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Open access

Hong Jiang, WenJie Yang, QingFang Sun, Chang Liu, and LiuGuan Bian

The adverse effects of hypercortisolism on the human brain have been highlighted in previous studies of Cushing’s disease (CD). However, the relative alterations in regional hypercortisolism in the brain remain unclear. Thus, we investigated regional volumetric alterations in CD patients. We also analyzed the associations between these volumetric changes and clinical characteristics. The study participants comprised of active CD (n = 60), short-term-remitted CD (n = 28), and long-term-remitted CD (n = 32) patients as well as healthy control subjects (n = 66). Gray matter volumes (GMVs) were measured via voxel-based morphometry. The GMVs of substructures were defined using the automated anatomical labeling (AAL) atlas. Trends toward normalization in GMV were found in most brain substructures of CD patients. Different trends, including enlarged, irreversible, and unaffected, were observed in the other subregions, such as the amygdala, thalamus, and caudate. Morphological changes in GMVs after the resolution of hypercortisolism are a complex phenomenon; the characteristics of these changes significantly differ within the brain substructures.

Open access

Yusen Liu, Ruiwen Chi, Yujie Jiang, Bicheng Chen, Youli Chen, and Zengrui Chen

Background

Triglyceride glycemic (TyG) index is a novel tool for assessing insulin resistance (IR). Recently, TyG index as a potential biomarker for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) has been studied, but its performance is yet inconclusive. Thus, we performed this systemic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the performance of TyG index in predicting GDM.

Methods

Studies published before March 1, 2021, with comparison of TyG index between GDM patients and healthy controls were retrieved from multiple databases (PubMed, Web of Science, The Cochrane Library, and Embase). The mean difference (MD) of TyG index in GDM patients and healthy controls was pooled using random-effect models.

Results

Differentiation of TyG index between patients with GDM and controls showed significant results. Overall, there is a four-fold increase in TyG index in GDM patients compared with controls (MD: 0.22, 95% CI: 0.07–0.36, P = 0.003; I2 = 71%, P = 0.009). In subgroup analyses according to gestational time, TyG index in the second trimester predicted GDM with low heterogeneity (MD: 0.26, 95% CI: 0.15–0.37, P < 0.001; I2 = 0%, P = 0.54), while no such correlation was found in the first trimester.

Conclusion

TyG index, especially in the second trimester, could be a promising biomarker for predicting GDM.

Open access

Ann R Webb, Rehab Alghamdi, Richard Kift, and Lesley E Rhodes

A systematic review of publications addressing change in vitamin D status (25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD)) after exposure to UV radiation identified 2001 independent peer-reviewed publications. Of these, 21 used artificial sources of UV radiation, met all inclusion criteria and were quality assured; 13 publications used solar radiation and met sufficient inclusion criteria to be retained as supporting evidence; 1 further included publication used both solar and artificial sources. The review consistently identified that low dose, sub-erythemal doses are more effective for vitamin D synthesis than doses close to a minimum erythema dose; increasing skin area exposed increases the amount of vitamin D synthesised although not necessarily in a linear manner; constant dosing leads to a dose-dependent plateau in 25OHD, and dose–response is greatest at the start of a dosing regime; there is a large interpersonal variation in response to UV exposure. Fourteen of the studies using artificial sources of radiation were used to determine a dose–response relationship for change in 25OHD on whole-body exposure to repeated sub-erythemal doses of UV radiation, taking the form Δ25OHD (nmol/L) = A ln(standard vitamin D dose) + B. This helps quantify our understanding of UV as a source of vitamin D and enables exposure regimes for safe synthesis of vitamin D to be assessed. Specific studies of people with pigmented skin (Fitzpatrick skin types 5 and 6) were rare, and this dose–response relationship is only applicable to white-skinned individuals as skin type is a determinant of response to UV radiation. Findings provide information for vitamin D guidance updates.

Open access

Agnieszka Adamska, Paulina Tomczuk-Bobik, Anna Beata Popławska-Kita, Katarzyna Siewko, Angelika Buczyńska, Piotr Szumowski, Łukasz Żukowski, Janusz Myśliwiec, Monika Zbucka-Krętowska, Marcin Adamski, and Adam Jacek Krętowski

Treatment with radioactive iodine (RAI) in women with differentiated thyroid cancer is associated with decreased serum concentrations of anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH); however, other markers have not been investigated. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of RAI treatment on antral follicle count (AFC) and the serum concentration of inhibin B, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and AMH in women with papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) treated with RAI. We examined 25 women at a median age of 33 years treated with a single dose of RAI. We divided the participants into women over (n = 11) and under 35 years of age (n = 14). Serum concentrations of inhibin B, FSH, AMH, and AFC were assessed at baseline and 1 year after RAI treatment. We found decreased AFC (P = 0.03), serum levels of AMH (P < 0.01), inhibin B (P = 0.03), but not FSH (P = 0.23), 1 year after RAI treatment in comparison to baseline in the whole group. When we compared serum levels of AMH in younger vs older women separately, we observed a significant reduction of this hormone’s serum level after RAI treatment in both groups (P < 0.01; P = 0.04, respectively). We concluded that RAI treatment significantly impacts the functional ovarian reserve in premenopausal women with PTC.

Open access

Feifei Cheng, Noel Yat Hey Ng, Claudia Ha Ting Tam, Yuying Zhang, Cadmon King Poo Lim, Guozhi Jiang, Alex Chi Wai Ng, Tiffany Tse Ling Yau, Lai Ping Cheung, Aimin Xu, Juliana C N Chan, and Ronald C W Ma

Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) have an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes. FGF19, FGF21 and lipocalin-2 have emerged as important markers of metabolic risk. This study aims to compare the levels of FGF19, FGF21 and lipocalin-2 between subjects with or without PCOS, and to investigate the relationship between proteins and diabetes progression. In this nested case–control cohort study, 128 Chinese PCOS women and 128 controls were recruited and followed-up. All subjects underwent the oral glucose tolerance test for the evaluation of glycaemic status. Baseline serum protein levels were measured using ELISA. Compared with controls, PCOS subjects had higher levels of FGF19 (P < 0.001) and FGF21 (P = 0.022), but had lower lipocalin-2 (P < 0.001). In total, 20.8% of PCOS and 9.2% of controls developed diabetes over a mean duration of 10.4 ± 1.2 and 11.3 ± 0.5 years, respectively. Logistic regression analyses suggested FGF19 was positively associated with diabetes progression in controls, after adjusting for age, follow-up duration, waist and fasting glucose (P = 0.026, odds ratio (OR) (95% CI): 7.4 (1.3–43.6)), and the positive relationship between FGF21 and diabetes progression in controls was attenuated by adjusting for age and follow-up duration (P = 0.183). Lipocalin-2 was positively correlated with diabetes progression in PCOS group (P = 0.026, OR (95% CI)): 2.5 (1.1–5.6)); however, this became attenuated after adjusting for waist and fasting glucose (P = 0.081). In conclusion, there is differential expression of FGF19, FGF21, and lipocalin-2 in PCOS. The serum level of FGF19, and FGF21 is associated with diabetes progression in women without PCOS, while lipocalin-2 was related to diabetes progression in PCOS women.

Open access

Chun-feng Lu, Wang-shu Liu, Xiao-qin Ge, Feng Xu, Jian-bin Su, Xue-qin Wang, and Yan Wang

Background

Adenosine deaminase (ADA) is essential for the differentiation and maturation of lymphocytes, while lymphocytes infiltration in thyroid tissue is a vital pathological feature of Graves’ disease (GD). The aim of the present study was to compare the concentration of ADA between healthy controls (HC) and patients with GD, and evaluate the association between ADA and GD.

Methods

A total of 112 GD patients and 77 matched HC were enrolled in this study. Each participant was examined for thyroid hormones and autoantibodies, ADA concentration, and thyroid ultrasonography.

Results

Serum ADA levels in GD patients were significantly higher than that in HC subgroup (P < 0.001). In GD patients, serum ADA levels were positively associated with serum-free triiodothyronine (FT3), free thyroxine (FT4), thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb), thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor antibody (TRAb) levels, and total thyroid gland volume (thyroid VolT) and negatively associated with serum thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor (TSH) levels (all P < 0.05). There were no similar correlations in the HC subgroup. Multiple linear regression analysis suggested that serum TSH, FT3, and ADA levels played an important role in serum TRAb levels.

Conclusions

Our results demonstrated that serum ADA levels were closely associated with GD.

Open access

Yutong Zou, Lijun Zhao, Junlin Zhang, Yiting Wang, Yucheng Wu, Honghong Ren, Tingli Wang, Rui Zhang, Jiali Wang, Yuancheng Zhao, Chunmei Qin, Huan Xu, Lin Li, Zhonglin Chai, Mark E Cooper, Nanwei Tong, and Fang Liu

Objective

To investigate the relationship between serum uric acid (SUA) level and renal outcome in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and diabetic nephropathy (DN).

Methods

A total of 393 Chinese patients with T2DM and biopsy-proven DN and followed at least 1 year were enrolled in this study. Patients were stratified by the quartiles of baseline level of SUA: Q1 group: 286.02 ± 46.66 μmol/L (n = 98); Q2 group: 358.23 ± 14.03 μmol/L (n = 99); Q3 group: 405.50 ± 14.59 μmol/L (n = 98) and Q4 group: 499.14 ± 56.97μmol/L (n = 98). Renal outcome was defined by progression to end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Kaplan–Meier survival analysis and Cox proportional hazards model were used to analyze the association between SUA quartiles and the renal outcomes.

Results

During the median 3-year follow-up period, there were 173 ESRD outcome events (44.02%). No significant difference between SUA level and the risk of progression of DN (P = 0.747) was shown in the Kaplan–Meier survival analysis. In multivariable-adjusted model, hazard ratios for developing ESRD were 1.364 (0.621–2.992; P = 0.439), 1.518 (0.768–3.002; P = 0.230) and 1.411 (0.706–2.821; P = 0.330) for the Q2, Q3 and Q4, respectively, in comparison with the Q1 (P = 0.652).

Conclusions

No significant association between SUA level and renal outcome of ESRD in Chinese patients with T2DM and DN was found in our study. Besides, the role of uric acid-lowering therapy in delaying DN progression and improving ESRD outcome had not yet been proven. Further study was needed to clarify the renal benefit of the uric acid-lowering therapy in the treatment of DN.

Open access

Lei Lei, Yi-Hua Bai, Hong-Ying Jiang, Ting He, Meng Li, and Jia-Ping Wang

N6-methyladenosine (m6A) methylation has been reported to play a role in type 2 diabetes (T2D). However, the key component of m6A methylation has not been well explored in T2D. This study investigates the biological role and the underlying mechanism of m6A methylation genes in T2D. The Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database combined with the m6A methylation and transcriptome data of T2D patients were used to identify m6A methylation differentially expressed genes (mMDEGs). Ingenuity pathway analysis (IPA) was used to predict T2D-related differentially expressed genes (DEGs). Gene ontology (GO) term enrichment and the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) were used to determine the biological functions of mMDEGs. Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) was performed to further confirm the functional enrichment of mMDEGs and determine candidate hub genes. The least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) regression analysis was carried out to screen for the best predictors of T2D, and RT-PCR and Western blot were used to verify the expression of the predictors. A total of 194 overlapping mMDEGs were detected. GO, KEGG, and GSEA analysis showed that mMDEGs were enriched in T2D and insulin signaling pathways, where the insulin gene (INS), the type 2 membranal glycoprotein gene (MAFA), and hexokinase 2 (HK2) gene were found. The LASSO regression analysis of candidate hub genes showed that the INS gene could be invoked as a predictive hub gene for T2D. INS, MAFA,and HK2 genes participate in the T2D disease process, but INS can better predict the occurrence of T2D.

Open access

Ying Hua, Jinqiong Fang, Xiaocong Yao, and Zhongxin Zhu

Background

Obesity and osteoporosis are major public health issues globally. The prevalence of these two diseases prompts the need to better understand the relationship between them. Previous studies, however, have yielded controversial findings on this issue. Therefore, our aim in this study was to evaluate the independent association between waist circumference (WC), as a marker of obesity, and the bone mineral density (BMD) of the lumbar spine among middle-aged adults using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES).

Methods

Our analysis was based on NHANES data from 2011 to 2018, including 5084 adults, 40–59 years of age. A weighted multiple linear regression analysis was used to evaluate the association between WC and lumbar BMD, with smooth curve fitting performed for non-linearities.

Results

After adjusting for BMI and other potential confounders, WC was negatively associated with lumbar BMD in men (β = −2.8, 95% CI: −4.0 to −1.6) and premenopausal women (β = −2.6, 95% CI: −4.1 to −1.1). On subgroup analysis stratified by BMI, this negative association was more significant in men with a BMI ≥30 kg/m2 (β = −4.1, 95% CI: −6.3 to −2.0) and in pre- and postmenopausal women with a BMI <25 kg/m2 (premenopausal women: β= −5.7, 95% CI: −9.4 to−2.0; postmenopausal women: β=−5.6, 95% CI: −9.7 to −1.6). We further identified an inverted U-shaped relationship among premenopausal women, with a point of inflection at WC of 80 cm.

Conclusions

Our study found an inverse relationship between WC and lumbar BMD in middle-aged men with BMI ≥30 kg/m2, and women with BMI <25 kg/m2.

Open access

Sidsel Mathiesen, Kaspar Sørensen, Marianne Ifversen, Casper P Hagen, Jørgen Holm Petersen, Anders Juul, and Klaus Müller

Objectives

Longitudinal assessment of testicular function after pediatric hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is needed to guide clinical follow-up. We investigated dynamics in male reproductive hormones after pediatric HSCT, focusing on pubertal timing and associations with testosterone deficiency and azoospermia in adulthood.

Methods

This retrospective, longitudinal study included 39 survivors median 19 years after pediatric HSCT. Serum concentrations of LH, testosterone, FSH, and inhibin B from the time of HSCT, during puberty, and into adulthood were analyzed. Pubertal timing (rise in LH and testosterone) was compared to a reference cohort of 112 healthy boys. Associations between reproductive hormone levels during puberty and adult testicular function (including semen quality) were investigated.

Results

Pubertal induction with testosterone was needed in 6/26 patients who were prepubertal at HSCT. In the remaining patients, pubertal timing was comparable to the reference cohort. However, 9/33 patients (without pubertal induction) developed testosterone deficiency in early adulthood, which was associated with higher LH levels from age 14 to 16 years. Azoospermia in adulthood was found in 18/26 patients without testosterone substitution. Higher FSH and lower inhibin B levels from mid-pubertal age were associated with azoospermia in adulthood, in patients being prepubertal at HSCT.

Conclusion

Our results indicate a substantial risk of deterioration in testicular function after pediatric HSCT, despite normal pubertal timing. Although reproductive hormone levels from mid-puberty indicated adult testicular function, prolonged follow-up into adulthood is needed in these patients, including clinical examination, reproductive hormone analysis, and semen sample for patients interested in their fertility potential.