Childhood cancer survivors are at risk for developing endocrine disorders, including deficits in growth hormone, thyroid hormone and sex hormones. The influence these hormones have on cell growth and metabolism has raised concerns regarding the safety of their use as treatments in survivors of childhood cancer and brain tumors. This article offers a summary of current knowledge, controversies and areas for future research pertaining to this area.
Ichelle Maa van Roessel, Boudewijn Bakker, Hanneke M van Santen, and Wassim Chemaitilly
Shiori Minabe, Kinuyo Iwata, Youki Watanabe, Hirotaka Ishii, and Hitoshi Ozawa
The nutritional environment during development periods induces metabolic programming, leading to metabolic disorders and detrimental influences on human reproductive health. This study aimed to determine the long-term adverse effect of intrauterine malnutrition on the reproductive center kisspeptin-neurokinin B-dynorphin A (KNDy) neurons in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC) of female offspring. Twelve pregnant rats were divided into ad-lib-fed (control, n = 6) and 50% undernutrition (UN, n = 6) groups. The UN group was restricted to 50% daily food intake of the control dams from gestation day 9 until term delivery. Differences between the two groups in terms of various maternal parameters, including body weight (BW), pregnancy duration, and litter size, as well as birth weight, puberty onset, estrous cyclicity, pulsatile luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion, and hypothalamic gene expression of offspring, were determined. Female offspring of UN dams exhibited low BW from birth to 3 weeks, whereas UN offspring showed signs of precocious puberty; hypothalamic Tac3 (a neurokinin B gene) expression was increased in prepubertal UN offspring, and the BW at the virginal opening was lower in UN offspring than that in the control group. Interestingly, the UN offspring showed significant decreases in the number of KNDy gene-expressing cells after 29 weeks of age, but the number of ARC kisspeptin-immunoreactive cells, pulsatile LH secretions, and estrous cyclicity were comparable between the groups. In conclusion, intrauterine undernutrition induced various changes in KNDy gene expression depending on the life stage. Thus, intrauterine undernutrition affected hypothalamic developmental programming in female rats.
Clara Lundetoft Clausen, Trine Holm Johannsen, Niels Erik Skakkebæk, Hanne Frederiksen, Camilla Koch Ryrsø, Arnold Matovu Dungu, Maria Hein Hegelund, Daniel Faurholt-Jepsen, Rikke Krogh-Madsen, Birgitte Lindegaard, Allan Linneberg, Line Lund Kårhus, Anders Juul, and Thomas Benfield
To explore pituitary–gonadal hormone concentrations and assess their association with inflammation, severe respiratory failure, and mortality in hospitalized men and women with COVID-19, and compare these to hormone concentrations in hospitalized patients with bacterial community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and influenza virus CAP and to concentrations in a reference group of healthy individuals.
Serum concentrations of testosterone, estrone sulfate, luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were measured within 4 days of admission. Associations were assessed by logistic regression analysis in patients with COVID-19, and results were reported as odds ratio with 95% CI per two-fold reduction after adjustment for age, comorbidities, days to sample collection, and IL-6 concentrations.
In total, 278 patients with COVID-19, 21 with influenza virus CAP, and 76 with bacterial CAP were included. Testosterone concentrations were suppressed in men hospitalized with COVID-19, bacterial and influenza virus CAP, and moderately suppressed in women. Reductions in testosterone (OR: 3.43 (1.14–10.30), P = 0.028) and LH (OR: 2.51 (1.28–4.92), P = 0.008) were associated with higher odds of mehanical ventilation (MV) in men with COVID-19. In women with COVID-19, reductions in LH (OR: 3.34 (1.02–10-90), P = 0.046) and FSH (OR: 2.52 (1.01–6.27), P = 0.047) were associated with higher odds of MV.
Low testosterone and LH concentrations were predictive of severe respiratory failure in men with COVID-19, whereas low concentrations of LH and FSH were predictive of severe respiratory failure in women with COVID-19.
Charlotte Höybye, Beverly M K Biller, Jean-Marc Ferran, Murray B Gordon, Nicky Kelepouris, Navid Nedjatian, Anne H Olsen, and Matthias M Weber
Adult growth hormone deficiency (AGHD) is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular (CV) disease. Long-term growth hormone (GH) treatment could improve CV outcomes. The objective of this study was to evaluate CV disease risk in patients with AGHD who received GH replacement therapy for up to 10 years as part of NordiNet® IOS (NCT00960128) and the ANSWER Program (NCT01009905). The studies were observational, non-interventional and multicentre, monitoring long-term effectiveness and safety of GH treatment. NordiNet® IOS involved 23 countries (469 sites) across Europe and the Middle East. The ANSWER Program was conducted in the USA (207 sites). This analysis included patients aged 18–75 years who were GH naïve at study entry, who had ≤10 years of GH treatment data and who could be assessed for CV risk for at least 1 follow-up year. The main outcome measure was risk of CV disease by age 75 years, as calculated with the Multinational Cardiovascular Risk Consortium model (Brunner score) using non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol adjusted for age, sex and CV risk factors. The results of this analysis showed that CV risk decreased gradually over the 10-year period for GH-treated patients. The risk was lower for patients treated for 2 and 7 years vs age- and sex-matched control groups (not yet started treatment) (14.51% vs 16.15%; P = 0.0105 and 13.53% vs 16.81%; P = 0.0001, respectively). This suggests that GH treatment in people with AGHD may reduce the risk of CV disease by age 75 years compared with matched controls.
Chenmin Wei, Zichen Zhang, Qi Fu, Yunqiang He, Tao Yang, and Min Sun
Lipotoxicity-induced pancreatic β cell-dysfunction results in decreased insulin secretion in response to multiple stimulus. In this study, we investigated the reversible effects of palmitate (PA) or oleate (OA) on insulin secretion and the relationship with pancreatic β-cell ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channels.
MIN6 cells were treated with PA and OA for 48 h and then washed out for 24 h to determine the changes in expression and endocytosis of the KATP channels and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) and sulfonylurea-stimulated insulin secretion (SU-SIS).
MIN6 cells exposed to PA or OA showed both impaired GSIS and SU-SIS; the former was not restorable, while the latter was reversible with washout of PA or OA. Decreased expressions of both total and surface Kir6.2 and SUR1 and endocytosis of KATP channels were observed, which were also recoverable after washout. When MIN6 cells exposed to free fatty acids (FFAs) were cotreated with 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide (AICAR) or dynasore, we found that endocytosis of KATP channels did not change significantly by AICAR but was almost completely blocked by dynasore. Meanwhile, the inhibition of endocytosis of KATP channels after washout could be activated by PIP2. The recovery of SU-SIS after washout was significantly weakened by PIP2, but the decrease of SU-SIS induced by FFAs was not alleviated by dynasore.
FFAs can cause reversible impairment of SU-SIS on pancreatic β cells. The reversibility of the effects is partial because of the changes of expression and endocytosis of Kir6.2 and SUR1 which was mediated by dynamin.
Amir H Zamanipoor Najafabadi, Merel van der Meulen, Ana Luisa Priego Zurita, S Faisal Ahmed, Wouter R van Furth, Evangelia Charmandari, Olaf Hiort, Alberto M Pereira, Mehul Dattani, Diana Vitali, Johan P de Graaf, and Nienke R Biermasz
The European Reference Network on Rare Endocrine Conditions (Endo-ERN) aims to organize high-quality healthcare throughout Europe, including care for pituitary adenoma patients. As surgery is the mainstay of treatment, we aimed to describe the current surgical practice and published surgical outcomes of pituitary adenoma within Endo-ERN.
Design and Methods
Systematic review and meta-analysis of studies reporting surgical outcomes of pituitary adenoma patients within Endo-ERN MTG6 pituitary reference centers between 2010 and 2019. A survey was completed by reference centers on their current surgical practice.
A total of 18 out of 43 (42%) reference centers located in 7 of the 20 (35%) MTG6-represented countries published 48 articles. Remission rates were 50% (95% CI: 42–59) for patients with acromegaly, 68% (95% CI: 60–75) for Cushing’s disease, and 53% (95% CI: 39–66%) for prolactinoma. Gross total resection was achieved in 49% (95% CI: 37–61%) of patients and visual improvement in 78% (95% CI: 68–87). Mortality, hemorrhage, and carotid injury occurred in less than 1% of patients. New-onset hypopituitarism occurred in 16% (95% CI: 11–23), transient diabetes insipidus in 12% (95% CI: 6–21), permanent diabetes insipidus in 4% (95% CI: 3–6), syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) in 9% (95% CI: 5–14), severe epistaxis in 2% (95% CI: 0–4), and cerebrospinal fluid leak in 4% (95% CI: 2–6). Thirty-five (81%) centers completed the survey: 54% were operated endoscopically and 57% were together with an ENT surgeon.
The results of this study could be used as a first benchmark for the outcomes of pituitary adenoma surgery within Endo-ERN. However, the heterogeneity between studies in the reporting of outcomes hampers comparability and warrants outcome collection through registries.
Christine Poitou, Anthony Holland, Charlotte Höybye, Laura C G de Graaff, Sandrine Bottius, Berit Otterlei, and Maithé Tauber
Prader–Willi syndrome (PWS), the most common form of syndromic obesity, is a complex neurodevelopmental genetic disorder including obesity with hyperphagia, endocrine and metabolic disorders and also psychiatric disorders. The most frequent endocrine disturbances include hypogonadism and growth hormone (GH) deficiency. Hypothyroidism and central adrenal insufficiency can also be observed but are less frequent. The transition of individuals with PWS from adolescence to adult life is challenging because of multiple comorbidities and complex disabilities. Individuals and caregivers face psychological, medical and social issues. This period of profound changes is thus prone to disruptions, and the main risks being the worsening of the medical situation and loss to follow-up of the individuals. Medical care may be poorly adapted to the needs of individuals because of a lack of knowledge concerning the syndrome and also lack of the necessary specific skills. A multidisciplinary panel composed of several experts in PWS met in November 2021 during an European Reference Network on Rare Endocrine Conditions (Endo-ERN) webinar. They presented complementary aspects of PWS from the perspective of the transition including psychiatric, pediatric and adult endocrinological and parent’s and patient’s points of view and shed light on the best way to approach this pivotal period.
Hoda Gad, Einas Elgassim, Ibrahim Mohammed, Ahmad Yaser Alhaddad, Hussein Ahmed Hussein Zaky Aly, John-John Cabibihan, Abdulaziz Al-Ali, Kishor Kumar Sadasivuni, Aliyaa Haji, Neila Lamine, Adnan Khan, Ioannis N Petropoulos, Georgios Ponirakis, Alise Kalteniece, Maryam Ferdousi, Shazli Azmi, Uazman Alam, Wajeeha Abuhelaiqa, Amin Jayyousi, Dabia AlMohanadi, Khaled Baagar, and Rayaz A Malik
Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) has revealed that glycemic variability and low time in range are associated with albuminuria and retinopathy. We have investigated the relationship between glucose metrics derived from CGM and a highly sensitive measure of neuropathy using corneal confocal microscopy in participants with type 1 and type 2 diabetes.
A total of 40 participants with diabetes and 28 healthy controls underwent quantification of corneal nerve fiber density (CNFD), corneal nerve branch density (CNBD), corneal nerve fiber length (CNFL) and inferior whorl length (IWL) and those with diabetes underwent CGM for four consecutive days.
CNBD was significantly lower in patients with high glycemic variability (GV) compared to low GV (median (range) (25.0 (19.0–37.5) vs 38.6 (29.2–46.9); P = 0.007); in patients who spent >4% compared to <4% time in level 1 hypoglycemia (54-69 mg/dL) (25.0 (22.9–37.5) vs 37.5 (29.2–46.9); P = 0.045) and in patients who spent >1% compared to <1% time in level 2 hypoglycemia (<54 mg/dL) (25.0 (19.8–41.7) vs 35.4 (28.1–44.8); P = 0.04). Duration in level 1 hypoglycemia correlated with CNBD (r = –0.342, P = 0.031). Duration in level 1 (181–250 mg/dL) and level 2 (>250 mg/dL) hyperglycemia did not correlate with CNFD (P > 0.05), CNBD (P > 0.05), CNFL (P > 0.05) or IWL (P > 0.05).
Greater GV and duration in hypoglycemia, rather than hyperglycemia, are associated with nerve fiber loss in diabetes.
Nathalia Liberatoscioli Menezes Andrade, Mariana Ferreira de Assis Funari, Alexsandra Christianne Malaquias, Paulo Ferrez Collett-Solberg, Nathalia L R A Gomes, Renata Scalco, Naiara Castelo Branco Dantas, Raissa C Rezende, Angelica M F P Tiburcio, Micheline A R Souza, Bruna L Freire, Ana C V Krepischi, Carlos Alberto Longui, Antonio Marcondes Lerario, Ivo J P Arnhold, Alexander A L Jorge, and Gabriela Andrade Vasques
Most children with short stature remain without an etiologic diagnosis after extensive clinical and laboratory evaluation and are classified as idiopathic short stature (ISS). This study aimed to determine the diagnostic yield of a multigene analysis in children classified as ISS.
Design and methods
We selected 102 children with ISS and performed the genetic analysis as part of the initial investigation. We developed customized targeted panel sequencing, including all genes already implicated in the isolated short-stature phenotype. Rare and deleterious single nucleotide or copy number variants were assessed by bioinformatic tools.
We identified 20 heterozygous pathogenic (P) or likely pathogenic (LP) genetic variants in 17 of 102 patients (diagnostic yield = 16.7%). Three patients had more than one P/LP genetic alteration. Most of the findings were in genes associated with the growth plate differentiation: IHH (n = 4), SHOX (n = 3), FGFR3 (n = 2), NPR2 (n = 2), ACAN (n = 2), and COL2A1 (n = 1) or involved in the RAS/MAPK pathway: NF1 (n = 2), PTPN11 (n = 1), CBL (n = 1), and BRAF (n = 1). None of these patients had clinical findings to guide a candidate gene approach. The diagnostic yield was higher among children with severe short stature (35% vs 12.2% for height SDS ≤ or > −3; P = 0.034). The genetic diagnosis had an impact on clinical management for four children.
A multigene sequencing approach can determine the genetic etiology of short stature in up to one in six children with ISS, removing the term idiopathic from their clinical classification.
Alexander Heinzel, Dirk Müller, Hanneke M van Santen, Sarah C Clement, Arthur B Schneider, and Frederik A Verburg
Childhood cancer survivors (CCS) who received radiation therapy exposing the thyroid gland are at increased risk of developing differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). Therefore, the International Guideline Harmonization Group (IGHG) on late effects of childhood cancer therefore recommends surveillance. It is unclear whether surveillance reduces mortality.
The aim of this study was to compare four strategies for DTC surveillance in CCS with the aim of reducing mortality: Strategy-1, no surveillance; Strategy-2, ultrasound alone; Strategy-3, ultrasound followed by fine-needle biopsy (FNB); Strategy-4, palpation followed by ultrasound and FNB.
Materials and methods
A decision tree was formulated with 10-year thyroid cancer-specific survival as the endpoint, based on data extracted from literature.
It was calculated that 12.6% of CCS will develop DTC. Using Strategy-1, all CCS with DTC would erroneously not be operated upon, but no CCS would have unnecessary surgery. With Strategy-2, all CCS with and 55.6% of CCS without DTC would be operated. Using Strategy-3, 11.1% of CCS with DTC would be correctly operated upon, 11.2% without DTC would be operated upon and 1.5% with DTC would not be operated upon. With Strategy-4, these percentages would be 6.8, 3.9 and 5.8%, respectively. Median 10-year survival rates would be equal across strategies (0.997).
Different surveillance strategies for DTC in CCS all result in the same high DTC survival. Therefore, the indication for surveillance may lie in a reduction of surgery-related morbidity rather than DTC-related mortality. In accordance with the IGHG guidelines, the precise strategy should be decided upon in a process of shared decision-making.