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Open access

Lanping Jiang, Xiaoyan Peng, Bingbin Zhao, Lei Zhang, Lubin Xu, Xuemei Li, Min Nie, and Limeng Chen

Purposes: This study was conducted to identify the frequent mutations from reported Chinese Gitelman syndrome (GS) patients, to predict three-dimensional structure change of human Na-Cl co-transporter (hNCC), and to test the activity of these mutations and some novel mutations in vitro and in vivo.

Methods: SLC12A3 gene mutations in Chinese GS patients previously reported in the PubMed, CNKI and Wanfang database were summarized. Predicted configurations of wild type (WT) and mutant proteins were achieved using the I-TASSER workplace. Six missense mutations (T60M, L215F, D486N, N534K, Q617R and R928C) were generated by site-directed mutagenesis. 22Na+ uptake experiment was carried out in the Xenopus laevis oocyte expression system. 35 GS patients and 20 healthy volunteers underwent the thiazide test.

Results: T60M, T163M,D486N, R913Q, R928C and R959 frameshift were frequent SLC12A3 gene mutations (mutated frequency >3%) in 310 Chinese GS families. The protein’s three-dimensional structure was predicted to be altered in all mutations. Compared with WT hNCC, the thiazide-sensitive 22Na+ uptake was significantly diminished for all 6 mutations: T60M 22±9.2%, R928C 29±12%, L215F 38±14%, N534K 41±15.5%, Q617R 63±22.1% and D486N 77±20.4%. In thiazide test, the net increase in chloride fractional excretion in 20 healthy controls was significantly higher than GS patients with or without T60M or D486N mutations.

Conclusions: Frequent mutations (T60M, D486N, R928C) and novel mutations (L215F, N534K and Q617R) lead to protein structure alternation and protein dysfunction verified by 22Na+ uptake experiment in vitro and thiazide test on patients.

Open access

Luis Eduardo Barbalho de Mello, Thaise Nayane Ribeiro Carneiro, Aline Neves Araujo, Camila Xavier Alves, Pedro Alexandre Favoretto Galante, Vanessa Candiotti Buzatto, Maria das Graças de Almeida, Karina Marques Vermeulen-Serpa, Sancha H. de Lima Vale, Fernando José de Pinto Paiva, José Brandão-Neto, and Janete Maria Cerutti

The genetics underlying non-syndromic familial non-medullary thyroid carcinoma (FNMTC) is still poorly understood. To identify susceptibility genes for FNMTC, we performed whole exome sequencing (WES) in a Brazilian family affected by papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) in three consecutive generations. WES was performed in four affected and two unaffected family members. Manual inspection in over 100 previously reported susceptibility genes for FNMTC showed that no variants in known genes co-segregated with disease phenotype in this family. Novel candidate genes were investigated using PhenoDB and filtered using Genome Aggregation (gnomAD) and Online Archive of Brazilian Mutations (ABraOM) population databases. The missense variant p.Ile657Met in the NID1 gene was the only variant that co-segregated with the disease, while absent in unaffected family members and controls. The allele frequency for this variant was <0.0001 in the gnomAD and ABbraOM databases. In silico analysis predicted the variant to be deleterious or likely damaging to the protein function. Somatic mutations in NID1 gene were found in nearly 500 cases of different cancer subtypes in the intOGen platform. Immunohistochemistry analysis showed NID1 expression in PTC cells, while it was absent in normal thyroid tissue. Our findings were corroborated using data from the TCGA cohort. Moreover, higher expression of NID1 was associated with higher likelihood of relapse after treatment and N1b disease in PTCs from the TCGA cohort. Although replication studies are needed to better understand the role of this variant in the FNMTC susceptibility, the NID1 variant (c.1971T>G) identified in this study fulfills several criteria that suggest it as a new FNMTC predisposing gene.

Open access

Yuerong Yan, Lili You, Xiaoyi Wang, Zhuo Zhang, Feng Li, Hongshi Wu, Muchao Wu, Jin Zhang, Jiayun Wu, Caixia Chen, Xiaohui Li, Biwen Xia, Mingtong Xu, and Li Yan

Objectives

A variety of factors differed between rural and urban areas may further influence iodine status and thyroid structure. Hence, this study compared iodine nutrition, the prevalence of thyroid goiter, and nodules between rural and urban residents in Guangzhou, a southern coastal city of China.

Methods

A total of 1211 rural residents and 1305 urban residents were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. A questionnaire regarding personal characteristics was administered. Urinary iodine concentration (UIC) was examined. Ultrasonography of the thyroid was performed to evaluate thyroid goiter and nodules. Multiple logistic analysis was used to identify the potential associated factors.

Results

The median UIC was significantly lower in rural residents than in urban residents (120.80 μg/L vs 136.00 μg/L, P < 0.001). Although the coverage rate of iodized salt was much higher in rural residents than in urban residents (99.59% vs 97.29%, P < 0.001), the percentages of seafood intake (8.60% vs 29.29%, P < 0.001), iodine-containing drug consumption (0.33% vs 1.24%, P = 0.011), and iodine contrast medium injection (0.58% vs 1.87%, P = 0.004) were lower in rural residents than in urban residents. Both the prevalence of thyroid goiters and nodules was significantly higher in rural residents than in urban residents (goiter: 8.06% vs 1.20%, P < 0.001; nodules: 61.89% vs 55.04%, P = 0.023). Living in rural areas was associated with thyroid goiter (OR 5.114, 95% CI 2.893–9.040, P < 0.001).

Conclusions

There were differences in iodine nutrition and the prevalence of thyroid goiter and nodules in rural and urban residents in Guangzhou. Differentiated and specialized monitoring is recommended in our area.

Open access

Caroline Nguyen, Elisabeth Celestin, Delphine Chambolle, Agnès Linglart, Martin Biosse Duplan, Catherine Chaussain, and Lisa Friedlander

Introduction. X-linked hypophosphatemia (XLH) is a rare, hereditary, and lifelong phosphate wasting disorder characterized by rickets in childhood and impaired teeth mineralization. In the oral cavity, spontaneous abscesses can often occur without any clinical signs of alteration of the causal tooth. The objective of our study was to evaluate the oral care pathway and the oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) of patients followed in an expert oral medicine department located within a Parisian hospital and working in close collaboration with an endocrinology department expert in this pathology. Methods. This study employed a qualitative descriptive design including semi-structured interviews using guiding themes. Results. Twenty-one patients were included in the study. The topics brought up exceeded the initial objectives as the patients mostly addressed the alteration of their oral health-related and general quality of life; a very chaotic oral health care pathway with oral health professionals not aware of their pathology; consequences on their social, professional, and school integration. Patients declared the importance of having a multidisciplinary team around them, including medical and dental professionals. Conclusions. The variety of manifestations in patients with XLH necessitates a high coordination of multidisciplinary patient care to optimize quality of life and reduce disease burden. Oral health care pathways are very chaotic for patients who have difficulty finding professionals with sufficient knowledge of the disease. OHRQoL is therefore diminished. This situation improves when patients enter a coordinated care network.

Open access

Magdalena Fortova, Lenka Hanouskova, Martin Valkus, Jana Cepova, Richard Prusa, and Karel Kotaska

Background: Fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF23) is a key regulator of urine phosphate excretion. The aim of the study was to investigate the perioperative (intraoperative and postoperative) changes of plasma intact and C-terminal FGF23 (iFGF23, cFGF23) concentrations in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT) submitted to surgery.

Materials and methods: Study involved 38 adult patients with pHPT caused by adenoma. PTH levels were investigated intraoperatively (just before the incision and 10 minutes after adenoma excision). cFGF23, iFGF23, phosphate, eGFR and P1NP were measured intraoperatively and postoperatively (next day after the surgery).

Results: PTH levels decreased intraoperatively (13.10 vs. 4.17 pmol/L, P<0.0001). FGF23 levels measured intraoperatively were at the upper level of reference interval. cFGF23 decreased postoperatively compared with values measured just before the incision (cFGF23: 89.17 vs. 22.23 RU/mL, P<0.0001). iFGF23 decreased as well, but postoperative values were low. Postoperative inorganic phosphate values increased (1.03 mmol/L vs. 0.8 mmol/L, P=0.0025). We proved significant negative correlation of perioperative FGF23 with inorganic phosphate (cFGF23: Spearman r=-0.253,P=0.0065; iFGF23: Spearman r =-0.245, P=0.0085). We also found FGF23 values just before incision correlated with eGFR (cystatin C) (cFGF23: Spearman r=-0.499, P=0.0014; iFGF23: Spearman r=-0.413, P=0.01).

Conclusion: Intraoperative iFGF23 and cFGF23 did not change despite PTH decreased significantly. cFGF23 and iFGF23 significantly decreased one day after parathyroidectomy and are associated with increase of inorganic phosphate in pHPT patients. cFGF23 and iFGF23 just before incision correlated with eGFR (cystatin C). The similar results found in both iFGF23 and cFGF23 suggest each could substitute the other.

Open access

Amit Kumar, Maria Ghosh, and Jubbin Jagan Jacob

Background

The diagnosis of syndrome of inappropriate anti-diuresis requires the exclusion of secondary adrenal insufficiency (AI) among patients with euvolemic hyponatremia (EuVHNa). Studies have suggested that about 2.7–3.8% of unselected patients presenting to the emergency room with EuVHNa have undiagnosed AI and it is as high as 15% among patients admitted to specialized units for evaluation of hyponatremia.

Objective

To study the prevalence of AI among in-patients with EuVHNa in a general medical ward setting.

Methods

This was a prospective, single-center observational study conducted among general medical in-patients with EuVHNa, defined as patients with a serum sodium <135 mmol/L, clinical euvolemia and urine spot sodium >30 mmol/L. Additionally, patients with recent vomiting, current renal failure, diuretic use and those with uncontrolled hyperglycemia were excluded. Adrenal functions were assessed by a modified adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) stimulation test called the Acton Prolongatum™ stimulation test (APST). A cut-off cortisol value of <18 mg/dL after 60 min of ACTH injection was used to diagnose AI.

Results

One hundred forty-one patients were included and underwent an APST. APST suggested 20/141 (14.2%) had undiagnosed AI. The commonest cause of AI (9/20) was secondary AI because of the use of steroids including inhaled steroids and indigenous medicines contaminated with steroids. In 5 (3.5%) patients hypopituitarism was newly diagnosed. Despite primary AI (PAI) not commonly presenting as EuVHNa, 2/20 patients had PAI.

Conclusions

AI is much commoner in our country, among in-patients with EuVHNa primarily driven by exogenous steroid use and undiagnosed hypopituitarism.

Open access

Wouter J. Bom, Frank Joosten, Marcel van Borren, E.p. Bom, R.r.j.p. van Eekeren, and Hans de Boer

Objective: Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is increasingly considered the prime option for treating symptomatic, benign, non-functioning thyroid nodules (NFTN). However, little is known about the degree of operator experience required to achieve optimal results. This study describes the RFA learning curve of a single-centre team.

Methods: Retrospective cohort study of the first 103 patients receiving RFA treatment for a single, symptomatic, and benign NFTN, with a follow-up of at least one year. Primary outcome measure was technique efficacy, defined as the percentage of patients with a 6-month nodal volume reduction ratio (VRR) > 50% after single-session RFA. Optimal treatment efficacy was defined as a 6-month VRR > 50% achieved in at least 75% of patients. Secondary outcomes were complications of RFA and indications of secondary interventions.

Results: Median nodal volume at baseline was 12.0 ml (range 2.0–58.0 ml). A 6-month VRR > 50% was achieved in 45% of the first 20 patients, 75% of the next 20, and 79% of the following 63 patients. Complications included minor bleeding (N = 4), transient hyperthyroidism (N = 4), and transient loss of voice (N = 1). Poor volume reduction or nodular regrowth led to diagnostic lobectomy in 11 patients and a second RFA in five. Lobectomy revealed a follicular carcinoma (T2N0M0) in two patients. In one patient, nodule regrowth was caused by an intranodular solitary B-cell lymphoma.

Conclusion: About 40 procedures are required to achieve a 6-month VRR > 50% in the majority of patients. Appropriate follow-up with re-evaluation is recommended for all patients with a VRR < 50% and in those with regrowth to exclude underlying malignancy.

Open access

Rui Zhang, Xinmei Huang, Yue Li, Zhiyan Yu, Yueyue Wu, Bingbing Zha, Heyuan Ding, Shufei Zang, and Jun Liu

Objective

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of TFR2 on iron storage in type 2 diabetes.

Methods

A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1938 participants from the Jiangchuan Community of Shanghai. A total of 784 participants with T2DM and 1154 normal participants (non-T2DM) were enrolled in this study. Serum ferritin, fasting blood glucose, postprandial blood glucose, and HbA1C (glycated hemoglobin A1c) levels were determined. Eighteen Wistar male rats were randomly assigned into three groups (n = 6/group): rats in a high-fat diet streptozotocin (HFD+STZ) group were fed with HFD for 4 weeks and intraperitoneally injected with streptozotocin (STZ); rats in a control group were fed with a standard diet for 4 weeks and intraperitoneally injected with buffer; rats in an STZ group were fed with a standard diet for 4 weeks and intraperitoneally injected with streptozotocin. Glucose tolerance test was performed at the end of the study. Blood samples and liver tissues were assessed for liver TFR2, blood glucose, serum ferritin, and iron levels.

Results

The mean serum ferritin level of T2DM participants was significantly higher than that of the control group (227 (140–352) vs 203.5 (130.5–312) ng/mL, P < 0.05). Serum ferritin level was an independent risk factor for T2DM (high ferritin group vs low ferritin group, 1.304 (1.03–1.651), P < 0.05). Diabetic rats showed reduced liver TFR2 levels, with increased serum ferritin levels.

Conclusion

T2DM participants exhibited iron disorder with elevated serum ferritin levels. Elevated serum ferritin levels in diabetic rats were accompanied by reduced liver TFR2 levels.

Open access

Jun-Xin Yan, Bin-Jing Pan, Ping-Ping Zhao, Li-Ting Wang, Jing-Fang Liu, and Song-Bo Fu

Objective

Previous studies have shown the correlations between serum ferritin and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) or diabetes. However, this relationship remains unclear in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) with NAFLD. Therefore, this study aimed to elaborate the relationship between serum ferritin levels and NAFLD in middle-aged and older patients with T2DM and further explored the biomarkers for NAFLD in T2DM.

Methods

A total of 805 middle-aged and older patients with T2DM were divided into NAFLD and non-NAFLD groups, and their serum ferritin levels were compared. Next, NAFLD group were divided into five subgroups according to the quintile levels of serum ferritin, and the differences in the constituent ratios of NAFLD were analyzed. A logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the risk factors for NAFLD in patients with T2DM.

Results

The serum ferritin levels were significantly higher in T2DM patients with NAFLD (168.47 (103.78, 248.00) ng/mL) than in the non-NAFLD patients (121.19 (76.97, 208.39) ng/mL). The constituent ratios of NAFLD were significantly higher in the F5 and F4 groups than in the F2 or F1 groups (22.70 and 22.70% vs. 15.90 and 16.90%, respectively; P < 0.05). Binary logistic regression analysis showed that serum ferritin (P = 0.001) was an independent risk factor for NAFLD in patients with T2DM.

Conclusions

Serum ferritin levels were significantly increased in T2DM with NAFLD, and the constituent ratios of NAFLD increased gradually along with the increased levels of serum ferritin. Thus, serum ferritin is an independent risk factor for NAFLD in patients with T2DM.