Skeletal muscle is the main metabolic tissue responsible for glucose homeostasis in the body. It is surrounded by the extracellular matrix (ECM) consisting of three layers: epimysium, perimysium, and endomysium. ECM plays an important role in the muscle, as it provides integrity and scaffolding cells. The observed disturbances in this structure are related to the abnormal remodeling of the ECM (through an increase in the concentration of its components). ECM rearrangement may impair insulin action by increasing the physical barrier to insulin transport and reducing insulin transport into muscle cells as well as by directly inhibiting insulin action through integrin signaling. Thus, improper ECM remodeling may contribute to the development of insulin resistance (IR) and related comorbidities. In turn, IR-associated conditions may further aggravate disturbances of ECM in skeletal muscle. This review describes the major components of the ECM that are necessary for its proper function. Particular attention was also paid to receptors (integrins) involved in the signaling of metabolic pathways. Finally, changes in ECM components in the context of clinical and animal studies are discussed. This article will help the reader to systematize knowledge related to the ECM and to better understand the relationship between ECM remodeling and IR, and its role in the pathogenesis of T2DM. The information in this article presents the concept of the role of ECM and its remodeling in the pathogenesis of IR, which may contribute to developing new therapeutic solutions.
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Link between insulin resistance and skeletal muscle extracellular matrix remodeling
Róża Aleksandrowicz and Marek Strączkowski
Morbidity, mortality, and socioeconomics in Klinefelter syndrome and 47,XYY syndrome: a comparative review
Lukas Ochsner Ridder, Agnethe Berglund, Kirstine Stochholm, Simon Chang, and Claus H Gravholt
Klinefelter syndrome (KS, 47,XXY) and 47,XYY syndrome are genetic conditions characterized by a supernumerary sex chromosome. The conditions share many traits, but considerable phenotypic differences are seen between the two. Focusing on morbidity, mortality, and socioeconomics, this review highlights similarities and differences.
Relevant literature was identified through PubMed with the following search terms; 'Klinefelter', '47,XXY', '47,XYY', and 'Jacobs syndrome'. Included journal articles were chosen at the authors’ discretion.
KS and 47,XYY are the most common sex chromosome disorders in males, with an expected prevalence of 152 and 98 per 100,000 newborn males, respectively. Non-diagnosis is extensive, as only about 38% of KS and 18% of 47,XYY are diagnosed. Both conditions are associated with an increased mortality risk and increased risk of a variety of diseases and other health-related problems affecting virtually every organ system. Early diagnosis seems to predict a lesser comorbidity burden. Neurocognitive deficits as well as social and behavioral problems are commonly described. Both syndromes are associated with poor socioeconomicfor example, lower income and educational level and higher rates of crime. Infertility is a hallmark of KS, but fertility seems also reduced in 47,XYY.
Being born as a boy with an extra X or Y chromosome is associated with increased mortality and excess morbidity, partially expressed in a sex chromosome-specific pattern.Both syndromes continue to be greatly underdiagnosed, even thoughearly intervention may improve the overall outcome. Earlier diagnosis to initiate timely counseling and treatment should be emphasized.
Mutation spectrum and frequency of copy number variations of the ANOS1 gene in patients with Kallmann syndrome or normosmic isolated hypogonadotropic hypogonadism
Ja Hye Kim, Yunha Choi, Soojin Hwang, Ji-Hee Yoon, Jieun Lee, Min Jae Kang, Gu-Hwan Kim, Han-Wook Yoo, and Jin-Ho Choi
This study was performed to investigate the molecular characteristics and frequency of copy number variations (CNVs) of ANOS1 in patients with Kallmann syndrome (KS) or normosmic isolated hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (nIHH) using multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) analysis and sequencing.
Among 45 patients from 43 independent families, Sanger sequencing, next-generation sequencing (NGS), or microarray was performed in 24 patients from 23 families, and MLPA was performed in 19 patients who did not show rare sequence variants (n = 18) or ANOS1 amplification by PCR (n = 1).
Seven patients (four patients with KS, one patient with nIHH, one prepubertal boy with anosmia, and one newborn patient) from six families (6/43, 14%) harbored molecular defects in ANOS1 including a nonsense mutation (c.1140G>A (p.W380*)), a frameshift mutation (c.1260del (p.Q421Kfs*61)), a splice site mutation (c.1449+1G>A), an exon 7 deletion, a complete deletion, and 7.9 Mb-sized inversion encompassing ANOS1. The complete deletion of ANOS1 was identified in a neonate with a micropenis and cryptorchidism. Unilateral renal agenesis was found in three patients, whereas only one patient displayed both synkinesia and sensorineural hearing loss. There was no reversal of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism in any patient during 9.1 ± 2.9 years of treatment with testosterone enanthate.
Molecular defects in the ANOS1 gene could be identified in 14% of probands including various types of CNVs (3/43, 7.0%). Comprehensive analysis using sequencing and analysis for CNVs is required to detect molecular defects in ANOS1.
Neurocognitive and behavioral development in young children (1–7 years) with sex chromosome trisomy
Sophie van Rijn, Kimberly Kuiper, Nienke Bouw, Evelien Urbanus, and Hanna Swaab
Investigating sex chromosome trisomies (SCTs) may help in understanding neurodevelopmental pathways underlying the risk for neurobehavioral problems and psychopathology. Knowledge about the neurobehavioral phenotype is needed to improve clinical care and early intervention for children with SCT. This is especially relevant considering the increasing number of early diagnosed children with the recent introduction of noninvasive prenatal screening. The TRIXY Early Childhood Study is a longitudinal study designed to identify early neurodevelopmental risks in children with SCT, aged 1–7 years. This review summarizes the results from the TRIXY Early Childhood Study, focusing on early behavioral symptoms in areas of autism spectrum disorder, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, and communication disorders, and underlying neurocognitive mechanisms in domains of language, emotion regulation, executive functioning, and social cognition. Behavioral symptoms were assessed through structured behavior observation and parental questionnaires. Neurocognition was measured using performance tests, eyetracking, and psychophysiological measures of arousal. In total, 209 children aged 1–7 years were included: 107 children with SCT (33 XXX, 50 XXY, and 24 XYY) and 102 age-matched population controls. Study outcomes showed early behavioral symptoms in young children with SCT, and neurocognitive vulnerabilities, already from an early age onward. Neurobehavioral and neurocognitive difficulties tended to become more pronounced with increasing age and were rather robust, independent of specific karyotype, pre/postnatal diagnosis, or ascertainment strategy. A more longitudinal perspective on neurodevelopmental ‘at-risk’ pathways is warranted, also including studies assessing the effectiveness of targeted early interventions. Neurocognitive markers that signal differences in neurodevelopment may prove to be helpful in this. Focusing on early development of language, social cognition, emotion regulation, and executive functioning may help in uncovering early essential mechanisms of (later) neurobehavioral outcome, allowing for more targeted support and early intervention.
A transcriptomic signature of X chromosome overdosage in Saudi Klinefelter syndrome induced pluripotent stem cells
Veronica Astro, Elisabetta Fiacco, Kelly Johanna Cardona-Londoño, Ilario De Toma, Hams Saeed Alzahrani, Jumana Alama, Amal Kokandi, Taha Abo-Almagd Abdel-Meguid Hamoda, Majed Felemban, and Antonio Adamo
The transcriptional landscape of Klinefelter syndromeduring early embryogenesis remains elusive. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of X chromosome overdosage in 47,XXY males induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) obtained from patients with different genomic backgrounds and ethnicities.
Design and method
We derived and characterized 15 iPSC lines from four Saudi 47,XXY KS patients and one Saudi 46,XY male. We performed a comparative transcriptional analysis using the Saudi KS-iPSCs and a cohort of European and North American KS-iPSCs.
We identified a panel of X-linked and autosomal genes commonly dysregulated in Saudi and European/North American KS-iPSCs vs 46,XY controls. Our findings demonstrate that seven PAR1 and nine non-PAR escape genes are consistently dysregulated and mostly display comparable transcriptional levels in both groups. Finally, we focused on genes commonly dysregulated in both iPSC cohorts and identified several gene-ontology categories highly relevant to KS physiopathology, including aberrant cardiac muscle contractility, skeletal muscle defects, abnormal synaptic transmission, and behavioral alterations.
Our results indicate that a transcriptomic signature of X chromosome overdosage in KS is potentially attributable to a subset of X-linked genes sensitive to sex chromosome dosage and escaping X inactivation, regardless of the geographical area of origin, ethnicity, and genetic makeup.
Unique plasma metabolite signature for adolescents with Klinefelter syndrome reveals altered fatty acid metabolism
Shanlee M Davis, Rhianna Urban, Angelo D’Alessandro, Julie A Reisz, Christine L Chan, Megan Kelsey, Susan Howell, Nicole Tartaglia, Philip Zeitler, and Peter Baker II
Conditions related to cardiometabolic disease, including metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes, are common among men with Klinefelter syndrome (KS). The molecular mechanisms underlying this aberrant metabolism in KS are largely unknown, although there is an assumption that chronic testosterone deficiency plays a role. This cross-sectional study compared plasma metabolites in 31 pubertal adolescent males with KS to 32 controls of similar age (14 ± 2 years), pubertal stage, and body mass index z-score of 0.1 ± 1.2 and then between testosterone-treated (n = 16) and untreated males with KS. The plasma metabolome in males with KS was distinctly different from that in controls, with 22% of measured metabolites having a differential abundance and seven metabolites nearly completely separating KS from controls (area under the curve > 0.9, P < 0.0001). Multiple saturated free fatty acids were higher in KS, while mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids were lower, and the top significantly enriched pathway was mitochondrial β-oxidation of long-chain saturated fatty acids (enrichment ratio 16, P < 0.0001). In contrast, there were no observed differences in metabolite concentrations between testosterone-treated and untreated individuals with KS. In conclusion, the plasma metabolome profile in adolescent males with KS is distinctly different from that in males without KS independent of age, obesity, pubertal development, or testosterone treatment status and is suggestive of differences in mitochondrial β-oxidation.
25-hydroxyvitamin D level is associated with greater grip strength across adult life span: a population-based cohort study
Fabienne A U Fox, Lennart Koch, Monique M B Breteler, and N Ahmad Aziz
Maintaining muscle function throughout life is critical for healthy ageing. Although in vitro studies consistently indicate beneficial effects of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) on muscle function, findings from population-based studies remain inconclusive. We therefore aimed to examine the association between 25-OHD concentration and handgrip strength across a wide age range and assess potential modifying effects of age, sex and season.
We analysed cross-sectional baseline data of 2576 eligible participants out of the first 3000 participants (recruited from March 2016 to March 2019) of the Rhineland Study, a community-based cohort study in Bonn, Germany. Multivariate linear regression models were used to assess the relation between 25-OHD levels and grip strength while adjusting for age, sex, education, smoking, season, body mass index, physical activity levels, osteoporosis and vitamin D supplementation.
Compared to participants with deficient 25-OHD levels (<30 nmol/L), grip strength was higher in those with inadequate (30 to <50 nmol/L) and adequate (≥50 to ≤125 nmol/L) levels (ß inadequate = 1.222, 95% CI: 0.377; 2.067, P = 0.005; ß adequate = 1.228, 95% CI: 0.437; 2.019, P = 0.002). Modelling on a continuous scale revealed grip strength to increase with higher 25-OHD levels up to ~100 nmol/L, after which the direction reversed (ß linear = 0.505, 95% CI: 0.179; 0.830, P = 0.002; ß quadratic = –0.153, 95% CI: –0.269; -0.038, P = 0.009). Older adults showed weaker effects of 25-OHD levels on grip strength than younger adults (ß 25OHDxAge = –0.309, 95% CI: –0.594; –0.024, P = 0.033).
Our findings highlight the importance of sufficient 25-OHD levels for optimal muscle function across the adult life span. However, vitamin D supplementation should be closely monitored to avoid detrimental effects.
Accuracy of papillary thyroid cancer prognostic nomograms: a systematic review
Maria Luisa Garo, Désirée Deandreis, Alfredo Campennì, Alexis Vrachimis, Petra Petranovic Ovcaricek, and Luca Giovanella
Current staging and risk-stratification systems for predicting survival or recurrence of patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma may be ineffective at predicting outcomes in individual patients. In recent years, nomograms have been proposed as an alternative to conventional systems for predicting personalized clinical outcomes. We conducted a systematic review to evaluate the predictive performance of available nomograms for thyroid cancer patients.
Design and methods
PROSPERO registration (CRD42022327028). A systematic search was conducted without time and language restrictions. PICOT questions: population, patients with papillary thyroid cancer; comparator prognostic factor, single-arm studies; outcomes, overall survival, disease-free survival, cancer-specific survival, recurrence, central lymph node metastases, or lateral lymph node metastases; timing, all periods; setting, hospital setting. Risk of bias was assessed through PROBAST tool.
Eighteen studies with a total of 20 prognostic models were included in the systematic review (90,969 papillary thyroid carcinoma patients). Fourteen models were at high risk of bias and four were at unclear risk of bias. The greatest concerns arose in the analysis domain. The accuracy of nomograms for overall survival was assessed in only one study and appeared limited (0.77, 95% CI: 0.75–0.79). The accuracy of nomograms for disease-free survival ranged from 0.65 (95% CI: 0.55–0.75) to 0.92 (95% CI: 0.91–0.95). The C-index for predicting lateral lymph node metastasis ranged from 0.72 to 0.92 (95% CI: 0.86–0.97). For central lymph node metastasis, the C-index of externally validated studies ranged from 0.706 (95% CI: 0.685–0.727) to 0.923 (95% CI: 0.893–0.946).
Our work highlights the extremely high heterogeneity among nomograms and the critical lack of external validation studies that limit the applicability of nomograms in clinical practice. Further studies ideally using commonly adopted risk factors as the backbone to develop nomograms are required.
Nomograms may be appropriate tools to plan treatments and predict personalized clinical outcomes in patients with papillary thyroid cancer. However, the nomograms developed to date are very heterogeneous, and their results seem to be closely related to the specific samples studied to generate the same nomograms. The lack of rigorous external validation procedures and the use of risk factors that sometimes appear to be far from those commonly used in clinical practice, as well as the great heterogeneity of the risk factors considered, limit the ability of nomograms to predict patient outcomes and thus their current introduction in clinical practice.
Altered glucose-dependent secretion of glucagon and ACTH is associated with insulin resistance, assessed by population analysis
Jan W Eriksson, Reem A Emad, Martin H Lundqvist, Niclas Abrahamsson, and Maria C Kjellsson
This study aimed to characterize how the dysregulation of counter-regulatory hormones can contribute to insulin resistance and potentially to diabetes. Therefore, we investigated the association between insulin sensitivity and the glucose- and insulin-dependent secretion of glucagon, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), and cortisol in non-diabetic individuals using a population model analysis. Data, from hyperinsulinemic–hypoglycemic clamps, were pooled for analysis, including 52 individuals with a wide range of insulin resistance (reflected by glucose infusion rate 20–60 min; GIR20–60min). Glucagon secretion was suppressed by glucose and, to a lesser extent, insulin. The GIR20–60min and BMI were identified as predictors of the insulin effect on glucagon. At normoglycemia (5 mmol/L), a 90% suppression of glucagon was achieved at insulin concentrations of 16.3 and 43.4 µU/mL in individuals belonging to the highest and lowest quantiles of insulin sensitivity, respectively. Insulin resistance of glucagon secretion explained the elevated fasting glucagon for individuals with a low GIR20–60min. ACTH secretion was suppressed by glucose and not affected by insulin. The GIR20–60min was superior to other measures as a predictor of glucose-dependent ACTH secretion, with 90% suppression of ACTH secretion by glucose at 3.1 and 3.5 mmol/L for insulin-sensitive and insulin-resistant individuals, respectively. This difference may appear small but shifts the suppression range into normoglycemia for individuals with insulin resistance, thus, leading to earlier and greater ACTH/cortisol response when the glucose falls. Based on modeling of pooled glucose-clamp data, insulin resistance was associated with generally elevated glucagon and a potentiated cortisol-axis response to hypoglycemia, and over time both hormonal pathways may therefore contribute to dysglycemia and possibly type 2 diabetes.
Diabetes in all hospitalized cases in Germany 2015–2019 and impact of the first COVID-19 year 2020
Marie Auzanneau, Alexander J Eckert, Andreas Fritsche, Martin Heni, Andrea Icks, Annabel S Mueller-Stierlin, Ana Dugic, Alexander Risse, Stefanie Lanzinger, and Reinhard W Holl
To analyze the proportion of diabetes among all hospitalized cases in Germany between 2015 and 2020.
Using the nationwide Diagnosis-Related-Groups statistics, we identified among all inpatient cases aged ≥ 20 years all types of diabetes in the main or secondary diagnoses based on ICD-10 codes, as well all COVID-19 diagnoses for 2020.
From 2015 to 2019, the proportion of cases with diabetes among all hospitalizations increased from 18.3% (3.01 of 16.45 million) to 18.5% (3.07 of 16.64 million). Although the total number of hospitalizations decreased in 2020, the proportion of cases with diabetes increased to 18.8% (2.73 of 14.50 million). The proportion of COVID-19 diagnosis was higher in cases with diabetes than in those without in all sex and age subgroups. The relative risk (RR) for a COVID-19 diagnosis in cases with vs without diabetes was highest in age group 40–49 years (RR in females: 1.51; in males: 1.41).
The prevalence of diabetes in the hospital is twice as high as the prevalence in the general population and has increased further with the COVID-19 pandemic, underscoring the increased morbidity in this high-risk patient group. This study provides essential information that should help to better estimate the need for diabetological expertise in inpatient care settings.