Browse

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 900 items for

  • Open access x
Clear All
Open access

Lei Hu, Xiao Liu, Chong Pei, Li Xie, and Nianan He

Objective

We evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of perinodular stiffness, four risk stratification systems (RSSs) (KWAK-TIRADS, ACR-TIRADS, EU-TIRADS, and C-TIRADS), and the combination of perinodular stiffness and the four RSSs in differentiating malignant from benign thyroid nodules (TNs).

Methods

A total of 788 TNs in 726 patients were examined with conventional ultrasound (US) examination and sound touch elastography (STE). All TNs were classified by each of the four RSSs. The stiffness inside (E) the TNs was measured by STE. The stiffness of the 2.0-mm perinodular region (Eshell) was measured with the Shell measurement function of STE. The diagnostic performances of four RSSs, the E values, and the Eshell values were evaluated. All TNs were further divided into subgroups based on size (≤ 10 mm group and > 10 mm group).

Results

Ninety-six TNs were classified as benign and 692 as malignant. Among the single-method approaches, ACR-TIRADS showed the highest AUC (0.77) for differentiating malignant from benign TNs for all TNs included. Eshell showed the highest AUC (0.75) in differentiating malignant from benign TNs for TNs with sizes ≤ 10 mm, and there were no significant differences in AUC among all single methods for diagnosis of TNs with sizes > 10 mm (P > 0.05). The combination of C-TIRADS and Eshell/E yielded the highest AUC for all TNs (0.83) and for TNs with size ≤ 10 mm (0.85) compared with other combinations.

Conclusions

Eshell/E combined with conventional US improves the diagnostic accuracy in TNs and may reduce unnecessary fine-needle aspiration.

Open access

Espen Nordheim and Trond Geir Jenssen

Chronic kidney disease is a common complication and concomitant condition of diabetes mellitus. The treatment of patients with diabetes and chronic kidney disease, including intensive control of blood sugar and blood pressure, has been very similar for type 1 and type 2 diabetes patients. New therapeutic targets have shown promising results and may lead to more specific treatment options for patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes.

Open access

Daisuke Watanabe, Satoshi Morimoto, Noriko Morishima, and Atsuhiro Ichihara

Objective: Primary aldosteronism (PA) is divided into two major subtypes, aldosterone-producing adenoma (APA) and bilateral idiopathic hyperplasia (IHA), and is associated with a higher risk of cardiovascular events. However, the nature of vascular function in PA patients remains to be determined. The aim of this study was to determine vascular function and investigate the implications of vascular function assessments in these patients.

Methods: Flow-mediated dilation (FMD), as an index of endothelial function, and cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI), as an index of arterial stiffness, were retrospectively compared between 42 patients with APA, 37 patients with IHA, and 42 patients with essential hypertension (EH). These values were also compared with background factors, KCNJ5 mutation and clinical outcome in terms of blood pressure reduction after adrenalectomy in the APA group.

Results: FMD was significantly lower in the APA group (4.8±2.1%) and IHA group (4.1±1.9%) than in the EH group (5.7±2.1%). CAVI did not differ significantly among groups. Although no significant correlations were seen between FMD and background factors in the IHA group, FMD correlated negatively with body mass index and plasma aldosterone concentration in the APA group (rs=-0.313, rs=-0.342, respectively). KCNJ5 mutational status was not associated with FMD value. High FMD was associated with blood pressure normalization after adrenalectomy in the APA group.

Conclusions: Patients with PA displayed impaired endothelial function. Complete clinical success after adrenalectomy was associated with preserved endothelial function. This study provides a better understanding of FMD assessment in patients with PA.

Open access

Johanna Christina Penell, Mark M Kushnir, Lars Lind, Jonatan Bergquist, Jonas Bergquist, P Monica Lind, and Tord Naessen

Objectives

Circulating concentrations of endogenous steroids have systemic implications on health in elderly. However, population-based age- and ethnicity-specific data are scarce. The aim was to report sex-specific plasma concentrations of endogenous sex and adrenal steroids in elderly Swedish Caucasians, to examine the impact of BMI and to present concentrations in apparently healthy subjects.

Methods

A population-based observational study of 70-year olds, including 684 community-dwelling men and women enrolled in the PIVUS study, Sweden. Median plasma concentrations were determined using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) for pregnenolone, 17-hydroxypregnenolone, 17-hydroxy-progesterone, 11-deoxycortisol, DHEA, androstenedione, testosterone, estrone and estradiol.

Results

Plasma concentrations were significantly higher in men (n = 452) than in women (n = 232) for estradiol: median 61.3 pmol/L (95% CI, 11.4, 142.7) vs 18.4 (4.0, 127.3), for estrone: 92.8 (33.3, 206) vs 71.6 (17.8, 209) pmol/L, and for testosterone 13.8 (5.7, 28.0) vs 0.7 (0.2, 2.0) nmol/L. Higher concentrations of estrone and estradiol were observed in obese than non-obese women. Compared to non-obese men, obese men had lower concentrations of testosterone and its precursors: 17-hydroxypregnenolone, 17-hydroxyprogesterone, androstenedione and DHEA. The subgroup of apparently healthy individuals had median values > 20% lower for estrone and estradiol in women but slightly higher for testosterone in both sexes.

Conclusions

Concentrations of estradiol, estrone and testosterone were higher in 70-year-old men than in women. BMI associated positively to estradiol and estrone in women and negatively to testosterone in men. Apparently healthy women had lower median concentrations of estradiol and estrone and men had higher median testosterone compared to all individuals.

Open access

Xiaoli Liu, Lanxiang Liu, Rui Wang, Jia Xiaojiao, Binbin Liu, Ning Ma, and Qiang Lu

Background: We aimed to investigate early arteriosclerosis and its risk factors in populations with prediabetes and new-onset diabetes.

Materials and Methods: A total of 148 participants who did not have diabetes mellitus were assigned to three groups through an oral glucose tolerance test: the normal glucose tolerance group; the impaired glucose regulation, also known as prediabetes, group; and the new-onset type 2 diabetes mellitus group. The insulin resistance index was assessed using the Homeostatic Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to determine the level of fibroblast growth factor 21. An arteriosclerosis detector was used to measure the brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity and ankle-brachial index. baPWV, ABI, and FGF21 were used to assess early arteriosclerosis.

Results: Significant differences in age, systolic blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose, 2-hour plasma glucose, 2-hour insulin, and HOMA-IR were found between the NGT group and the prediabetes and new-onset diabetes groups. All the above except 2hINS showed an increasing trend. FGF21 was higher in the new-onset diabetes group than in the NGT group, and baPWV was higher in the new-onset diabetes group than in the other two groups, but no significant difference was noted in ABI. Age, SBP, diastolic blood pressure, FPG, 2hPG, and FGF21 were positively correlated with baPWV. Moreover, BMI, SBP, DBP, FPG, 2hPG, and HOMA-IR were positively correlated with ABI. In addition, age, BMI, FPG, FGF21, and HOMA-IR were independent risk factors for baPWV, and SBP and HOMA-IR were independent risk factors for ABI.

Conclusions: Patients with prediabetes and new-onset diabetes maybe have more significant early arteriosclerosis. The blood glucose level and insulin resistance index maybe the independent risk factors for early arteriosclerosis.

Open access

Bharat Kumar, Madhukar Mittal, Maya Gopalakrishnan, Mk Garg, and Sanjeev Misra

Objective: Plasma glucose has been correlated with in-hospital mortality among many diseases including infections. We aimed to study plasma glucose at admission of hospitalized patients with COVID-19 at a tertiary care referral hospital at Jodhpur, India and its relation with mortality.

Design: A hospital-based clinical study of plasma glucose of COVID-19 patients conducted from May 15th to June 30th, 2020 after ethical approval.

Measurements: Random blood samples at admission were collected for plasma glucose, interleukin-6 (IL-6) and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) after written informed consent. Plasma glucose was analyzed by automated analyzer, IL-6 by chemiluminescent immunoassay and hsCRP by immune-turbidimetric assay.

Results: A total of 386 patients studied (female 39.6%); 11.1% had severe disease and 4.1% expired. There were 67 (17.4%) patients with known diabetes mellitus (DM). Patients with history of DM had three times higher mortality (6/66, 9%) than those without DM (10/319, 3.1%). Patients with moderate and severe disease according to ICMR and WHO grading had higher plasma glucose than those with asymptomatic or mild disease (p<0.0001). Plasma glucose levels at admission were significantly higher in non-survivors when compared to those who survived (297±117 vs. 131±73; p<0.0001). COVID-19 patients showed increasing mortality with incremental plasma glucose levels. Hazard ratio for mortality was 1.128 (95%CI 0.86-14.860),1.883 (95%CI 0.209-16.970), and 4.005 (95%CI 0.503-32.677) in random plasma glucose group of >100-200, >200-300 and >300mg/dl respectively compared to those with random plasma glucose of <100mg/dl at admission. Plasma glucose was strongly correlated with hsCRP (p<0.001) and IL-6 (p<0.0001).

Conclusions: Plasma glucose at admission in hospitalized COVID-19 patients is a strong predictor of mortality.

Open access

Alice Costantini, Mari H Muurinen, and Outi Mäkitie

In the last decade, the widespread use of massively parallel sequencing has considerably boosted the number of novel gene discoveries in monogenic skeletal diseases with short stature. Defects in genes playing a role in the maintenance and function of the growth plate, the site of longitudinal bone growth, are a well-known cause of skeletal diseases with short stature. However, several genes involved in extracellular matrix composition or maintenance as well as genes partaking in various biological processes have also been characterized. This review aims to describe the latest genetic findings in spondyloepiphyseal dysplasias, spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasias, and some monogenic forms of isolated short stature. Some examples of novel genetic mechanisms leading to skeletal conditions with short stature will be described. Strategies on how to successfully characterize novel skeletal phenotypes with short stature and genetic approaches to detect and validate novel gene-disease correlations will be discussed in detail. In summary, we review the latest gene discoveries underlying skeletal diseases with short stature and emphasize the importance of characterizing novel molecular mechanisms for genetic counseling, for an optimal management of the disease, and for therapeutic innovations.

Open access

Qingrong Pan, Shuxin Gao, Xia Gao, Ning Yang, Zhi Yao, Yanjin Hu, Li Miao, Zhe Chen, and Guang Wang

Objective

It has been found that both serum homocysteine (Hcy) and serum creatinine levels were increased in hypothyroidism patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between serum Hcy and kidney function in patients with subclinical hypothyroidism or hypothyroidism.

Methods

A total of 448 subjects were enrolled and divided into three groups: hypothyroidism (n = 129), subclinical hypothyroidism (n = 141), and control group (n = 168). Anthropometric information, metabolic parameters, serum Hcy and creatinine levels, and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) were analyzed.

Results

Compared with healthy subjects, patients with subclinical hypothyroidism or hypothyroidism had significantly higher serum Hcy and creatinine levels and lower eGFR level (all P < 0.001). Serum Hcy was negatively correlated with eGFR in subclinical hypothyroidism patients (r = −0.220, P = 0.009), and in hypothyroidism patients (r = −0.422, P < 0.001). After adjusting for age, sex and BMI, eGFR was still significantly correlated with serum Hcy in subclinical hypothyroidism or hypothyroidism patients (both P < 0.05). Levothyroxine treatment resulted in significantly decreased Hcy and increased eGFR in hypothyroidism patients (both P < 0.001). The decrease in Hcy was correlated with the increased eGFR after treatment (P = 0.001).

Conclusion

Serum Hcy was negatively correlated with eGFR in subclinical hypothyroidism or hypothyroidism patients. After levothyroxine treatment, a correlation was found between the decrease in serum Hcy and the increase in eGFR in hypothyroidism patients.

Open access

Tatsuya Kondo, Nobukazu Miyakawa, Sayaka Kitano, Takuro Watanabe, Rieko Goto, Mary Ann Suico, Miki Sato, Yuki Takaki, Masaji Sakaguchi, Motoyuki Igata, Junji Kawashima, Hiroyuki Motoshima, Takeshi Matsumura, Hirofumi Kai, and Eiichi Araki

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is often accompanied by metabolic disorders such as metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Heat shock response (HSR) is one of the most important homeostatic abilities, but is deteriorated by chronic metabolic insults. Heat shock (HS) with appropriate mild electrical stimulation (MES) activates HSR, and improves metabolic abnormalities including insulin resistance, hyperglycemia and inflammation in metabolic disorders. To analyze the effects of HS + MES treatment on NAFLD biomarkers, three cohorts including healthy men (2 times/week, n=10), patients with metabolic syndrome (4 times/week, n=40), and patients with T2DM (n=100; 4 times/week (n=40) and 2, 4, 7 times/week (n=20 each)) treated with HS + MES were retrospectively analyzed. The healthy subjects showed no significant alterations in NAFLD biomarkers after the treatment. In patients with metabolic syndrome, many of the NAFLD steatosis markers, including fatty liver index, NAFLD-liver fat score, liver/spleen ratio and hepatic steatosis index and NAFLD fibrosis marker, aspartate aminotransferase/alanine aminotransferase (AST/ALT) ratio, were improved upon the treatment. In patients with T2DM, all investigated NAFLD steatosis markers were improved and NAFLD fibrosis markers such as the AST/ALT ratio, fibrosis-4 index and NAFLD-fibrosis score were improved upon the treatment. Thus, HS + MES, a physical intervention, may become a novel treatment strategy for NAFLD as well as metabolic disorders.

Open access

H Vlaardingerbroek, E.l.t Van den Akker, and A.c.s Hokken-Koelega

Obesity is reaching endemic state and has a major impact on health and economy. In most cases obesity is caused by life style factors. However, the risk of becoming obese differs highly between people. Individual differences in life style, genetic, and neuroendocrine factors play a role in satiety, hunger and regulation of body weight. In a small percentage of children and adults with obesity, an underlying hormonal or genetic cause can be found. The aim of this review is to present and compare data on the extreme ends of the obesity and undernutrition spectrum in patients with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS), Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS), acquired hypothalamic obesity in craniopharyngioma patients, and anorexia nervosa. This may give more insight in the role of neuroendocrine factors and might give direction for future research in conditions of severe obesity and underweight.