable hypogonadism, few females and only half the males with PWS in this study received hormone replacement. Double-blind placebo-controlled crossover trials of sex steroids are required to address unproven behavioural concerns.

Open access

Julia Otten, Andreas Stomby, Maria Waling, Elin Chorell, Mats Ryberg, Michael Svensson, Jens Juul Holst, and Tommy Olsson

Objective

Glucagon and amino acids may be regulated in a feedback loop called the liver-alpha-cell axis with alanine or glutamine as suggested signal molecules. We assessed this concept in individuals with type 2 diabetes in the fasting state, after ingestion of a protein-rich meal, and during weight loss. Moreover, we investigated if postprandial glucagon secretion and hepatic insulin sensitivity were related.

Methods

This is a secondary analysis of a 12-week weight-loss trial (Paleolithic diet ± exercise) in 29 individuals with type 2 diabetes. Before and after the intervention, plasma glucagon and amino acids were measured in the fasting state and during 180 min after a protein-rich mixed meal. Hepatic insulin sensitivity was measured using the hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp with [6,6-2H2]glucose as a tracer.

Results

The postprandial increase of plasma glucagon was associated with the postprandial increase of alanine and several other amino acids but not glutamine. In the fasted state and after the meal, glucagon levels were negatively correlated with hepatic insulin sensitivity (rS = −0.51/r = −0.58, respectively; both P < 0.05). Improved hepatic insulin sensitivity with weight loss was correlated with decreased postprandial glucagon response (r = −0.78; P < 0.001).

Conclusions

Several amino acids, notably alanine, but not glutamine could be key signals to the alpha cell to increase glucagon secretion. Amino acids may be part of a feedback mechanism as glucagon increases endogenous glucose production and ureagenesis in the liver. Moreover, postprandial glucagon secretion seems to be tightly related to hepatic insulin sensitivity.

Open access

Filippo Ceccato, Elisa Selmin, Giorgia Antonelli, Mattia Barbot, Andrea Daniele, Marco Boscaro, Mario Plebani, and Carla Scaroni

Context

The low-dose short synacthen test (LDSST) is recommended for patients with suspected central adrenal insufficiency (AI) if their basal serum cortisol (F) levels are not indicative of an intact hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis.

Objective

To evaluate diagnostic threshold for salivary F before and 30 min after administering 1 μg of synacthen, performed before 09:30 h.

Design

A cross-sectional study from 2014 to 2020.

Setting

A tertiary referral university hospital.

Patients

In this study, 174 patients with suspected AI, 37 with central AI and 137 adrenal sufficient (AS), were included.

Main outcome measure

The diagnostic accuracy (sensitivity (SE), specificity (SP)) of serum and salivary F levels measured, respectively, by chemiluminescence immunoassay and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

Results

Low basal serum or salivary F levels could predict AI. For the LDSST, the best ROC-calculated threshold for serum F to differentiate AI from AS was 427 nmol/L (SE 79%, SP 89%), serum F > 500 nmol/L reached SP 100%. A salivary F peak > 12.1 nmol/L after administering synacthen reached SE 95% and SP 84% for diagnosing central AI, indicating a conclusive reduction in the likelihood of AI. This ROC-calculated threshold for salivary F was similar to the 2.5th percentile of patients with a normal HPA axis, so it was considered sufficient to exclude AI. Considering AS those patients with salivary F > 12.1 nmol/L after LDSST, we could avoid unnecessary glucocorticoid treatment: 99/150 subjects (66%) had an inadequate serum F peak after synacthen, but salivary F was >12.1 nmol/L in 79 cases, who could, therefore, be considered AS.

Conclusions

Salivary F levels > 12.1 nmol/L after synacthen administration can indicate an intact HPA axis in patients with an incomplete serum F response, avoiding the need to start glucocorticoid replacement treatment.

Open access

Małgorzata Kałużna, Agnieszka Nomejko, Aleksandra Słowińska, Katarzyna Wachowiak-Ochmańska, Katarzyna Pikosz, Katarzyna Ziemnicka, and Marek Ruchała

Background

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a multi-symptom disorder linked with a range of metabolic and hormonal disturbances. Psychological and sexual aspects of PCOS also need to be considered.

Objective of the study

This study aimed to assess sexual satisfaction (SS) in PCOS patients and eumenorrheic controls (CON). The relationships between SS, depressive symptoms, health-related quality of life (HRQoL), and hormonal and metabolic profiles were evaluated.

Methods

In this study, 190 patients with PCOS (mean age 26.34 ± 5.47 years) and 197 age-matched CON (mean age 27.12 ± 4.97 years) were enrolled. All subjects completed Polish version of the Sexual Satisfaction Questionnaire (SSQ), WHO Quality of Life-BREF (WHOQOL-BREF), and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale-Revised (CESD-R) questionnaire. Fasting blood samples were collected to assess hormonal, lipid, and glucose profiles. Anthropometric measures were collected. Metabolic syndrome (MS) was evaluated according to the IDF-AHA/NHLBI criteria.

Results

Patients with PCOS and MS had lower SS vs non-MS-PCOS. There were no significant differences in the level of SS, presence of depressive symptoms, or HRQoL between PCOS and CON (P > 0.05). Negative correlations were found between the SS level and BMI, waist circumference, and waist-to-height ratio in PCOS women. However, overweight or obese PCOS women did not differ in SS levels vs normal-weight PCOS patients. The social dimension of WHOQOL-BREF was the only significant predictor of SS in PCOS patients.

Conclusions

SS in PCOS women appears to be undisturbed. However, MS in PCOS patients could negatively influence SS. The level of SS should be assessed in PCOS women, especially if MS is present.

Open access

Stine Linding Andersen, Louise Knøsgaard, Aase Handberg, Peter Vestergaard, and Stig Andersen

Objective

A high activity of the deiodinase type 2 has been proposed in overweight, obese, and smoking pregnant women as reflected by a high triiodothyronine (T3)/thyroxine (T4) ratio. We speculated how maternal adiposity and smoking would associate with different thyroid function tests in the early pregnancy.

Design

Cross-sectional study within the North Denmark Region Pregnancy Cohort.

Methods

Maternal thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), total T4 (TT4), total T3 (TT3), free T4 (fT4), and free T3 (fT3) were measured in stored blood samples (median gestational week 10) by an automatic immunoassay. Results were linked to nationwide registers, and live-birth pregnancies were included. The associations between maternal adiposity (overweight or obese), smoking, and log-transformed TSH, fT3/fT4 ratio, and TT3/TT4 ratio were assessed using multivariate linear regression and reported as adjusted exponentiated β coefficient (aβ) with 95% CI. The adjusted model included maternal age, parity, origin, week of blood sampling, and diabetes.

Results

Altogether 5529 pregnant women were included, and 40% were classified with adiposity, whereas 10% were smoking. Maternal adiposity was associated with higher TSH (aβ 1.13 (95% CI 1.08–1.20)), whereas maternal smoking was associated with lower TSH in the early pregnancy (0.875 (0.806–0.950)). Considering the T3/T4 ratio, both maternal adiposity (fT3/fT4 ratio: 1.06 (1.05–1.07); TT3/TT4 ratio: 1.07 (1.06–1.08)) and smoking (fT3/fT4 ratio: 1.07 (1.06–1.09); TT3/TT4 ratio: 1.10 (1.09–1.12)) were associated with a higher ratio.

Conclusions

In a large cohort of Danish pregnant women, adiposity and smoking showed opposite associations with maternal TSH. On the other hand, both conditions were associated with a higher T3/T4 ratio in early pregnancy, which may reflect altered deiodinase activity.

Open access

Xiuzhen Zhang, Dan Xu, Ping Xu, Shufen Yang, Qingmei Zhang, Yan Wu, and Fengyi Yuan

Introduction

Metformin has been demonstrated to enhance cardioprotective benefits in type 1 diabetes (T1DM). Although glycemic variability (GV) is associated with increased risk of CVD in diabetes, there is a scarcity of research evaluating the effect of metformin on GV in T1DM.

Objectives

In the present study, the effects of adjuvant metformin therapy on GV and metabolic control in T1DM were explored.

Patients and methods

A total of 65 adults with T1DM were enrolled and subjected to physical examination, fasting laboratory tests, and continuous glucose monitoring, and subsequently randomized 1:1 to 3 months of 1000–2000 mg metformin daily add-on insulin (MET group, n = 34) or insulin (non-MET group, n = 31). After, baseline measurements were repeated.

Results

The mean amplitude of glycemic excursions was substantially reduced in MET group, compared with non-MET group (–1.58 (–3.35, 0.31) mmol/L vs 1.36 (–1.12, 2.24) mmol/L, P = 0.004). In parallel, the largest amplitude of glycemic excursions (–2.83 (–5.47, –0.06) mmol/L vs 0.45 (–1.29, 4.48) mmol/L, P = 0.004), the s.d. of blood glucose (–0.85 (–1.51, 0.01) mmol/L vs –0.14 (–0.68, 1.21) mmol/L, P = 0.015), and the coefficient of variation (–6.66 (–15.00, 1.50)% vs –1.60 (–6.28, 11.71)%, P = 0.012) all demonstrated improvement in the MET group, compared with the non-MET group. Significant reduction in insulin dose, BMI, and body weight was observed in patients in MET, not those in non-MET group.

Conclusion

Additional metformin therapy improved GV in adults with T1DM, as well as improving body composition and reducing insulin requirement. Hence, metformin as an adjunctive therapy has potential prospects in reducing the CVD risk in patients with T1DM in the long term.

Open access

Xu-Ting Song, Jia-Nan Zhang, Duo-Wei Zhao, Yu-Fei Zhai, Qi Lu, Mei-Yu Qi, Ming-Hai Lu, Shou-Long Deng, Hong-Bing Han, Xiu-Qin Yang, and Yu-Chang Yao

Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1), also known as somatomedin C, is essential for the regulation of animal growth and development. In many species, the IGF1 gene can be alternatively spliced into multiple transcripts, encoding different pre-pro-IGF1 proteins. However, the exact alternative splicing patterns of IGF1 and the sequence information of different splice variants in sheep are still unclear. In this study, four splice variants (class 1-Ea, class 1-Eb, class 2-Ea, and class 2-Eb) were obtained, but no IGF1 Ec, similar to that found in other species, was discovered. Bioinformatics analysis showed that the four splice variants shared the same mature peptide (70 amino acids) and possessed distinct signal peptides and E peptides. Tissue expression analysis indicated that the four splice variants were broadly expressed in all tested tissues and were most abundantly expressed in the liver. In most tissues and stages, the expression of class 1-Ea was highest, and the expression of other splice variants was low. Overall, levels of the four IGF1 splice variants at the fetal and lamb stages were higher than those at the adult stage. Overexpression of the four splice variants significantly increased fibroblast proliferation and inhibited apoptosis (P < 0.05). In contrast, silencing IGF1 Ea or IGF1 Eb with siRNA significantly inhibited proliferation and promoted apoptosis (P < 0.05). Among the four splice variants, class 1-Ea had a more evident effect on cell proliferation and apoptosis. In summary, the four ovine IGF1 splice variants have different structures and expression patterns and might have different biological functions.

Open access

Yaqian Mao, Lizhen Xu, Ting Xue, Jixing Liang, Wei Lin, Junping Wen, Huibin Huang, Liantao Li, and Gang Chen

Objective

To establish a rapid, cost-effective, accurate, and acceptable osteoporosis (OP) screening model for the Chinese male population (age ≥ 40 years) based on data mining technology.

Materials and methods

This was a 3-year retrospective cohort study, which belonged to the sub-cohort of the Chinese Reaction Study. The research period was from March 2011 to December 2014. A total of 1834 subjects who did not have OP at the baseline and completed a 3-year follow-up were included in this study. All subjects underwent quantitative ultrasound examinations for calcaneus at the baseline and follow-ups that lasted for 3 years. We utilized the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) regression model to select feature variables. The characteristic variables selected in the LASSO regression were analyzed by multivariable logistic regression (MLR) to construct the predictive model. This predictive model was displayed through a nomogram. We used the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, C-index, calibration curve, and clinical decision curve analysis (DCA) to evaluate model performance and the bootstrapping validation to internally validate the model.

Results

The predictive factors included in the prediction model were age, neck circumference, waist-to-height ratio, BMI, triglyceride, impaired fasting glucose, dyslipidemia, osteopenia, smoking history, and strenuous exercise. The area under the ROC (AUC) curve of the risk nomogram was 0.882 (95% CI, 0.858–0.907), exhibiting good predictive ability and performance. The C-index for the risk nomogram was 0.882 in the prediction model, which presented good refinement. In addition, the nomogram calibration curve indicated that the prediction model was consistent. The DCA showed that when the threshold probability was between 1 and 100%, the nomogram had a good clinical application value. More importantly, the internally verified C-index of the nomogram was still very high, at 0.870.

Conclusions

This novel nomogram can effectively predict the 3-year incidence risk of OP in the male population. It also helps clinicians to identify groups at high risk of OP early and formulate personalized intervention measures.

Open access

Nadia Sabbah, Peter Wolf, Céline Piedvache, Séverine Trabado, Tristan Verdelet, Catherine Cornu, Jean-Claude Souberbielle, and Philippe Chanson

Objective

Measurement of IGF-I is important in the management of patients with growth hormone disorders. Here we aim to establish normative data for two new IGF-I assay kits based on a large random sample of the French general adult population.

Subjects and methods

We measured IGF-I in 911 healthy adults (18–90 years) with two immunoassays (ROCHE Elecsys® and IMMULITE-2000 calibrated against the new IS 02/2547). We compared the data with those of the six immunoassays (iSYS, LIAISON XL, IMMULITE-2000 calibrated against the first IS 87/518, IGF-I RIACT, Mediagnost ELISA, and Mediagnost RIA) that we reported previously. The pairwise concordance among the eight assays was assessed with Bland–Altman plots for both the IGF-1 raw data and the standard deviation scores (SDS), as well as with the percentage of observed agreement and the weighted Kappa coefficient for categorizing IGF-I SDS (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01831648).

Results

The normative data included the range of values (2.5–97.5 percentiles) given by the two new IGF-I assays according to age group and sex. A formula for the SDS calculation is provided. As for the previous six assays, the lower limits of the reference intervals of the two new assays were similar, but the upper limits varied markedly. The pairwise concordances were only moderate (kappa 0.57).

Conclusions

Data obtained for these two new IGF-I immunoassays confirm that despite being obtained in the same large healthy population, the reference intervals of the eight commercial IGF-1 assay kits showed noteworthy differences. The agreement among the various methods was moderate to good.

Open access

Milena Kloter, Claudia Gregoriano, Ellen Haag, Alexander Kutz, Beat Mueller, and Philipp Schuetz

Objective

Systemic infections and sepsis lead to strong activation of the vasopressin system, which is pivotal for stimulation of the endocrine stress response and, in addition, has vasoconstrictive and immunomodulatory effects. Our aim was to assess the significance of the vasopressor system through measurement of C-terminal proAVP (copeptin) regarding mortality prediction in a large prospective cohort of patients with systemic infection.

Design and methods

This secondary analysis of the observational cohort TRIAGE study included consecutive, adult, medical patients with an initial diagnosis of infection seeking emergency department care. We used multivariable regression analysis to assess associations of copeptin levels in addition to the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score with 30-day mortality. Discrimination was assessed by calculation of the area under the curve (AUC).

Results

Overall, 45 of 609 (7.4%) patients with infection died within 30 days. Non-survivors had a marked upregulation of the vasopressin system with a more than four-fold increase in admission copeptin levels compared to non-survivors (199.9 ± 204.7 vs 46.6 ± 77.2 pmol/L). In a statistical model, copeptin was significantly associated with mortality (adjusted odds ratio of 1.04, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.07, P = 0.002). Regarding discrimination, copeptin alone showed an AUC of 0.82, while adding copeptin to the SOFA score significantly improved its prognostic ability (AUC 0.83 vs 0.86, P = 0.027).

Conclusion

Activation of the vasopressin system mirrored by an increase in copeptin levels provided significant information regarding mortality risk and improved the SOFA score for prediction of sepsis mortality.