Thyroid hormones (THs) are involved in the development and function of the male reproductive system, but their effects on the prostate have been poorly studied. This work reviews studies related to the interrelationship between the thyroid and the prostate. The information presented here is based upon bibliographic searches in PubMed using the following search terms: prostate combined with thyroid hormone or triiodothyronine, thyroxine, hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, or deiodinase. We identified and searched 49 articles directly related to the issue, and discarded studies related to endocrine disruptors. The number of publications has grown in the last 20 years, considering that one of the first studies was published in 1965. This review provides information based on in vitro studies, murine models, and clinical protocols in patients with thyroid disorders. Studies indicate that THs regulate different aspects of growth, metabolism, and prostate pathology, whose global effect depends on total and/or free concentrations of THs in serum, local bioavailability, and the endocrine androgen/thyronine context.
Brenda Anguiano, Carlos Montes de Oca, Evangelina Delgado-González, and Carmen Aceves
Laura Chioma, Carla Bizzarri, Martina Verzani, Daniela Fava, Mariacarolina Salerno, Donatella Capalbo, Chiara Guzzetti, Laura Penta, Luigi Di Luigi, Natascia di Iorgi, Mohamad Maghnie, Sandro Loche, and Marco Cappa
This retrospective study aimed to evaluate children observed for suspected precocious puberty in five Italian centers of Pediatric Endocrinology during the first wave of coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic (March–September 2020), compared to subjects observed in the same period of the previous year.
The study population (490 children) was divided according to the year of observation and final diagnosis: transient thelarche, non-progressive precocious puberty, central precocious puberty (CPP), or early puberty.
Between March and September 2020, 338 subjects were referred for suspected precocious puberty, compared to 152 subjects in the same period of 2019 (+122%). The increase was observed in girls (328 subjects in 2020 vs 140 in 2019, P < 0.05), especially during the second half of the period considered (92 girls from March to May vs 236 girls from June to September); while no difference was observed in boys (10 subjects in 2020 vs 12 in 2019). The percentage of girls with confirmed CPP was higher in 2020, compared to 2019 (135/328 girls (41%) vs 37/140 (26%), P < 0.01). Anthropometric and hormonal parameters in 2019 and 2020 CPP girls were not different; 2020 CPP girls showed more prolonged use of electronic devices and a more sedentary lifestyle both before and during the pandemic, compared to the rest of the 2020 population.
The present findings corroborate the recently reported association between the complex lifestyle changes related to the lockdown and a higher incidence of CPP in Italian girls.
Gemma White, Anand Velusamy, Samantha Anandappa, Michael Masucci, Louise A Breen, Mamta Joshi, Barbara McGowan, Johnathan G H Hubbard, Rupert Obholzer, Dimitra Christodoulou, Audrey Jacques, Philip Touska, Fahim-Ul Hassan, Louise Izatt, and Paul V Carroll
Succinate dehydrogenase subunit (SDHx) pathogenic variants predispose to phaeochromocytoma and paraganglioma (PPGL). Lifelong surveillance is recommended for all patients to enable prompt detection and treatment. There is currently limited evidence for optimal surveillance strategies in hereditary PPGL. We aim to detail the clinical presentation of PPGL in our cohort of non-index SDHB and SDHD pathogenic variant carriers.
Retrospective analysis of medical and genetic records from a single tertiary referral centre identified SDHB or SDHD pathogenic variants in 74 non-index cases (56 SDHB and 18 SDHD). Surveillance screening for asymptomatic relatives consisted of annual plasma metanephrine measurement and whole-body MRI with contrast at 3–5 yearly intervals.
Twenty-three out of 74 non-index patients (10 SDHB and 13 SDHD) were diagnosed with PPGL, 17 patients through surveillance screening (24 tumours in total) and 6 diagnosed prior to commencement of cascade screening with symptomatic presentation. MRI with contrast identified PPGL in 22/24 screen-detected tumours and 5/24 tumours had elevated plasma metanephrine levels. Penetrance in non-index family members was 15.2 and 47.2% for SDHB carriers and 71.6 and 78.7% for SDHD carriers at age of 50 and 70 years, respectively.
Surveillance screening with combined biochemical testing and imaging enables early detection of PPGL in asymptomatic relatives with SDHx pathogenic variants. The presence of disease at first screen was significant in our cohort and hence further multi-centre long-term data are needed to inform counselling of family members undergoing lifelong surveillance.
Huixing Liu and Daoquan Peng
Hypothyroidism is often associated with elevated serum levels of total cholesterol, LDL-C and triglycerides. Thyroid hormone (TH) affects the production, clearance and transformation of cholesterol, but current research shows that thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) also participates in lipid metabolism independently of TH. Therefore, the mechanism of hypothyroidism-related dyslipidemia is associated with the decrease of TH and the increase of TSH levels. Some newly identified regulatory factors, such as proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9, angiogenin-like proteins and fibroblast growth factors are the underlying causes of dyslipidemia in hypothyroidism. HDL serum concentration changes were not consistent, and its function was reportedly impaired. The current review focuses on the updated understanding of the mechanism of hypothyroidism-related dyslipidemia.
Ru-Xuan Zhao, Ting-Ting Shi, Sha Luo, Yun-Fu Liu, Zhong Xin, and Jin-Kui Yang
Graves’ orbitopathy (GO) is an autoimmune disease with mechanical impairment of orbital muscles and lacrimal gland dysfunction. The frequently used methods of assessing GO activity include Clinical Activity Score (CAS), CT, and MRI. These approaches are mainly associated with orbital muscles; however, there are not many studies that focus on the lacrimal gland inflammation of GO patients.
The aim of this study is to assess the usefulness of 99mTc-DTPA single-photon emission (SPE) CT/CT in evaluating the lacrimal gland inflammation in GO, as compared with other methods.
A retrospective analysis of 48 patients with active GO compared with 33 controls was conducted. All subjects underwent clinical–endocrinological analyses, CAS evaluation, CT scans, and SPECT/CT examination. Lacrimal gland dimensions were determined and analyzed.
The lacrimal glands in patients with GO were significantly larger in all measured dimensions (P < 0.001) on CT scans relative to those in controls. Increased lacrimal gland diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) uptake ratios (P < 0.001) were displayed in active GO patients compared to controls and were also correlated with thyrotropin receptor antibody levels. The cut-off value for discriminating active and inactive disease was calculated to be 1.735, with specificity of 82.6% and sensitivity of 74.2%. SPECT/CT uptake ratios and CAS values were positively correlated in all GO patients. SPECT/CT uptake ratios were also positively correlated with CT measurements including lacrimal gland volume and coronal width in GO patients.
These data indicated that lacrimal gland SPECT/CT images can serve as a good tool for assessing the inflammation and disease activity of GO.
Kevin D Cashman
Internationally, concern has been repeatedly raised about the little notable progress in the collection, analysis and use of population micronutrient status and deficiency data globally. The need for representative status and intake data for vitamin D has been highlighted as a research priority for well over a decade.
Aim and methods
A narrative review which aims to provide a summary and assessment of vitamin D nutritional status data globally. This review divides the world into the Food and Agriculture Organisation’s (FAO) major regions: the Americas, Europe, Oceania, Africa and Asia. Emphasis was placed on published data on the prevalence of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) < 25/30 and <50 nmol/L (reflecting vitamin D deficiency and inadequacy, respectively) as well as vitamin D intake, where possible from nationally representative surveys.
Collating data from the limited number of available representative surveys from individual countries might suggest a relatively low overall prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in South America, Oceania and North America, whereas there is more moderate prevalence in Europe and Asia, and possibly Africa. Overall, the prevalence of serum 25(OH)D < 25/30 and <50 nmol/L ranges from ~5 to 18% and 24 to 49%, respectively, depending on FAO world region. Usual intakes of vitamin D can also vary by FAO world region, but in general, with a few exceptions, there are very high levels of inadequacy of vitamin D intake.
While the burden of vitamin D deficiency and inadequacy varies by world regions and not just by UVB availability, the global burden overall translates into enormous numbers of individuals at risk.
Josef Köhrle, Martina Rauner, and Susan A Lanham-New
Xue-Lian Zhang, Xinyi Zhao, Yong Wu, Wen-qing Huang, Jun-jiang Chen, Peijie Hu, Wei Liu, Yi-Wen Chen, Jin Hao, Rong-Rong Xie, Hsiao Chang Chan, Ye Chun Ruan, Hui Chen, and Jinghui Guo
The beneficial effect of angiotensin(1–7) (Ang(1–7)), via the activation of its receptor, MAS-1, has been noted in diabetes treatment; however, how Ang(1–7) or MAS-1 affects insulin secretion remains elusive and whether the endogenous level of Ang(1–7) or MAS-1 is altered in diabetic individuals remains unexplored. We recently identified an important role of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), a cAMP-activated Cl− channel, in the regulation of insulin secretion. Here, we tested the possible involvement of CFTR in mediating Ang(1–7)’s effect on insulin secretion and measured the level of Ang(1–7), MAS-1 as well as CFTR in the blood of individuals with or without type 2 diabetes.
Ang(1–7)/MAS-1/CFTR pathway was determined by specific inhibitors, gene manipulation, Western blotting as well as insulin ELISA in a pancreatic β-cell line, RINm5F. Human blood samples were collected from 333 individuals with (n = 197) and without (n = 136) type 2 diabetes. Ang(1–7), MAS-1 and CFTR levels in the human blood were determined by ELISA.
In RINm5F cells, Ang(1–7) induced intracellular cAMP increase, cAMP-response element binding protein (CREB) activation, enhanced CFTR expression and potentiated glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, which were abolished by a selective CFTR inhibitor, RNAi-knockdown of CFTR, or inhibition of MAS-1. In human subjects, the blood levels of MAS-1 and CFTR, but not Ang(1–7), were significantly higher in individuals with type 2 diabetes as compared to those in non-diabetic healthy subjects. In addition, blood levels of MAS-1 and CFTR were in significant positive correlation in type-2 diabetic but not non-diabetic subjects.
These results suggested that MAS-1 and CFTR as key players in mediating Ang(1–7)-promoted insulin secretion in pancreatic β-cells; MAS-1 and CFTR are positively correlated and both upregulated in type 2 diabetes.
Xiying Zeng, Yinxiang Huang, Mulin Zhang, Yun Chen, Jiawen Ye, Yan Han, Danyan Ma, Xin Zheng, Xiaohong Yan, and Changqin Liu
Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) is recognized as the most important biomarker for ovarian reserve. In this cross-sectional study, we aimed to explore the potential association of AMH with central obesity or general obesity in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).
In this cross-sectional study, 179 patients with PCOS were enrolled and underwent anthropometric measurements (BMI and waist circumference (WC)) and serum AMH level detection. Pearson’s correlation and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to determine the associations of AMH with central obesity and general obesity.
Subjects with increasing BMI showed significantly lower values of AMH (median (interquartile range (IQR)) 8.95 (6.03–13.60) ng/mL in normal weight group, 6.57 (4.18–8.77) ng/mL in overweight group, and 6.03 (4.34–9.44) ng/mL in obesity group, P = 0.001), but higher levels of systolic blood pressure, fasting insulin, total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-c, obesity indices (WC, hip circumferences, waist-to-hip ratio, waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), and Chinese visceral adiposity index (CVAI)). Compared with the group of PCOS women without central obesity, the group with central obesity had significantly lower value of AMH (median (IQR) 8.56 (5.29–12.96) ng/mL vs 6.22 (4.33–8.82) ng/mL; P = 0.003). Pearson’s correlation analysis showed that AMH was significantly and negatively correlated with BMI (r = −0.280; P < 0.001), WC (r = −0.263; P < 0.001), WHtR (r = −0.273; P < 0.001), and CVAI (r = −0.211; P = 0.006). Multivariate logistic regression analysis with adjustment for potential confounding factors showed that AMH was independently and negatively associated with central obesity but was not significantly associated with general obesity.
AMH was independently and negatively associated with central obesity. Closely monitoring the WC and AMH should be addressed in terms of assessing ovarian reserve in women with PCOS.