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Open access

Yukari Maki, Kiyomi Horiuchi, and Takahiro Okamoto

Background

Cancer-related fatigue is one of the most important issues for patients, but research on this topic is sparse. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of fatigue in postoperative patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) and to identify the clinical features associated with fatigue.

Methods

We conducted a cross-sectional study on 292 thyroid cancer survivors. Fatigue and quality of life were the study outcomes, measured using the Cancer Fatigue Scale (CFS) and the SF-36 version 2.0. Furthermore, correlations of demographic characteristics and hormonal data with the CFS scores were assessed by univariable and multivariable analyses.

Results

The prevalence of fatigue was 41.8% (95% CI: 36.1, 47.5). The CFS score was significantly correlated with the free T3 level (Pearson’s r = −0.123, 95% CI: −0.234, −0.008). Multiple regression analysis revealed that the free T3 level and having a job were significant predictors of the CFS score, with unstandardized regression coefficients of −2.52 (95% CI: −4.94, −0.09) and 2.85 (95% CI: 0.49, 5.20), respectively. The median Z-scores were negative for General Health (−0.28) and Vitality (−0.15) subscales of the SF-36. The CFS score was a significant predictor of summary scores of the SF-36. The free T3 level was significantly associated with the physical component summary score with an unstandardized coefficient of 3.20 (95% CI: 0.77, 5.63).

Conclusions

Fatigue was prevalent and associated with poor quality of life among PTC survivors. Thyroid functional status, particularly the level of free T3, may be worth to be considered in alleviating the burden.

Open access

Michelle J Galvan, Michael J Sanchez, Andrew J McAinch, Jeffrey D Covington, Jason B Boyle, and Sudip Bajpeyi

Introduction/purpose

Most US adults (54%) do not meet the minimum exercise recommendations by the American College of Sports Medicine. Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) is a novel alternate strategy to induce muscle contraction. However, the effectiveness of NMES to improve insulin sensitivity and energy expenditure is unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of 4 weeks of NMES on glucose tolerance in a sedentary overweight or obese population.

Methods

Participants (n  = 10; age: 36.8 ± 3.8 years; BMI = 32 ± 1.3 kg/m2) were randomized into either control or NMES group. All participants received bilateral quadriceps stimulation (12 sessions; 30 min/session; three times/week at 50 Hz and 300 µs pulse width) altering pulse amplitude to either provide low-intensity sensory level (control; tingling sensation) or at high-intensity neuromuscular level (NMES; maximum tolerable levels with visible muscle contraction). Glucose tolerance was assessed by a 3-h oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), and substrate utilization was measured by indirect calorimetry and body composition via dual X-ray absorptiometry at baseline and after 4 weeks of NMES intervention.

Results

Control and NMES groups had comparable fasting blood glucose, glucose tolerance, substrate utilization, and muscle mass at baseline. Four weeks of NMES resulted in a significant improvement in glucose tolerance measured by OGTT, whereas no change was observed in the control group. There was no change in substrate utilization and muscle mass in both control and NMES groups.

Conclusion

NMES is a novel and effective strategy to improve glucose tolerance in an at-risk overweight or obese sedentary population.

Open access

Lizhi Zhang, Jinwei He, Xiang Sun, Dongyue Pang, Jingjing Hu, and Bo Feng

We demonstrated previously that there is a correlation between glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and bone mineral density in postmenopausal women. Both GLP-1 and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide are incretins. The glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide receptor (GIPR) SNP rs10423928 has been extensively studied. However, it is not clear whether GIPR gene mutations affect bone metabolism. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between rs10423928 and bone mineral density in postmenopausal women in Shanghai. rs10423928 was detected in 884 postmenopausal women in Shanghai, and the correlation between the GIPR SNP and bone mineral density was assessed. The dominant T/T genotype of rs10423928 was found to be related to the bone mineral density of the femoral neck (P = 0.035). Overall, our findings indicate that the dominant T/T genotype of rs10423928 in postmenopausal women is significantly associated with a higher bone mineral density and that the T/T genotype exerts a bone-protective effect.

Open access

Qian Wang, Jiacheng Wang, Yunhui Xin, Ziyang He, Xiang Zhou, Xing Liu, Teng Zhao, Lihan He, Hong Shen, Mulan Jin, and Bojun Wei

Background

Parathyroid carcinoma (PC), often misdiagnosed as a parathyroid adenoma (PA), is prone to local relapse due to the initial surgery being restricted to parathyroid lesions instead of en bloc resection of parathyroid lesions with negative incision margins. However, it is very challenging to distinguish PC from PA preoperatively; hence, this study investigated an effective biomarker for increasing accuracy in PC diagnosis.

Method

First, the differentially expressed circular RNAs between three PC tissues and three PA tissues were screened by high-throughput circular RNA sequencing, and the expression of hsa_circ_0005729 was verified by qRT-PCR in 14 patients with PC and 40 patients with PA. Secondly, the receiver operating characteristic curve and the area under the curve (AUC) were used to analyze the diagnostic efficiency of hsa_circ_0005729 in PC by combining with laboratory data. Thirdly, RNF138mRNA, the corresponding linear transcript of hsa_circ_0005729, was measured, and the relationship between hsa_circ_0005729 and RNF138 mRNA was analyzed in patients with PA and patients with PC.

Results

Hsa_circ_0005729 expression was significantly higher in patients with PC than in patients with PA. Serum calcium (P  = 0.045), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) (P  = 0.048), and creatinine levels (P  = 0.036) were significantly higher in patients with PC than in patients with PA. The AUC increased to 0.86 when hsa_circ_0005729 combined with serum calcium, creatinine, and ALP. In addition, hsa_circ_0005729 was positively correlated with RNF138 mRNA in patients with PA but not in patients with PC.

Conclusion

The novel circular RNA hsa_circ_0005729 was found to have a higher expression in patients with PC, indicating its usefulness for distinguishing PC from PA.

Open access

Hanna Karhapää, Siru Mäkelä, Hanna Laurén, Marjut Jaakkola, Camilla Schalin-Jäntti, and Micaela Hernberg

Objective

Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) can cause endocrine adverse events. However, endocrine AEs could be related to better treatment outcomes. Our aim was to investigate whether this holds true in a real-world setting of metastatic melanoma patients.

Design

A retrospective single-institution study.

Methods

We included 140 consecutive metastatic melanoma patients treated with ICI between January 2012 and May 2019. We assessed the endocrine toxicity and the best possible treatment outcomes from electronic patient records, including laboratory parameters and radiological images.

Results

Of the treated patients, 21 patients (15%) were treated with ipilimumab, 46 (33%) with nivolumab, 67 (48%) with pembrolizumab, and 6 (4%) with combination therapy (ipilimumab + nivolumab). Endocrine AEs appeared in 29% (41/140) patients. Three patients had two different endocrine AEs. Thyroid disorders were the most common: 26% (36/140), followed by hypophysitis: 4% (5/140). Three subjects (2%, 3/140) were diagnosed with autoimmune diabetes. Three patients had to terminate treatment due to endocrine toxicity. Radiological manifestations of endocrine AEs were found in 16 patients (39%, 16/41). Endocrine toxicity was associated with significantly better treatment outcomes. Median progression-free survival (8.1 months, range 5.1–11.1 months vs 2.7 months, range 2.4–3.0 months, P < 0.001), and median overall survival (47.5 months, range 15.5–79.5 months vs 23.7 months, range 15.3–32.1 months, P = 0.035) were longer for patients experiencing endocrine AEs.

Conclusions

The higher number of endocrine AEs suggest that regular laboratory monitoring aids in AE detection. Endocrine AEs in metastatic melanoma may correlate with better treatment outcomes.

Open access

Chengnan Guo, Yixi Xu, Yange Ma, Xin Xu, Fang Peng, Hui-hui Li, Dongzhen Jin, Shu-zhen Zhao, Zhezheng Xia, Mengyuan Lai, Mingzhu Che, Ruogu Huang, Yanan Wang, Depeng Jiang, Chao Zheng, and Guangyun Mao

Although previous studies demonstrate that trehalose can help maintain glucose homeostasis in healthy humans, its role and joint effect with glutamate on diabetic retinopathy (DR) remain unclear. We aimed to comprehensively quantify the associations of trehalose and glutamate with DR. This study included 69 pairs of DR and matched type 2 diabetic (T2D) patients. Serum trehalose and glutamate were determined via ultra-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry system. Covariates were collected by a standardized questionnaire, clinical examinations and laboratory assessments. Individual and joint association of trehalose and glutamate with DR were quantified by multiple conditional logistic regression models. The adjusted odds of DR averagely decreased by 86% (odds ratio (OR): 0.14; 95% CI: 0.06, 0.33) with per interquartile range increase of trehalose. Comparing with the lowest quartile, adjusted OR (95% CI) were 0.20 (0.05, 0.83), 0.14 (0.03, 0.63) and 0.01 (<0.01, 0.05) for participants in the second, third and fourth quartiles of trehalose, respectively. In addition, as compared to their counterparts, T2D patients with lower trehalose (<median) and higher glutamate (≥median) had the highest odds of DR (OR: 36.81; 95% CI: 6.75, 200.61). An apparent super-multiplicative effect of trehalose and glutamate on DR was observed, whereas relative excess risk due to interaction was not significant. The study suggests that trehalose is beneficial to inhibit the occurrence of DR and synergistically decreases the risk of DR with reduced glutamate. Our findings also provide new insights into the mechanisms of DR and further longitudinal studies are required to confirm these findings.

Open access

Sandeep Kumar Parvathareddy, Abdul K Siraj, Zeeshan Qadri, Saeeda O Ahmed, Felisa DeVera, Saif Al-Sobhi, Fouad Al-Dayel, and Khawla S Al-Kuraya

Objective

Recently, lymph node ratio (LNR) has emerged as an alternative to American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) N stage, with superior prognostic value. The utility of LNR in Middle Eastern papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) remains unknown. Therefore, we retrospectively analyzed a large cohort of 1407 PTC patients for clinicopathological associations of LNR.

Methods

Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve was used to determine the cut-off for LNR. We also performed multivariate logistic regression analysis to determine whether LNR or AJCC N stage was superior in predicting recurrence in PTC.

Results

Based on ROC curve analysis, a cut-off of 0.15 was chosen for LNR. High LNR was significantly associated with adverse clinicopathological characteristics such as male sex, extrathyroidal extension, lymphovascular invasion, multifocality, bilateral tumors, T4 tumors, lateral lymph node (N1b) involvement, distant metastasis, advanced tumor stage, American Thyroid Association (ATA) high-risk category and tumor recurrence. On multivariate analysis, we found that LNR was a better predictor of tumor recurrence than AJCC N stage (odds ratio: 1.96 vs 1.30; P value: 0.0184 vs 0.3831). We also found that LNR combined with TNM stage and ATA risk category improved the prediction of recurrence-free survival, compared to TNM stage or ATA risk category alone.

Conclusions

The present study suggests LNR is an independent predictor of recurrence in Middle Eastern PTC. Integration of LNR with 8th edition AJCC TNM staging system and ATA risk stratification will improve the accuracy to predict recurrence in Middle Eastern PTC and help in tailoring treatment and surveillance strategies in these patients.

Open access

Josi Vidart, Paula Jaskulski, Ana Laura Kunzler, Rafael Aguiar Marschner, André Ferreira de Azeredo da Silva, and Simone Magagnin Wajner

We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to comprehensively determine the prevalence and the prognostic role of non-thyroidal illness syndrome (NTIS) in critically ill patients. We included studies that assessed thyroid function by measuring the serum thyroid hormone (TH) level and in-hospital mortality in adult septic patients. Reviews, case reports, editorials, letters, animal studies, duplicate studies, and studies with irrelevant populations and inappropriate controls were excluded. A total of 6869 patients from 25 studies were included. The median prevalence rate of NTIS was 58% (IQR 33.2–63.7). In univariate analysis, triiodothyronine (T3) and free T3 (FT3) levels in non-survivors were relatively lower than that of survivors (8 studies for T3; standardized mean difference (SMD) 1.16; 95% CI, 0.41–1.92; I2 = 97%; P < 0.01). Free thyroxine (FT4) levels in non-survivors were also lower than that of survivors (12 studies; SMD 0.54; 95% CI, 0.31–0.78; I2 = 83%; P < 0.01). There were no statistically significant differences in thyrotropin levels between non-survivors and survivors. NTIS was independently associated with increased risk of mortality in critically ill patients (odds ratio (OR) = 2.21, 95% CI, 1.64–2.97, I2 = 65% P  < 0.01). The results favor the concept that decreased thyroid function might be associated with a worse outcome in critically ill patients. Hence, the measurement of TH could provide prognostic information on mortality in adult patients admitted to ICU.

Open access

Lauren R Cirrincione, Bridgit O Crews, Jane A Dickerson, Matthew D Krasowski, Jessica Rongitsch, Katherine L Imborek, Zil Goldstein, and Dina N Greene

Objectives

Recently, an estradiol immunoassay manufacturer (Beckman Coulter, USA) issued an ‘important product notice’ alerting clinical laboratories that their assay (Access Sensitive Estradiol) was not indicated for patients undergoing exogenous estradiol treatment. The objective of this analysis was to evaluate immunoassay bias relative to liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in transgender women and to examine the influence of unconjugated estrone on measurements.

Design

Cross-sectional secondary analysis.

Methods

Estradiol concentrations from 89 transgender women were determined by 3 immunoassays (Access Sensitive Estradiol (‘New BC’) and Access Estradiol assays (‘Old BC’), Beckman Coulter; Estradiol III assay (‘Roche’), Roche Diagnostics) and LC-MS/MS. Bias was evaluated with and without adjustment for estrone concentrations. The number of participants who shifted between three estradiol concentration ranges for each immunoassay vs LC-MS/MS (>300 pg/mL, 70–300 pg/mL, and <70 pg/mL) was calculated.

Results

The New BC assay had the largest magnitude overall bias (median: −34%) and was −40%, −22%, and −10%, among participants receiving tablet, patch, or injection preparations, respectively. Overall bias was −12% and +17% for the Roche and Old BC assays, respectively. When measured with the New BC assay, 18 participants shifted to a lower estradiol concentration range (vs 9 and 10 participants based on Roche or Old BC assays, respectively). Adjustment for estrone did not minimize bias.

Conclusions

Immunoassay measurement of estradiol in transgender women may lead to falsely decreased concentrations that have the potential to affect management. A multidisciplinary health care approach is needed to ensure if appropriate analytical methods are available.

Open access

Ja Hye Kim, Yunha Choi, Soojin Hwang, Gu-Hwan Kim, Han-Wook Yoo, and Jin-Ho Choi

Objective

Heterozygous CHD7 mutations cause a broad spectrum of clinical phenotypes ranging from typical CHARGE syndrome to self-limited delayed puberty. This study aimed to investigate the clinical characteristics of endocrine dysfunction in patients with CHD7 mutations.

Methods

The clinical features and endocrine findings from 30 patients with CHD7 variants were retrospectively reviewed. A diagnosis of CHARGE syndrome was based on the Verloes diagnostic criteria.

Results

Seventeen patients fulfilled the criteria for typical CHARGE syndrome, one patient for partial/incomplete CHARGE, and the remaining eleven patients had atypical CHARGE syndrome. One patient was diagnosed with Kallmann syndrome and unilateral deafness. The most frequently observed features were inner ear anomalies (80.0%), intellectual disability (76.7%), and external ear anomalies (73.3%). The mean height and weight SDSs at diagnosis were −2.6 ± 1.3 and −2.2 ± 1.8, respectively. Short stature was apparent in 18 patients (60%), and 1 patient was diagnosed with growth hormone deficiency. Seventeen males showed genital hypoplasia, including micropenis, cryptorchidism, or both. Seven patients after pubertal age had hypogonadotropic hypogonadism with hyposmia/anosmia and olfactory bulb hypoplasia. Truncating CHD7 mutations were the most common (n  = 22), followed by missense variants (n  = 3), splice-site variants (n  = 2), and large deletion (n  = 2).

Conclusions

A diverse phenotypic spectrum was observed in patients with CHD7 variants, and endocrine defects such as short stature and delayed puberty occurred in most patients. Endocrine evaluation, especially for growth and pubertal impairment, should be performed during diagnosis and follow-up to improve the patient’s quality of life.