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Jesper Krogh Department of Endocrinology & Metabolism, Copenhagen University Hospital - Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark
Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark

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Peter Plomgaard Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark
Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Copenhagen University Hospital - Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark

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Ruth Frikke-Schmidt Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark
Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Copenhagen University Hospital - Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark

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Sten Velschow Fluisense ApS, Lillerød, Denmark

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Jesper Johannesen Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark
Department of Pediatrics, Copenhagen University Hospital - Herlev & Gentofte, Copenhagen, Denmark

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Linda Maria Hilsted Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Copenhagen University Hospital - Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark

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Malene Schrøder Fluisense ApS, Lillerød, Denmark

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Ulla Feldt-Rasmussen Department of Endocrinology & Metabolism, Copenhagen University Hospital - Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark
Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark

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Repeated blood sampling is required in certain clinical and research settings, which is currently performed by drawing blood from venous catheters requiring manual handling of each sample at the time of collection. A novel body-worn device for repeated serial samples, Fluispotter®, with automated extraction, collection, and storage of up to 20 venous dried blood spot samples over the course of 20 h may overcome problems with current methods for serial sampling. The purpose of this study was to assess the performance and safety of Fluispotter for the first time in healthy subjects. Fluispotter consists of a cartridge with tubing, a reservoir for flushing solution, pumps and filterpaper, and a multi-lumen catheter placed in the brachial vein. We recruited healthy subjects for testing in an in-hospital setting. Fluispotter was attached by an anesthesiologist to 22 healthy subjects of which 9/22 (40.9%) participants had all 20 samples taken, which was lower than the goal of complete sampling in 80% of the subjects (P = 0.02). The main reason for sample failure was clogging of blood flow which was observed in 11/22 (50%) of the participants. No serious adverse events occurred, and the participants rated the pain from the insertion and the removal of catheter as very low. A cortisol profile showed nadir values at midnight and highest values at 05:00 h. Although full sampling was not successful in all participants, the Fluispotter technology proved safe and highly acceptable to the participants producing the expected cortisol profile without the requirement of staff during sample collection.

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Marta Fichna Department of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Internal Medicine, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Poznan, Poland

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Piotr P Małecki Department of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Internal Medicine, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Poznan, Poland

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Magdalena Żurawek Institute of Human Genetics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Poznan, Poland

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Katarzyna Furman Ludwik Perzyna Regional Hospital, Kalisz, Poland

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Bolesław Gębarski Regional Outpatient Medical Centre, Katowice, Poland

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Piotr Fichna Department of Paediatric Diabetes and Obesity, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Poznan, Poland

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Marek Ruchała Department of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Internal Medicine, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Poznan, Poland

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Since individuals with Addison’s disease (AD) present considerable co-occurrence of additional autoimmune conditions, clustering of autoimmunity was also predicted among their relatives. The study was aimed to assess circulating autoantibodies in first-degree relatives of patients with AD and to correlate them with the established genetic risk factors (PTPN22 rs2476601, CTLA4 rs231775, and BACH2 rs3757247). Antibodies were evaluated using validated commercial assays, and genotyping was performed using TaqMan chemistry. The studied cohort comprised 112 female and 75 male relatives. Circulating autoantibodies were found in 69 relatives (36.9%). Thyroid autoantibodies, that is antibodies to thyroid peroxidase (aTPO) and thyroglobulin (aTg), were detectable in 25.1 and 17.1% relatives, respectively. Antibodies to 21-hydroxylase (a21OH) were found in 5.8% individuals, and beta cell-specific antibodies to ZnT8, GAD, and IA2 were found in 7.5, 8.0, and 2.7%, respectively. The prevalence of a21OH (P = 0.0075; odds ratio (OR) 7.68; 95% CI 1.903–36.0), aTPO (P < 0.0001; OR 3.85; 95% CI 1.873–7.495), and aTg (P < 0.0001; OR 7.73; 95% CI 3.112–19.65), as well as aGAD (P = 0.0303; OR 3.38; 95% CI 1.180–9.123) and aZnT8 (P = 0.032; OR 6.40; 95% CI 1.846–21.91), was significantly increased in carriers of rs2476601 T allele. Moreover, T allele appeared to be a risk factor for multiple circulating autoantibody specificities (P = 0.0009; OR 5.79; 95% CI 1.962–15.81). None of the studied autoantibodies demonstrated significant association with rs231775 in CTLA4 (P > 0.05), and only weak association was detected between BACH2 rs3757247 and circulating aTPO (P = 0.0336; OR 2.12; 95%CI 1.019–4.228). In conclusion, first-degree relatives of patients with AD, carriers of the PTPN22 rs2476601 T allele, are at particular risk of developing autoantibodies to endocrine antigens.

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Kimberly Kuiper Clinical Neurodevelopmental Sciences, Leiden University, Leiden, The Netherlands
Leiden Institute for Brain and Cognition, Leiden, The Netherlands

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Hanna Swaab Clinical Neurodevelopmental Sciences, Leiden University, Leiden, The Netherlands
Leiden Institute for Brain and Cognition, Leiden, The Netherlands

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Nicole Tartaglia eXtraordinarY Kids Clinic, Developmental Pediatrics, Children’s Hospital Colorado, Aurora, Colorado
Department of Pediatrics, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado

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Sophie van Rijn Clinical Neurodevelopmental Sciences, Leiden University, Leiden, The Netherlands
Leiden Institute for Brain and Cognition, Leiden, The Netherlands

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The presence of an additional X or Y chromosome (sex chromosome trisomies, SCT) is associated with an increased risk for neurodevelopmental difficulties, including socio-emotional problems, across the life span. Studying emotion regulation in young children with SCT could signal deviations in emotional development that serve as risk markers to guide clinical care. This study explored the presence and variety of emotion regulation strategies in 75 SCT children and 81 population-based controls, aged 1–7 years, during a frustration-inducing event in which physiological (heart rate) and observational data (behavioral responses) were collected. Children with SCT were equally physiologically aroused by the event as compared to controls. However, they showed more emotion regulation difficulties in terms of behavior compared to controls that were not explicable in terms of differences in general intellectual functioning. Specifically, they had a more limited range of behavioral alternatives and tended to rely longer on inefficient strategies with increasing age. The field of practice should be made aware of these early risk findings regarding emotion regulation in SCT, which may potentially lay the foundation for later socio-emotional problems, given the significant impact of emotion regulation on child and adult mental health outcomes. The current results may help to design tailored interventions to reduce the impact of the additional sex chromosome on adaptive functioning, psychopathology, and quality of life.

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Natacha Driessens Université libre de Bruxelles (ULB), Hôpital Universitaire de Bruxelles (HUB), CUB Hôpital Erasme, Department of Endocrinology, Route de Lennik, Brussels, Belgium

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Madhu Prasai Université libre de Bruxelles (ULB), Hôpital Universitaire de Bruxelles (HUB), CUB Hôpital Erasme, Department of Endocrinology, Route de Lennik, Brussels, Belgium

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Orsalia Alexopoulou Department of Endocrinology, Cliniques Universitaires Saint Luc, Brussels, Belgium

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Christophe De Block Department of Endocrinology-Diabetology-Metabolism, Universitair Ziekenhuis Antwerpen & University of Antwerp, Drie Eikenstraat, Edegem, Belgium

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Eva Van Caenegem Department of Endocrinology, Academisch Ziekenhuis Sint-Jan Brugge – Oostende AV, Ruddershove, Brugge, Belgium

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Guy T’Sjoen Department of Endocrinology, Ghent Universitary Hospital, C. Heymanslaan, Gent, Belgium

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Frank Nobels Department of Endocrinology, Onze-Lieve Vrouw Ziekenhuis, Moorselbaan, Aalst, Belgium

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Christophe Ghys Department of Endocrinology, Universitair Ziekenhuis Brussel, Laarbeeklaan, Brussels, Belgium

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Laurent Vroonen Department of Endocrinology, Cliniques Universitaires de Liège, Avenue de l’hôpital, Liège, Belgium

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Corinne Jonas Department of Endocrinology, CHU UCL Namur - Godinne, Avenue Docteur Gaston Thérasse, Yvoir, Belgium

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Bernard Corvilain Université libre de Bruxelles (ULB), Hôpital Universitaire de Bruxelles (HUB), CUB Hôpital Erasme, Department of Endocrinology, Route de Lennik, Brussels, Belgium

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Dominique Maiter Department of Endocrinology, Cliniques Universitaires Saint Luc, Brussels, Belgium

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Objective

Primary adrenal insufficiency (PAI) is a rare disease with an increasing prevalence, which may be complicated by life-threatening adrenal crisis (AC). Good quality epidemiological data remain scarce. We performed a Belgian survey to describe the aetiology, clinical characteristics, treatment regimens, comorbidities and frequency of AC in PAI.

Methods

A nationwide multicentre study involving 10 major university hospitals in Belgium collected data from adult patients with known PAI.

Results

Two hundred patients were included in this survey. The median age at diagnosis was 38 years (IQR 25–48) with a higher female prevalence (F/M sex ratio = 1.53). The median disease duration was 13 years (IQR 7–25). Autoimmune disease was the most common aetiology (62.5%) followed by bilateral adrenalectomy (23.5%) and genetic variations (8.5%). The majority (96%) of patients were treated with hydrocortisone at a mean daily dose of 24.5 ± 7.0 mg, whereas 87.5% of patients also received fludrocortisone. About one-third of patients experienced one or more AC over the follow-up period, giving an incidence of 3.2 crises per 100 patient-years. There was no association between the incidence of AC and the maintenance dose of hydrocortisone. As high as 27.5% of patients were hypertensive, 17.5% had diabetes and 17.5% had a diagnosis of osteoporosis.

Conclusion

This study provides the first information on the management of PAI in large clinical centres in Belgium, showing an increased frequency of postsurgical PAI, a nearly normal prevalence of several comorbidities and an overall good quality of care with a low incidence of adrenal crises, compared with data from other registries.

Open access
Andre Madsen Hormone Laboratory, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Pharmacology, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, Norway
Department of Growth and Reproduction, Copenhagen University Hospital - Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark

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Anders Juul Department of Growth and Reproduction, Copenhagen University Hospital - Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark
International Center for Research and Research Training in Endocrine Disruption of Male Reproduction and Child Health (EDMaRC), Copenhagen University Hospital - Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark
Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark

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Lise Aksglaede Department of Growth and Reproduction, Copenhagen University Hospital - Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark
International Center for Research and Research Training in Endocrine Disruption of Male Reproduction and Child Health (EDMaRC), Copenhagen University Hospital - Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark

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Objective

Klinefelter syndrome (KS) is the most common sex chromosome disorder and genetic cause of infertility in males. A highly variable phenotype contributes to the fact that a large proportion of cases are never diagnosed. Typical hallmarks in adults include small testes and azoospermia which may prompt biochemical evaluation that typically shows extremely high follicle-stimulating hormone and low/undetectable inhibin B serum concentrations. However, in prepubertal KS individuals, biochemical parameters are largely overlapping those of prepubertal controls. We aimed to characterize clinical profiles of prepubertal boys with KS in relation to controls and to develop a novel biochemical classification model to identify KS before puberty.

Methods

Retrospective, longitudinal data from 15 prepubertal boys with KS and data from 1475 controls were used to calculate age- and sex-adjusted standard deviation scores (SDS) for height and serum concentrations of reproductive hormones and used to infer a decision tree classification model for KS.

Results

Individual reproductive hormones were low but within reference ranges and did not discriminate KS from controls. Clinical and biochemical profiles including age- and sex-adjusted SDS from multiple reference curves provided input data to train a ‘random forest’ machine learning (ML) model for the detection of KS. Applied to unseen data, the ML model achieved a classification accuracy of 78% (95% CI, 61–94%).

Conclusions

Supervised ML applied to clinically relevant variables enabled computational classification of control and KS profiles. The application of age- and sex-adjusted SDS provided robust predictions irrespective of age. Specialized ML models applied to combined reproductive hormone concentrations may be useful diagnostic tools to improve the identification of prepubertal boys with KS.

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Ruth Percik Institute of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Sheba Medical Centre, Ramat Gan, Israel

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Sherwin Criseno Department of Endocrinology, University Hospital Birmingham, Birmingham, UK

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Safwaan Adam Department of Endocrinology, The Christie NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester, UK

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Kate Young Royal Marsden Hospital, London, UK

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Daniel L Morganstein Department of Endocrinology, Chelsea and Westminster Hospital, London, UK
Royal Marsden Hospital, London, UK

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Checkpoint inhibitors are now widely used in the management of many cancers. Endocrine toxicity is amongst the most common side effects. These endocrinopathies differ from most other immune-related toxicities in frequently being irreversible and rarely requiring cessation of checkpoint inhibitor therapy. This review considers an approach to the presentation and diagnosis of endocrinopathies, compared to classical endocrine diagnosis, suggesting improvements to classification and treatment based on fundamental endocrine principles. These will help to align management with other similar endocrine conditions and standardise the diagnosis and reporting of endocrine toxicity of checkpoint inhibitors to improve both endocrine and oncological care. In particular, the importance of considering any inflammatory phase (such as painful thyroiditis or hypophysitis resulting in the pituitary enlargement), from the endocrine consequences (transient hyperthyroidism followed by hypothyroidism, pan-hypopituitarism or isolated adrenocorticotrophic hormone deficiency), is highlighted. It is also important to consider the potential confounder of exogenous corticosteroids in adrenal suppression.

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Wolfgang Högler Department of Paediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, Johannes Kepler University Linz, Linz, Austria
Institute of Metabolism and Systems Research, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK

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Agnès Linglart AP-HP, Hôpital Bicêtre Paris Saclay, service d’endocrinologie et diabète de l’enfant, DMU 3 SEA, centre de référence des maladies rares du métabolisme du calcium et du phosphate, filière OSCAR; Université de Paris-Saclay INSERM U1185, Hôpital Bicêtre, Le Kremlin-Bicêtre, France

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Anna Petryk Alexion, AstraZeneca Rare Disease, Boston, Massachusetts, USA

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Priya S Kishnani Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina, USA

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Lothar Seefried University of Würzburg, Würzburg, Germany

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Shona Fang Alexion, AstraZeneca Rare Disease, Boston, Massachusetts, USA

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Cheryl Rockman-Greenberg University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada

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Keiichi Ozono Osaka University, Suita, Osaka, Japan

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Kathryn Dahir Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee, USA

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Gabriel Ángel Martos-Moreno Departments of Pediatrics and Pediatric Endocrinology Hospital Infantil Universitario Niño Jesús, IIS La Princesa, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, CIBERobn, ISCIII, Madrid, Spain

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Objective

Hypophosphatasia, an inborn error of metabolism characterized by impaired bone mineralization, can affect growth. This study evaluated relationships between anthropometric parameters (height, weight, and body mass index) and clinical manifestations of hypophosphatasia in children.

Design

Data from children (aged <18 years) with hypophosphatasia were analyzed from the observational Global Hypophosphatasia Registry.

Methods

Anthropometric parameters were evaluated by age group (<2 years and ≥2 years) at assessment. The frequency of hypophosphatasia manifestations was compared between children with short stature (< percentile) and those with normal stature.

Results

This analysis included 215 children (54.4% girls). Short stature presented in 16.1% of children aged <2 years and 20.4% of those aged ≥2 years at assessment. Among those with available data (n = 62), height was below the target height (mean: −0.66 standard deviations). Substantial worsening of growth (mean delta height z score: −1.45; delta weight z score: −0.68) occurred before 2 years of age, while in those aged ≥2 years, anthropometric trajectories were maintained (delta height z score: 0.08; delta weight z score: 0.13). Broad-ranging hypophosphatasia manifestations (beyond dental) were observed in most children.

Conclusions

Short stature was not a consistent characteristic of children with hypophosphatasia, but growth impairment was observed in those aged <2 years, indicating that hypophosphatasia might affect growth plate activity during infancy. In addition, a broad range of clinical manifestations occurred in those above and below the third percentile for height, suggesting that height alone may not accurately reflect hypophosphatasia disease burden and that weight is less affected than longitudinal growth.

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Qiankai Jin Department of Endocrinology, The Affiliated Hospital of Medical School, Ningbo University, Ningbo, China
School of Medicine, Ningbo University, Ningbo, China

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Guoqing Huang Department of Endocrinology, The Affiliated Hospital of Medical School, Ningbo University, Ningbo, China
School of Medicine, Ningbo University, Ningbo, China

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Xiaoqing Tian Department of Endocrinology, The Affiliated Hospital of Medical School, Ningbo University, Ningbo, China
School of Medicine, Ningbo University, Ningbo, China

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Yimeng Shu Department of Endocrinology, The Affiliated Hospital of Medical School, Ningbo University, Ningbo, China
School of Medicine, Ningbo University, Ningbo, China

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Ximisinuer Tusongtuoheti Department of Endocrinology, The Affiliated Hospital of Medical School, Ningbo University, Ningbo, China
School of Medicine, Ningbo University, Ningbo, China

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Yushan Mao Department of Endocrinology, The Affiliated Hospital of Medical School, Ningbo University, Ningbo, China

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Objective

The aim of this study was to elaborate the link of thyroid hormones (THs) and metabolic syndrome (MetS) in a Chinese euthyroid employee population with MetS component(s).

Methods

An annual health checkup was performed on employees in 2019. Anthropometric parameters, metabolic parameters, and thyroid function were measured. A questionnaire was used in conjunction with Zhenhai Lianhua Hospital database to receive employees' medication records and thyroid surgical history records.

Results

A total of 5486 eligible employees were included; the prevalence of MetS was generally higher in males than in females (38.9 vs. 30.4%, P < 0.001). Among employees with central obesity, hypertriglyceridemia, hyperglycemia, hypertension, and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), the prevalence of MetS was 68.8, 63.6, 68.2, 48.8, and 60.0% in males and 72.6, 63.3, 61.3, 42.3, and 42.3% in females, respectively. Logistic regression analysis showed that thyroid-stimulating hormone and free thyroxine (FT4) quartiles had no significant impact on MetS. Free triiodothyronine/free thyroxine (FT3/FT4) and free triiodothyronine (FT3)) quartiles were positively associated with the increased odds ratio (OR) for MetS and dyslipidemia (hypertriglyceridemia and low HDL-C), regardless of gender. In males, FT3 and FT3/FT4 quartiles were positively associated with the OR for central obesity, whereas FT4 quartiles were negatively associated; both FT3 and FT4 quartiles were positively associated with increased OR of hyperglycemia, while similar results were not observed in females. Interaction analysis indicated no significant effect of gender and TH interactions on risk of MetS.

Conclusion

High FT3 and FT3/FT4 were strongly linked with MetS and dyslipidemia in our study, even in the euthyroid individuals. Tighter control of thyroid function was necessary for those with preexisting MetS component(s).

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Julia Herteux Medical University of Graz, Auenbruggerplatz, Graz, Austria

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Simon Johannes Geiger Medical University of Graz, Auenbruggerplatz, Graz, Austria

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Christina Starchl Medical University of Graz, Auenbruggerplatz, Graz, Austria

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Johanna Windisch Medical University of Graz, Auenbruggerplatz, Graz, Austria

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Theresa Lerchl Medical University of Graz, Auenbruggerplatz, Graz, Austria

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Adelina Tmava-Berisha Medical University of Graz, Auenbruggerplatz, Graz, Austria

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Gerit Wünsch Medical University of Graz, Auenbruggerplatz, Graz, Austria

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Kathrin Eller Medical University of Graz, Auenbruggerplatz, Graz, Austria

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Astrid Fahrleitner-Pammer Medical University of Graz, Auenbruggerplatz, Graz, Austria

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Karin Amrein Medical University of Graz, Auenbruggerplatz, Graz, Austria

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Objective

Chronic hypoparathyroidism (HP) is associated with acute and chronic complications, especially those related to hypocalcemia. We aimed to analyze details on hospital admissions and the reported deaths in affected patients.

Design and methods

In a retrospective analysis, we reviewed the medical history of 198 patients diagnosed with chronic HP over a continuous period of up to 17 years at the Medical University Graz.

Results

The mean age in our mostly female cohort (70.2%) was 62.6 ± 18.7 years. The etiology was predominantly postsurgical (84.8%). About 87.4% of patients received standard medication (oral calcium/vitamin D), 15 patients (7.6%) used rhPTH1–84/Natpar® and 10 patients (4.5%) had no/unknown medication. Two hundred and nineteen emergency room (ER) visits and 627 hospitalizations were documented among 149 patients, and 49 patients (24.7%) did not record any hospital admissions. According to symptoms and decreased serum calcium levels, 12% of ER (n = 26) visits and 7% of hospitalizations (n = 44) were likely attributable to HP. A subgroup of 13 patients (6.5%) received kidney transplants prior to the HP diagnosis. In eight of these patients, parathyroidectomy for tertiary renal hyperparathyroidism was the cause of permanent HP. The mortality was 7.8% (n = 12), and the causes of death appeared to be unrelated to HP. Although the awareness for HP was low, calcium levels were documented in 71% (n = 447) of hospitalizations.

Conclusions

Acute symptoms directly related to HP did not represent the primary cause of ER visits. However, comorbidities (e.g. renal/cardiovascular diseases) associated with HP played a key role in hospitalizations and deaths.

Significance statement

Hypoparathyroidism (HP) is the most common complication after anterior neck surgery. Yet, it remains underdiagnosed as well as undertreated, and the burden of disease and long-term complications are usually underestimated. There are few detailed data on emergency room (ER) visits hospitalizations and death in patients with chronic HP, although acute symptoms due to hypo-/hypercalcemia are easily detectable. We show that HP is not the primary cause for presentation but that hypocalcemia is a typical laboratory finding (when ordered) and thus may contribute to subjective symptoms. Patients often present with renal/cardiovascular/oncologic illness for which HP is known to be a contributing factor. A small but very special group (n = 13, 6.5%) are patients after kidney transplantations who showed a high ER hospitalization rate. Surprisingly, HP was never the cause for their frequent hospitalizations but rather the result of chronic kidney disease. The most frequent cause for HP in these patients was parathyroidectomy due to tertiary hyperparathyroidism. The causes of death in 12 patients appeared to be unrelated to HP, but we found a high prevalence of chronic organ damages/comorbidities related to it in this group. Less than 25% documented HP correctly in the discharge letters, which indicates a high potential for improvement.

Open access
Zuyao Chen The First Affiliated Hospital, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Hengyang Medical School, University of South China, Hengyang, Hunan, China
The First Affiliated Hospital, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Hengyang Medical School, University of South China, Hengyang, Hunan, China

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Xiaolin Zhong The First Affiliated Hospital, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Hengyang Medical School, University of South China, Hengyang, Hunan, China
The First Affiliated Hospital, Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Hengyang Medical School, University of South China, Hengyang, Hunan, China

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Weiqiang Tang The First Affiliated Hospital, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Hengyang Medical School, University of South China, Hengyang, Hunan, China

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Min Xia The First Affiliated Hospital, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Hengyang Medical School, University of South China, Hengyang, Hunan, China

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Chang Liu Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, The First People's Hospital of Chenzhou, Chenzhou, China

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Yinping Guo The First Affiliated Hospital, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Hengyang Medical School, University of South China, Hengyang, Hunan, China

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Yan Yi The First Affiliated Hospital, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Hengyang Medical School, University of South China, Hengyang, Hunan, China

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Qingshan Jiang The First Affiliated Hospital, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Hengyang Medical School, University of South China, Hengyang, Hunan, China

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Xuyu Zu The First Affiliated Hospital, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Hengyang Medical School, University of South China, Hengyang, Hunan, China

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Jing Zhong The First Affiliated Hospital, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Hengyang Medical School, University of South China, Hengyang, Hunan, China

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Background

Fibroblast growth factor 1 (FGF1) is extensively amplified in many tumors and accelerates tumor invasion and metastasis. However, the role and precise molecular mechanism by which FGF1 participates in thyroid cancer (TC) are still unclear.

Methods

Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction- and western blotting were used to detect the mRNA and protein levels of FGF1, high mobility group A (HMGA1), epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-related factors, and FGFs in both TC tissues and cell lines. Immunohistochemistry was conducted to examine the expression of FGF1 and HMGA1. Immunofluorescence staining was used to detect the coexpression of FGF1 and HMGA1. Transwell and wound healing assays were conducted to evaluate the effects of FGF1 on the capacity of invasion and migration in cells.

Results

FGF1 was upregulated in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) tissues and cell lines and was relatively higher in PTC tissues with cervical lymph node metastasis. Furthermore, FGF1 promotes invasion and metastasis through the EMT pathway. Mechanistically, FGF1 promotes EMT through intracellular function independent of FGF receptors. Interestingly, we demonstrated that FGF1 could upregulate HMGA1 in TC cells, and the correlation of FGF1 and HMGA1 was positive in PTC tissues. FGF1 and HMGA1 had obvious colocalization in the nucleus. We further revealed that FGF1 promotes the invasion and migration of TC cells through the upregulation of HMGA1.

Conclusion

Intracellular FGF1 could promote invasion and migration in TC by mediating the expression of HMGA1 independent of FGF receptors, and FGF1 may be an effective therapeutic target in TC.

Open access