We aimed to evaluate whether thyroid hormones, autoimmune and thyroid homeostasis status were related to bone turnover in type 2 diabetes.
The data were obtained from a cross-sectional study, the METAL study. In this study, 4209 participants (2059 men and 2150 postmenopausal women) with type 2 diabetes were enrolled. Thyroid function, thyroid antibodies and three bone turnover markers (BTMs), including a large N-mid fragment of osteocalcin (N-MID osteocalcin), β-C-terminal cross-linked telopeptides of type I collagen (β-CTX) and procollagen type I N-terminal propeptide (P1NP), were measured. Thyroid homeostasis parameters, including the sum activity of step-up deiodinases (SPINA-GD), thyroid secretory capacity (SPINA-GT), Jostel’s TSH index (TSHI) and the thyrotroph thyroid hormone resistance index (TTSI), were calculated. The associations of thyroid parameters with BTMs were analyzed using linear regression.
Free and total triiodothyronine were positively associated with N-MID osteocalcin and P1NP in both sexes and positively associated with β-CTX in postmenopausal women. Thyroid-stimulating hormone was negatively associated with β-CTX in postmenopausal women, and free thyroxine was negatively associated with N-MID osteocalcin and P1NP in men. SPINA-GD was positively associated with N-MID osteocalcin and P1NP in both sexes. There was a positive relationship of SPINA-GT with β-CTX, a negative relationship of TTSI with β-CTX, and a negative relationship of TSHI with β-CTX and P1NP in postmenopausal women.
Among men and postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes, significant associations were observed between N-MID osteocalcin, β-CTX and P1NP with thyroid function and thyroid homeostasis. Further prospective studies are warranted to understand the causal relationship and underlying mechanism.