Purposes: This study was conducted to identify the frequent mutations from reported Chinese Gitelman syndrome (GS) patients, to predict three-dimensional structure change of human Na-Cl co-transporter (hNCC), and to test the activity of these mutations and some novel mutations in vitro and in vivo.
Methods: SLC12A3 gene mutations in Chinese GS patients previously reported in the PubMed, CNKI and Wanfang database were summarized. Predicted configurations of wild type (WT) and mutant proteins were achieved using the I-TASSER workplace. Six missense mutations (T60M, L215F, D486N, N534K, Q617R and R928C) were generated by site-directed mutagenesis. 22Na+ uptake experiment was carried out in the Xenopus laevis oocyte expression system. 35 GS patients and 20 healthy volunteers underwent the thiazide test.
Results: T60M, T163M，D486N, R913Q, R928C and R959 frameshift were frequent SLC12A3 gene mutations (mutated frequency >3%) in 310 Chinese GS families. The protein’s three-dimensional structure was predicted to be altered in all mutations. Compared with WT hNCC, the thiazide-sensitive 22Na+ uptake was significantly diminished for all 6 mutations: T60M 22±9.2%, R928C 29±12%, L215F 38±14%, N534K 41±15.5%, Q617R 63±22.1% and D486N 77±20.4%. In thiazide test, the net increase in chloride fractional excretion in 20 healthy controls was significantly higher than GS patients with or without T60M or D486N mutations.
Conclusions: Frequent mutations (T60M, D486N, R928C) and novel mutations (L215F, N534K and Q617R) lead to protein structure alternation and protein dysfunction verified by 22Na+ uptake experiment in vitro and thiazide test on patients.