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Open access

Jun-Xin Yan, Bin-Jing Pan, Ping-Ping Zhao, Li-Ting Wang, Jing-Fang Liu, and Song-Bo Fu

Objective

Previous studies have shown the correlations between serum ferritin and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) or diabetes. However, this relationship remains unclear in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) with NAFLD. Therefore, this study aimed to elaborate the relationship between serum ferritin levels and NAFLD in middle-aged and older patients with T2DM and further explored the biomarkers for NAFLD in T2DM.

Methods

A total of 805 middle-aged and older patients with T2DM were divided into NAFLD and non-NAFLD groups, and their serum ferritin levels were compared. Next, NAFLD group were divided into five subgroups according to the quintile levels of serum ferritin, and the differences in the constituent ratios of NAFLD were analyzed. A logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the risk factors for NAFLD in patients with T2DM.

Results

The serum ferritin levels were significantly higher in T2DM patients with NAFLD (168.47 (103.78, 248.00) ng/mL) than in the non-NAFLD patients (121.19 (76.97, 208.39) ng/mL). The constituent ratios of NAFLD were significantly higher in the F5 and F4 groups than in the F2 or F1 groups (22.70 and 22.70% vs. 15.90 and 16.90%, respectively; P < 0.05). Binary logistic regression analysis showed that serum ferritin (P = 0.001) was an independent risk factor for NAFLD in patients with T2DM.

Conclusions

Serum ferritin levels were significantly increased in T2DM with NAFLD, and the constituent ratios of NAFLD increased gradually along with the increased levels of serum ferritin. Thus, serum ferritin is an independent risk factor for NAFLD in patients with T2DM.

Open access

Xiaomin Li, Ling Fang, Hongjiang Li, and Xiaoqin Yang

Background

In China, the association between estrogen metabolism and breast cancer risk and the differences in metabolic pattern between breast cancer patients and controls are poorly understood.

Methods

A total of 84 patients with invasive breast cancer and 47 controls with benign breast diseases were included in this study. Estrogen metabolites from their morning urine were determined by HPLC-MS/MS and evaluated in both groups, and the predictive value of each estrogen metabolite in the malignant group according to their menstrual status was analyzed.

Results

Urinary concentration of estrogen metabolites 2-hydroxyestrone (2-OHE1), 2-hydroxyestradiol (2-OHE2), 4-hydroxyestradiol (4-OHE2), 4-methoxyestrone (4-MeOE1), and 16α-hydroxyestrone were lower in postmenopausal patients with breast cancer, compared with benign controls. In logistic regression model, breast cancer risk increased with the decline in the levels of 4-OHE2 and 4-MeOE1. In premenopausal patients, a difference in the level of 2-OHE2 was observed between both groups, and 2-OHE2 was found to have predictive value for breast cancer. Additionally, urinary 2-OHE2 level in premenopausal hormone receptor positive (HR+) patients was considerably higher compared with hormone receptor negative patients.

Conclusions

We found that lower urinary levels of 4-OHE2 and 4-MeOE1 had predictive value for breast cancer, and higher 2-OHE1 were associated with HR+ breast cancer in premenopausal women.

Open access

Xun Gong, Lili You, Feng Li, Qingyu Chen, Chaogang Chen, Xiaoyun Zhang, Xiuwei Zhang, Wenting Xuan, Kan Sun, Guojuan Lao, Chuan Wang, Yan Li, Mingtong Xu, Meng Ren, and Li Yan

Objective

Adiponectin is an adipocyte-derived hormone with an important role in glucose metabolism. The present study explored the effect of adiponectin in diverse population groups on pre-diabetes and newly diagnosed diabetes.

Methods

A total of 3300 individuals were enrolled and their data were collected in the analyses dataset from December 2018 to October 2019. Cluster analysis was conducted based on age, BMI, waistline, body fat, systolic blood pressure, triglycerides, and glycosylated hemoglobin 1c. Cluster analysis divided the participants into four groups: a young-healthy group, an elderly-hypertension group, a high glucose–lipid group, and an obese group. Odds ratio (OR) and 95% CIs were calculated using multivariate logistic regression analysis.

Results

Compared with the first quartile of adiponectin, the risk of pre-diabetes of fourth quartile was decreased 61% (aOR = 0.39, 95% CI (0.20–0.73)) in the young-healthy group; and the risk of diabetes of fourth quartile was decreased 85% (aOR = 0.15, 95% CI (0.02–0.67)) in the obese group. There were no significant correlations between the adiponectin level and diabetes/pre-diabetes in the other two groups. Additionally, receiver operating characteristic curve analysis indicated that adiponectin could significantly improve the diagnosis based on models in the young-healthy group (from 0.640 to 0.675) and the obese group (from 0.714 to 0.761).

Conclusions

Increased adiponectin levels were associated with decreased risk of pre-diabetes in the young-healthy population, and with a decreased the risk of diabetes in the obese population. An increased adiponectin level is an independent protective factor for pre-diabetes and diabetes in a specific population in south China.

Open access

Xi Zhang, Xiurong Shen, Wan Zhou, Mengyun Xu, Yan Xing, Jianping Weng, Shandong Ye, Suowen Xu, Zhi Zhang, and Wei Wang

A variety of studies have demonstrated the role of lipocalin 2 (LCN2) in both diabetes and neurological disorders. Nevertheless, the relationship between LCN2 and diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) needs to be elucidated in humans. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the association of LCN2 with DPN in type 2 diabetes (T2D). A total of 207 participants with T2D and 40 participants with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) were included in this study. All participants were classified into DPN group and non-DPN (NDPN) group based on the Toronto Clinical Neuropathy Scoring (TCNS). Demographic and biochemical parameters were measured. Serum LCN2 levels were determined using an ELISA technique. Serum LCN2 levels in NGT group were lower than those in either DPN group (P = 0.000) or NDPN group (P = 0.043), while serum LCN2 levels in DPN group were higher than NDPN group (P = 0.001). Moreover, serum LCN2 levels positively correlated to TCNS scores, which reflects neuropathy severity (r = 0.438, P = 0.000). Multivariate stepwise regression analysis showed that BMI, triglycerides, and diastolic pressure were independently associated with serum LCN2 in DPN. Additionally, logistic regression analysis demonstrated that LCN2 (odds ratio (OR) = 1.009) and diabetes duration (OR = 1.058) were independently associated with the occurrence of DPN in T2D. Our report reveals the association of serum LCN2 with DPN in T2D. LCN2 might be used to evaluate DPN severity and serve a role in the pathogenesis of DPN.

Open access

Rongpeng Gong, Gang Luo, Mingxiang Wang, Lingbo Ma, Shengnan Sun, and Xiaoxing Wei

Background

Clinical data on the relationship between triglycerides (TG)/HDL ratio and insulin resistance (IR) suggest that TG/HDL ratio may be a risk factor for IR. However, there is evidence that different races have different risk of developing IR. The relationship on TG/HDL ratio and IR in various populations needs to be improved. Therefore, we investigated whether TG/HDL ratio was linked to IR in different groups in the United States after controlling for other covariates.

Methods

The current research was conducted in a cross-sectional manner. From 2009 to 2018, the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) had a total of 49,696 participants, all of whom were Americans. The target-independent variable was TG/HDL ratio measured at baseline, and the dependent variable was IR. Additionally, the BMI, waist circumference, education, race, smoking, alcohol use, alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, and other covariates were also included in this analysis.

Results

The average age of the 10,132 participants was 48.6 ± 18.4 years, and approximately 4936 (48.7%) were males. After correcting for confounders, fully adjusted logistic regression revealed that TG/HDL ratio was correlated with IR (odds ratio = 1.51, 95% CI 1.42–1.59). A nonlinear interaction between TG/HDL ratio and IR was discovered, with a point of 1.06. The impact sizes and CIs on the left and right sides of the inflection point were 6.28 (4.66–8.45) and 1.69 (1.45–1.97), respectively. According to subgroup analysis, the correlation was strong in females, alcohol users, and diabetes patients. Meanwhile, the inverse pattern was observed in the aged, obese, high-income, and smoking populations.

Conclusion

In the American population, the TG/HDL ratio is positively associated with IR in a nonlinear interaction pattern.

Open access

Reem Al Argan, Abdulaziz Ramadhan, Ramanakumar V Agnihotram, Jeffrey Chankowsky, and Juan Rivera

Hypopituitarism tends to occur in large pituitary adenomas. However, similar tumors could present with strikingly different hormonal deficiencies. In this study, we looked at MRI characteristics in non-functioning pituitary adenomas (NFPA), which could predict secondary adrenal insufficiency (SAI) and central hypothyroidism (CHT). We reviewed the files of patients with NFPA attending our clinic. Tumor size, invasiveness, MR-signal intensity, and gadolinium enhancement in preoperative MRI were recorded along with documented presurgical hypopituitarism profile. Logistic regression was used to predict SAI, CHT, or both (SAI/CHT) based on MRI and demographic parameters. Receiver operating characteristic curves were used to determine their diagnostic utility. One hundred twenty-one patients were included in the study. Older age (P = 0.021), male sex (P = 0.043), stalk deviation (P < 0.0001), contrast enhancement (P = 0.029), and optic chiasma compression (P = 0.012) were associated with SAI/CHT. Adenoma vertical height, largest diameter, and estimated volume were also strongly associated with SAI/CHT (P < 0.0001). These associations remained significant in a multivariate analysis. No tumor smaller than 12 mm in vertical height, 17 mm in largest diameter, or 0.9 cm3 in volume was associated with SAI/CHT. At cut-off ≥18 mm for vertical height, ≥23 mm for largest diameter, and ≥3.2 cm3 the sensitivity was around 90–92% for detecting SAI/CHT. Only vertical height was significantly associated with any one or more pituitary hormonal deficit (P = 0.001). In conclusion, adenoma size, independent of the measurement used, remains the best predictor of SAI/CHT in NFPA. Dynamic testing to rule out SAI is probably indicated in adenomas larger than 18 mm vertical height, 23 mm largest diameter and 3.2 cm3 adenoma volume.

Open access

Yuan Liu, Siyi Guo, Jinsong Wu, Rongai Wang, Jinbo Liu, Yan Liu, Bin Lv, Nan Liu, Ling Jiang, and Xiaoli Zhang

The clinical presentation of primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) differs between patients from developed and developing countries. In China, the clinical pattern has changed over the past few decades. Our aim was to elucidate general changes in the clinical characteristics of PHPT from 2010 to 2021. We enrolled 343 patients with PHPT at the Qilu Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan, China, from January 2010 to May 2021, including both surgical and non-surgical patients. Patients were divided into two subgroups, 2010–2016 (group A, n  = 152) and 2017–2021 (group B, n  = 191), based on the time span. We compared clinical manifestations and laboratory result data between these two groups. The mean patient age was 52.59 ± 13.55 years, and the male-to-female ratio was 1:2.54. Of the 343 patients, 183 (53.35%) had symptomatic PHPT; bone pain, urolithiasis, and fatigue were the most common symptoms. Post-operative pathology showed that 96.20% of the patients had parathyroid adenoma, whereas 2.41% had parathyroid carcinoma. Great changes occurred between 2010 and 2021; the percentage of patients with asymptomatic PHPT (aPHPT) increased from 36.18% in group A to 54.97% in group B. Moreover, patients in group B showed significantly lower serum calcium, alkaline phosphatase, parathyroid hormone, and urinary phosphate levels but higher serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels than those in group A. Clinical presentations in group B were also milder. In conclusion, the clinical characteristics of Chinese PHPT patients changed dramatically from 2010 to 2021, with asymptomatic PHPT (aPHPT becoming the predominant type over the last 3 years.

Open access

Yao Su, Li Chen, Dong-Yao Zhang, Xu-Pei Gan, Yan-Nan Cao, De-Cui Cheng, Wen-Yu Liu, Fei-Fei Li, Xian-Ming Xu, and Hong-Kun Wang

Objective

To investigate the characteristics of intestinal flora in overweight pregnant women and the correlation with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM).

Methods

A total of 122 women were enrolled and divided into four groups according to their pre-pregnancy BMI and the presence of GDM: group 1 (n = 71) with a BMI <24 kg/m2, without GDM; group 2 (n = 27) with a BMI <24 kg/m2, with GDM; group 3 (n = 17) with a BMI ≥24 kg/m2, without GDM; and group 4 (n = 7) with a BMI ≥24 kg/m2 with GDM. Feces were collected on the day that the oral glucose tolerance test was conducted. The V3–V4 variable region of 16S rRNA was sequenced using the Illumina Hiseq 2500 platform, and a bioinformatics analysis was conducted.

Results

There were differences between the four groups in the composition of intestinal flora, and it was significantly different in group 4 than in the other three groups. Firmicutes accounted for 36.4% of the intestinal flora in this group, the lowest among the four groups, while Bacteroidetes accounted for 50.1%, the highest among the four groups, making ratio of these two bacteria approximately 3:5, while in the other three groups, this ratio was reversed. In women with a BMI <24 kg/m2, the insulin resistance index (homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR)) in pregnant women with GDM was higher than in those without (P 3 = 0.026).

Conclusion

The composition of the intestinal flora of pregnant women who were overweight or obese before pregnancy and suffered from GDM was significantly different than women who were not overweight or did not suffer from GDM.

Open access

Mengting Yin, Qianhui Liu, Qingzhong Wang, Yong He, Haolan Song, Xin Nie, and Guixing Li

Background

The diagnosis of primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) remains a challenge because of increased asymptomatic PHPT or patients with normocalcaemic PHPT (NPHPT). In addition, some primary hospitals in China have no equipment to measure parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels. Therefore, an additional, simple, and inexpensive laboratory biochemical marker is urgently needed. The calcium/phosphate (Ca/P) ratio and chloride/phosphate (Cl/P) ratio have been proposed as suitable tools to diagnose PHPT in Europe; however, the Ca/P ratio has never been tested in China. We aimed to conduct a confirmatory study to explore the diagnostic performance of the Ca/P ratio for PHPT in China.

Methods

From January 2015 to December 2020, a total of 155 patients who underwent parathyroidectomy (143 PHPT patients and 12 NPHPT patients) and 153 controls were enrolled in this single-center , retrospective study. Serum calcium, phosphate, parathyroid hormone, 25-hydroxyvitamin vitamin D (25(OH) vitamin D), chloride, alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate aminotransaminase (AST), estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), and creatinine levels were recorded for all the study participants. Pairwise comparisons were made between groups, and the diagnostic performance of the Ca/P ratio was determined using receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) analysis.

Results

Patients with PHPT had a higher Ca/P ratio than controls (P < 0.001). A Ca/P ratio above 2.94 with a sensitivity of 95.5% and specificity of 98.7% can distinguish PHPT patients from healthy individuals. This index was positively correlated with the PTH level (r = 0.875, P < 0.001).

Conclusion

The Ca/P ratio is an ideal and inexpensive indicator for diagnosing PHPT in China when using a cut-off value of 2.94.

Open access

Adrian J L Clark and Simon Buckmaster