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Open access

Josephina G Kuiper, Aline C Fenneman, Anne H van der Spek, Elena Rampanelli, Max Nieuwdorp, Myrthe P P van Herk-Sukel, Valery E P P Lemmens, Ernst J Kuipers, Ron M C Herings, and Eric Fliers

Objective

Whether an association between oral levothyroxine use, leading to supraphysiological exposure of the colon to thyroid hormones, and risk of colorectal cancer exists in humans is unclear. We therefore aimed to assess whether the use of levothyroxine is associated with a reduced risk of colorectal cancer in a linked cohort of pharmacy and cancer data.

Design

Population-based matched case–control study.

Methods

A total of 28,121 patients diagnosed with colorectal cancer between 1998 and 2014 were matched to 106,086 controls. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate the association between levothyroxine use and occurrence of colorectal cancer, adjusted for potential confounders. Results were stratified by gender, age, tumour subtype, and staging, as well as treatment duration and dosing.

Results

A total of 1066 colorectal cancer patients (4%) and 4024 (4%) controls had used levothyroxine at any point before index date (adjusted odds ratio 0.95 (0.88–1.01)). Long-term use of levothyroxine was seen in 323 (30%) colorectal cancer patients and 1111 (28%) controls (adjusted odds ratio 1.00 (0.88–1.13)). Stratification by tumour subsite showed a borderline significant risk reduction of rectal cancer, while this was not seen for proximal colon cancer or distal colon cancer. There was no relationship with treatment duration or with levothyroxine dose.

Conclusions

In this study, no reduced risk of colorectal cancer was seen in levothyroxine users. When stratifying by tumour subsite, a borderline significant risk reduction of rectal cancer was found and may warrant further research.

Open access

Georgios Kontogeorgos, Zoi Mamasoula, Emily Krantz, Penelope Trimpou, Kerstin Landin-Wilhelmsen, and Christine M Laine

Objective

Hypoparathyroidism (HypoPT) is a rare endocrine disorder in which insufficient levels of parathyroid hormone (PTH) lead to low serum calcium (S-Ca) levels and muscular cramps. The aim was to study the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and comorbidities in patients with HypoPT compared with the general population and to estimate the need of treatment with PTH analog.

Design

Patients with HypoPT were identified and compared with a population sample. Short Form-36 (SF-36) and EuroQol-5 Dimensions Visual Analogue Scale questionnaires were used. All patients were followed up at the Sahlgrenska University Hospital outpatient clinic.

Methods

From the medical records between 2007 and 2020, 203 patients with HypoPT were identified and compared with a population sample (n = 414) from the World Health Organization’s (WHO) MONICA project, Gothenburg, Sweden. Of the 203 patients who met the diagnostic criteria, 164 were alive and 65% answered the HRQoL questionnaires.

Results

Patients with HypoPT, 80% postsurgical, and controls had similar age (60 years) and sex distribution (80% women). Patients had lower SF-36 summary component scores for physical (40.0 (interquartile range (IQR): 21) vs 51.2 (IQR: 14.6); P < 0.001) and mental (43.1 (IQR:17.4) vs 56.1(IQR:13.3); P < 0.001) well-being, irrespective of etiology or calcium levels. Individuals with HypoPT had more medications and lower renal function but not higher mortality than controls. Low HRQoL together with low calcium was present in 23% of individuals with HypoPT.

Conclusion

HRQoL was markedly lower in patients with HypoPT than in controls and independent of S-Ca levels. Treatment with PTH analog could be considered at least among patients with both low HRQoL and low calcium levels.

Open access

Caroline Nguyen, Elisabeth Celestin, Delphine Chambolle, Agnès Linglart, Martin Biosse Duplan, Catherine Chaussain, and Lisa Friedlander

Introduction

X-linked hypophosphatemia (XLH) is a rare, hereditary, and lifelong phosphate-wasting disorder characterized by rickets in childhood and impaired teeth mineralization. In the oral cavity, spontaneous abscesses can often occur without any clinical signs of alteration of the causal tooth. The objective of our study was to evaluate the oral care pathway and the oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) of patients following in an expert oral medicine department located within a Parisian hospital and working in close collaboration with an endocrinology department expert in this pathology.

Methods

This study employed a qualitative descriptive design including semi-structured interviews using guiding themes.

Results

Twenty-one patients were included in the study. The topics brought up exceeded the initial objectives as the patients mostly addressed the alteration of their oral health-related and general quality of life; a very chaotic oral health care pathway with oral health professionals not aware of their pathology; consequences on their social, professional, and school integration. Patients declared the importance of having a multidisciplinary team around them, including medical and dental professionals.

Conclusions

The variety of manifestations in patients with XLH necessitates high coordination of multidisciplinary patient care to optimize quality of life and reduce disease burden. Oral health care pathways are very chaotic for patients who have difficulty in finding professionals with sufficient knowledge of the disease. OHRQoL is therefore diminished. This situation improves when patients enter a coordinated care network.

Open access

Magdaléna Fořtová, Lenka Hanousková, Martin Valkus, Jana Čepová, Richard Průša, and Karel Kotaška

Background

Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) is a key regulator of urine phosphate excretion. The aim of the study was to investigate the perioperative (intraoperative and postoperative) changes of plasma intact and C-terminal FGF23 (iFGF23, cFGF23) concentrations in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT) submitted to surgery.

Materials and methods

The study involved 38 adult patients with pHPT caused by adenoma. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels were investigated intraoperatively (just before the incision and 10 min after adenoma excision). cFGF23, iFGF23, phosphate, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), and procollagen type 1 N-terminal propetide (P1NP) were measured intraoperatively and postoperatively (next day after the surgery).

Results

PTH levels decreased intraoperatively (13.10 pmol/L vs 4.17 pmol/L, P< 0.0001). FGF23 levels measured intraoperatively were at the upper level of reference interval. cFGF23 decreased postoperatively compared with the values measured just before the incision (cFGF23: 89.17 RU/mL vs 22.23 RU/mL, P< 0.0001). iFGF23 decreased as well, but the postoperative values were low. Postoperative inorganic phosphate values increased (1.03 mmol/L vs 0.8 mmol/L, P= 0.0025). We proved significant negative correlation of perioperative FGF23 with inorganic phosphate (cFGF23: Spearman’s r = −0.253, P= 0.0065; iFGF23: Spearman’s r = −0.245, P= 0.0085). We also found that FGF23 values just before incision correlated with eGFR (cystatin C) (cFGF23: Spearman’s r = −0.499, P= 0.0014; iFGF23: Spearman’s r = −0.413, P= 0.01).

Conclusion

Intraoperative iFGF23 and cFGF23 did not change despite PTH decreased significantly. cFGF23 and iFGF23 significantly decreased 1 day after parathyroidectomy and are associated with increase of inorganic phosphate in pHPT patients. cFGF23 and iFGF23 just before incision correlated with eGFR (cystatin C). Similar results found in both iFGF23 and cFGF23 suggest that each could substitute the other.

Open access

Jean-Philippe Bertocchio, Natalie Grosset, Lionel Groussin, Peter Kamenický, Fabrice Larceneux, Anne Lienhardt-Roussie, Agnès Linglart, Gérard Maruani, Eric Mirallie, François Pattou, Riyad N H Seervai, Coralie Sido, Caroline Silve, Aurélie Vilfaillot, Antoine Tabarin, Marie-Christine Vantyghem, Pascal Houillier, and the investigators of the Épi-Hypo study

Context

Recent guidelines have provided recommendations for the care of patients with chronic hypoparathyroidism. Very little is known about actual physicians’ practices or their adherence to such guidelines.

Objective

To describe the physicians’ practice patterns and their compliance with international guidelines.

Design

The cohort studies included were Épi-Hypo (118 physicians and 107 patients, from September 2016 to December 2019) and ePatients (110 patients, November 2019).

Methods

Internet-based cohorts involving all settings at a nationwide level (France). Participants were (i) physicians treating patients with chronic hypoparathyroidism and patients with chronic hypoparathyroidism either participating in the (ii) Épi-Hypo study (Épi-Hypo 2019 patients), or (iii) Hypoparathyroidism France, the national representative association (ePatients).

Results

The physicians’ specialties were mainly endocrinology (61%), nephrology (28%), family medicine (2.5%), pediatrics (2.5%), rheumatology (2%), or miscellaneous (4%) and 45% were practicing in public universities. The median number of pharmaceutical drug classes prescribed was three per patient. The combination of active vitamin D and calcium salt was given to 59 and 58% of ePatients and Épi-Hypo 2019 patients, respectively. Eighty-five percent of ePatients and 87% of physicians reported monitoring plasma calcium concentrations at a steady state at least twice a year. In 32 and 26% of cases, respectively, ePatients and physicians reported being fully in accordance with international guidelines that recommend targeting symptoms, plasma calcium and phosphate values, and urine calcium excretion.

Conclusions

The care of patients with chronic hypoparathyroidism involves physicians with very different practices, so guidelines should include and target other specialists as well as endocrinologists. Full adherence to the guidelines is low in France.

Open access

Kunzhe Lin, Lingling Lu, Zhijie Pei, Shuwen Mu, Shaokuan Huang, and Shousen Wang

Objective

The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence and duration of delayed hyponatremia and to assess the factors influencing the development of delayed hyponatremia after transsphenoidal surgery (TSS) in pituitary adenomas.

Methods

We retrospectively analyzed the clinical data of patients with pituitary adenoma who underwent TSS. Univariable and multivariable statistics were carried out to identify factors independently associated with the occurrence of delayed hyponatremia.

Results

Of the 285 patients with pituitary adenoma who underwent microscopic TSS, 44 (15.4%) developed postoperative-delayed hyponatremia and 241 (84.6%) did not. The onset of delayed hyponatremia occurred an average of 5.84 days post-surgery and persisted for an average of 5.36 days. Logistic regression analysis showed the highest risk of delayed hyponatremia in patients with significant change in tumor cavity height (odds ratio (OR), 1.158; 95% CI, 1.062, 1.262; P = 0.001), preoperative hypothalamus–pituitary–thyroid axis hypofunction (OR, 3.112; 95% CI, 1.481, 6.539; P = 0.003), and significant difference in blood sodium levels before and 2 days after TSS (OR, 1.101; 95% CI, 1.005, 1.206; P = 0.039).

Conclusions

Preoperative hypothyroidism, difference in blood sodium levels before and 2 days after TSS, and the change in tumor cavity height after TSS played important roles in predicting postoperative-delayed hyponatremia onset in patients with pituitary adenomas.

Open access

W J Bom, F B M Joosten, M M G J van Borren, E P Bom, R R J P van Eekeren, and H de Boer

Objective

Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is increasingly considered the prime option for treating symptomatic, benign, non-functioning thyroid nodules (NFTN). However, little is known about the degree of operator experience required to achieve optimal results. This study describes the RFA learning curve of a single-center team.

Methods

A retrospective cohort study of the first 103 patients receiving RFA treatment for a single, symptomatic, and benign NFTN, with a follow-up of at least 1 year. The primary outcome measure was technique efficacy, defined as the percentage of patients with a 6-month nodal volume reduction ratio (VRR) >50% after single-session RFA. Optimal treatment efficacy was defined as a 6-month VRR >50% achieved in at least 75% of patients. Secondary outcomes were complications of RFA and indications of secondary interventions.

Results

Median nodal volume at baseline was 12.0 mL (range 2.0–58.0 mL). A 6-month VRR >50% was achieved in 45% of the first 20 patients, 75% of the next 20, and 79% of the following 63 patients. Complications included minor bleeding (N = 4), transient hyperthyroidism (N = 4), and transient loss of voice (N = 1). Poor volume reduction or nodular regrowth led to diagnostic lobectomy in 11 patients and a second RFA in 5. Lobectomy revealed a follicular carcinoma (T2N0M0) in 2 patients. In 1 patient, nodule regrowth was caused by an intranodular solitary B-cell lymphoma.

Conclusion

About 40 procedures are required to achieve a 6-month VRR >50% in the majority of patients. Appropriate follow-up with re-evaluation is recommended for all patients with a VRR <50% and in those with regrowth to exclude underlying malignancy.

Open access

Marcus Heldmann, Krishna Chatterjee, Carla Moran, Berenike Rogge, Julia Steinhardt, Tobias Wagner-Altendorf, Martin Göttlich, Hannes Schacht, Peter Schramm, Georg Brabant, Thomas F Münte, and Anna Cirkel

Background

Thyroid hormone action is mediated by two forms of thyroid hormone receptors (α, β) with differential tissue distribution. Thyroid hormone receptor β (TRβ) mutations lead to resistance to thyroid hormone action in tissues predominantly expressing the β form of the receptor (pituitary, liver). This study seeks to identify the effects of mutant TRβ on pituitary size.

Methods

High-resolution 3D T1-weighted magnetic resonance images were acquired in 19 patients with RTHβ in comparison to 19 healthy matched controls. Volumetric measurements of the pituitary gland were performed independently and blinded by four different raters (two neuroradiologists, one neurologist, one neuroscientist).

Results

Patients with mutant TRβ (resistance to thyroid hormone β, RTHβ) showed elevated free tri-iodothyronine/thyroxine levels with normal thyroid-stimulating hormone levels, whereas healthy controls showed normal thyroid hormone levels. Imaging revealed smaller pituitary size in RTHβ patients in comparison to healthy controls (F(1,35) = 7.05, P  = 0.012, partial η2 = 0.17).

Conclusion

RTHβ subjects have impaired sensitivity to thyroid hormones, along with decreased size of the pituitary gland.

Open access

Anna Liori, Damaskini Polychroni, Georgios K Markantes, Maria Stamou, Sarantis Livadas, George Mastorakos, and Neoklis Georgopoulos

Adequate vitamin D levels are particularly important in pregnant women for both maternal and neonatal health. Prior studies have shown a significantly high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency (VDD) among refugees. However, no study has addressed the prevalence of VDD in pregnant refugees and its effects on neonatal health. In this study, we examined the prevalence of VDD in refugee pregnant women living in Greece and compared our results with Greek pregnant inhabitants. VDD was frequent in both groups but was significantly more common in refugees (92.2 vs 67.3% of Greek women, P  = 0.003) with 70.6% of refugees having severe hypovitaminosis D (<10 ng/mL). As a result, most newborns had VDD, which affected refugee newborns to a greater extent. Our results suggest a need to screen newcomer children and pregnant women for VDD in all host countries around the world. Such a screen will appropriately guide early and effective interventions with the goal to prevent adverse neonatal and maternal outcomes.

Open access

Mateo Amaya-Montoya, Daniela Duarte-Montero, Luz D Nieves-Barreto, Angélica Montaño-Rodríguez, Eddy C Betancourt-Villamizar, María P Salazar-Ocampo, and Carlos O Mendivil

Data on dietary calcium and vitamin D intake from Latin America are scarce. We explored the main correlates and dietary sources of calcium and vitamin D in a probabilistic, population-based sample from Colombia. We studied 1554 participants aged 18–75 from five different geographical regions. Dietary intake was assessed by employing a 157-item semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire and national and international food composition tables. Daily vitamin D intake decreased with increasing age, from 230 IU/day in the 18–39 age group to 184 IU/day in the 60–75 age group (P -trend < 0.001). Vitamin D intake was positively associated with socioeconomic status (SES) (196 IU/day in lowest vs 234 in highest SES, P-trend < 0.001), and with educational level (176 IU/day in lowest vs 226 in highest education level, P-trend < 0.001). Daily calcium intake also decreased with age, from 1376 mg/day in the 18–39 age group to 1120 mg/day in the 60–75 age group (P -trend < 0.001). Calcium intake was lowest among participants with only elementary education, but the absolute difference in calcium intake between extreme education categories was smaller than for vitamin D (1107 vs 1274 mg/day, P-trend = 0.023). Daily calcium intake did not correlate with SES (P -trend = 0.74). Eggs were the main source of overall vitamin D, albeit their contribution decreased with increasing age. Dairy products contributed at least 48% of dietary calcium in all subgroups, mostly from cheese-containing traditional foods. SES and education were the key correlates of vitamin D and calcium intake. These findings may contribute to shape public health interventions in Latin American countries.