To establish a rapid, cost-effective, accurate, and acceptable osteoporosis (OP) screening model for the Chinese male population (age ≥ 40 years) based on data mining technology.
Materials and methods
This was a 3-year retrospective cohort study, which belonged to the sub-cohort of the Chinese Reaction Study. The research period was from March 2011 to December 2014. A total of 1834 subjects who did not have OP at the baseline and completed a 3-year follow-up were included in this study. All subjects underwent quantitative ultrasound examinations for calcaneus at the baseline and follow-ups that lasted for 3 years. We utilized the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) regression model to select feature variables. The characteristic variables selected in the LASSO regression were analyzed by multivariable logistic regression (MLR) to construct the predictive model. This predictive model was displayed through a nomogram. We used the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, C-index, calibration curve, and clinical decision curve analysis (DCA) to evaluate model performance and the bootstrapping validation to internally validate the model.
The predictive factors included in the prediction model were age, neck circumference, waist-to-height ratio, BMI, triglyceride, impaired fasting glucose, dyslipidemia, osteopenia, smoking history, and strenuous exercise. The area under the ROC (AUC) curve of the risk nomogram was 0.882 (95% CI, 0.858–0.907), exhibiting good predictive ability and performance. The C-index for the risk nomogram was 0.882 in the prediction model, which presented good refinement. In addition, the nomogram calibration curve indicated that the prediction model was consistent. The DCA showed that when the threshold probability was between 1 and 100%, the nomogram had a good clinical application value. More importantly, the internally verified C-index of the nomogram was still very high, at 0.870.
This novel nomogram can effectively predict the 3-year incidence risk of OP in the male population. It also helps clinicians to identify groups at high risk of OP early and formulate personalized intervention measures.