Investigating sex chromosome trisomies (SCTs) may help in understanding neurodevelopmental pathways underlying the risk for neurobehavioral problems and psychopathology. Knowledge about the neurobehavioral phenotype is needed to improve clinical care and early intervention for children with SCT. This is especially relevant considering the increasing number of early diagnosed children with the recent introduction of noninvasive prenatal screening. The TRIXY Early Childhood Study is a longitudinal study designed to identify early neurodevelopmental risks in children with SCT, aged 1–7 years. This review summarizes the results from the TRIXY Early Childhood Study, focusing on early behavioral symptoms in areas of autism spectrum disorder, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, and communication disorders, and underlying neurocognitive mechanisms in domains of language, emotion regulation, executive functioning, and social cognition. Behavioral symptoms were assessed through structured behavior observation and parental questionnaires. Neurocognition was measured using performance tests, eyetracking, and psychophysiological measures of arousal. In total, 209 children aged 1–7 years were included: 107 children with SCT (33 XXX, 50 XXY, and 24 XYY) and 102 age-matched population controls. Study outcomes showed early behavioral symptoms in young children with SCT, and neurocognitive vulnerabilities, already from an early age onward. Neurobehavioral and neurocognitive difficulties tended to become more pronounced with increasing age and were rather robust, independent of specific karyotype, pre/postnatal diagnosis, or ascertainment strategy. A more longitudinal perspective on neurodevelopmental ‘at-risk’ pathways is warranted, also including studies assessing the effectiveness of targeted early interventions. Neurocognitive markers that signal differences in neurodevelopment may prove to be helpful in this. Focusing on early development of language, social cognition, emotion regulation, and executive functioning may help in uncovering early essential mechanisms of (later) neurobehavioral outcome, allowing for more targeted support and early intervention.
Sophie van Rijn, Kimberly Kuiper, Nienke Bouw, Evelien Urbanus, and Hanna Swaab
Xiaoyi Qi, Liangxian Qiu, Shijia Wang, Xiongbiao Chen, Qianwen Huang, Yixuan Zhao, Kunfu Ouyang, and Yanjun Chen
Background: Heart failure (HF) is a complex and multifactorial syndrome caused by impaired heart function. The high morbidity and mortality of HF cause a heavy burden of illness worldwide. Non-thyroidal illness syndrome (NTIS) refers to aberrant serum thyroid parameters in patients without past thyroid disease. Observational studies have indicated that NTIS is associated with a higher risk of all-cause mortality in HF. This meta-analysis aimed to investigate the association between NTIS and HF prognosis.
Methods: Medline, Embase, Web of Science, and the Cochrane database were searched for any studies reporting an association between NTIS and HF prognosis from inception to July 1st 2022. A meta-analysis was then performed. The quality of studies was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS). The heterogeneity of the results was assessed with I2 and Cochran's Q statistics. Sensitivity analysis and publication bias analysis were also conducted.
Results: A total of 626 studies were retrieved, and 18 studies were finally included in the meta-analysis. The results showed that NTIS in HF patients was significantly associated with an increased risk of all-cause mortality and major cardiovascular events (MACE), but not with in-hospital mortality. The stability of the data was validated by the sensitivity analysis. There was no indication of a publication bias in the pooled results for all-cause mortality and MACE.
Conclusions: This meta-analysis showed that NTIS was associated with a worse outcome in HF patients. However, the association between NTIS and in-hospital mortality of HF patients requires further investigation.
Giuseppe Grande, Andrea Graziani, Antonella Di Mambro, Riccardo Selice, and Alberto Ferlin
Low bone mass is common in men with Klinefelter syndrome (KS), with a prevalence of 6-15% of osteoporosis and of 25-48% of osteopenia. Reduced bone mass has been described since adolescence and it might be related to both reduced bone formation and higher bone resorption. Although reduced testosterone levels are clearly involved in the pathogenesis, this relation is not always evident. Importantly, fracture risk is increased independently from bone mineral density (BMD) and testosterone levels. Here we discuss the pathogenesis of osteoporosis in patients with KS, with a particular focus on the role of testosterone and testis function. In fact, other hormonal mechanisms, such as global Leydig cell dysfunction, causing reduced Insulin-like factor 3 (INSL3) and 25-OH vitamin D levels, and high FSH and estradiol levels, might be involved. Furthermore, genetic aspects related to the supernumerary X chromosome might be involved, as well as androgen receptor expression and function. Notably, body composition, skeletal mass and strength, and age at diagnosis are other important aspects. Although Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA) is recommended in the clinical workflow for patients with KS to measure BMD, recent evidence suggests that alterations in the microarchitecture of the bones and vertebral fractures might be present even in subjects with normal BMD. Therefore, analysis of trabecular bone score (TBS), high resolution peripheral quantitative CT and vertebral morphometry seem promising tools to better estimate the fracture risk of patents with KS. This review also summarizes the evidence on the best available treatments for osteoporosis in men with KS, with or without hypogonadism.
Trine Holm Johannsen, Jakob Albrethsen, Vassos Neocleous, Federico Baronio, Martine Cools, Lise Aksglaede, Niels Jørgensen, Peter Christiansen, Meri Toumba, Pavlos Fanis, Marie Lindhardt Ljubicic, and Anders Juul
Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is a recessive condition that affects the adrenal glands. Despite life-long replacement therapy with glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids, adult patients with CAH often experience impaired gonadal function. In pubertal boys and in men with CAH, circulating testosterone is produced by the adrenal glands as well as the testicular, steroidogenic cells. In this European two-center study, we evaluated the function of Leydig and Sertoli cells in 61 boys and men with CAH, primarily due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency. Despite conventional hormone replacement therapy, our results indicated a significant reduction in serum concentrations of both Leydig cell-derived hormones (i.e., insulin-like factor 3 [INSL3] and testosterone) and Sertoli cell-derived hormones (i.e., inhibin B and anti-Müllerian hormone) in adult males with CAH. Serum concentrations of INSL3 were particularly reduced in those with testicular adrenal rest tumors. To our knowledge, this is the first study to evaluate circulating INSL3 as a candidate biomarker to monitor Leydig cell function in patients with CAH.
Merlin C. Thomas, Brendon L Neuen, Stephen M Twigg, Mark E. Cooper, and Sunil V Badve
Sodium‐glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors have recently emerged as an effective means to protect kidney function in people with type 2 diabetes and chronic kidney disease (CKD). In this review, we explore the role of SGLT2 inhibition in these individuals. SGLT2 inhibitors specifically act to inhibit sodium and glucose reabsorption in the early proximal tubule of the renal nephron. Although originally developed as glucose-lowering agents through their ability to induce glycosuria, it became apparent in cardiovascular outcome trials that the trajectory of kidney function decline was significantly slowed and the incidence of serious falls in kidney function was reduced in participants receiving an SGLT2 inhibitor. These observations have recently led to specific outcome trials in participants with CKD, including DAPA-CKD, CREDENCE and EMPA-KIDNEY, and real-world studies, like CVD-REAL-3, that have confirmed the observation of kidney benefits in this setting. In response, recent KDIGO Guidelines have recommended the use of SGLT2 inhibitors as first line therapy in patients with CKD, alongside statins, renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system inhibitors and multifactorial risk factor management as indicated. However, SGLT2 inhibitors remain significantly underutilized in the setting of CKD. Indeed, an inertia paradox exists, with patients with more severe disease less likely to receive an SGLT2 inhibitor. Concerns regarding safety appear unfounded, as acute kidney injury, hyperkalaemia, major acute cardiovascular events and cardiac death in patients with CKD appear to be lower following SGLT2 inhibition. The first-in-class indication of dapagliflozin for CKD may begin a new approach to managing kidney disease in type 2 diabetes.
Veronica Astro, Elisabetta Fiacco, Kelly Johanna Cardona-Londoño, Ilario De Toma, Hams Saeed Alzahrani, Jumana Alama, Amal Kokandi, Taha Abo-Almagd Abdel-Meguid Hamoda, Majed Felemban, and Antonio Adamo
The transcriptional landscape of Klinefelter syndromeduring early embryogenesis remains elusive. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of X chromosome overdosage in 47,XXY males induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) obtained from patients with different genomic backgrounds and ethnicities.
Design and method
We derived and characterized 15 iPSC lines from four Saudi 47,XXY KS patients and one Saudi 46,XY male. We performed a comparative transcriptional analysis using the Saudi KS-iPSCs and a cohort of European and North American KS-iPSCs.
We identified a panel of X-linked and autosomal genes commonly dysregulated in Saudi and European/North American KS-iPSCs vs 46,XY controls. Our findings demonstrate that seven PAR1 and nine non-PAR escape genes are consistently dysregulated and mostly display comparable transcriptional levels in both groups. Finally, we focused on genes commonly dysregulated in both iPSC cohorts and identified several gene-ontology categories highly relevant to KS physiopathology, including aberrant cardiac muscle contractility, skeletal muscle defects, abnormal synaptic transmission, and behavioral alterations.
Our results indicate that a transcriptomic signature of X chromosome overdosage in KS is potentially attributable to a subset of X-linked genes sensitive to sex chromosome dosage and escaping X inactivation, regardless of the geographical area of origin, ethnicity, and genetic makeup.
Shanlee M Davis, Rhianna Urban, Angelo D’Alessandro, Julie A Reisz, Christine L Chan, Megan Kelsey, Susan Howell, Nicole Tartaglia, Philip Zeitler, and Peter Baker II
Conditions related to cardiometabolic disease, including metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes, are common among men with Klinefelter syndrome (KS). The molecular mechanisms underlying this aberrant metabolism in KS are largely unknown, although there is an assumption that chronic testosterone deficiency plays a role. This cross-sectional study compared plasma metabolites in 31 pubertal adolescent males with KS to 32 controls of similar age (14 ± 2 years), pubertal stage, and body mass index z-score of 0.1 ± 1.2 and then between testosterone-treated (n = 16) and untreated males with KS. The plasma metabolome in males with KS was distinctly different from that in controls, with 22% of measured metabolites having a differential abundance and seven metabolites nearly completely separating KS from controls (area under the curve > 0.9, P < 0.0001). Multiple saturated free fatty acids were higher in KS, while mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids were lower, and the top significantly enriched pathway was mitochondrial β-oxidation of long-chain saturated fatty acids (enrichment ratio 16, P < 0.0001). In contrast, there were no observed differences in metabolite concentrations between testosterone-treated and untreated individuals with KS. In conclusion, the plasma metabolome profile in adolescent males with KS is distinctly different from that in males without KS independent of age, obesity, pubertal development, or testosterone treatment status and is suggestive of differences in mitochondrial β-oxidation.
Fabienne A U Fox, Lennart Koch, Monique M B Breteler, and N Ahmad Aziz
Maintaining muscle function throughout life is critical for healthy ageing. Although in vitro studies consistently indicate beneficial effects of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) on muscle function, findings from population-based studies remain inconclusive. We therefore aimed to examine the association between 25-OHD concentration and handgrip strength across a wide age range and assess potential modifying effects of age, sex and season.
We analysed cross-sectional baseline data of 2576 eligible participants out of the first 3000 participants (recruited from March 2016 to March 2019) of the Rhineland Study, a community-based cohort study in Bonn, Germany. Multivariate linear regression models were used to assess the relation between 25-OHD levels and grip strength while adjusting for age, sex, education, smoking, season, body mass index, physical activity levels, osteoporosis and vitamin D supplementation.
Compared to participants with deficient 25-OHD levels (<30 nmol/L), grip strength was higher in those with inadequate (30 to <50 nmol/L) and adequate (≥50 to ≤125 nmol/L) levels (ß inadequate = 1.222, 95% CI: 0.377; 2.067, P = 0.005; ß adequate = 1.228, 95% CI: 0.437; 2.019, P = 0.002). Modelling on a continuous scale revealed grip strength to increase with higher 25-OHD levels up to ~100 nmol/L, after which the direction reversed (ß linear = 0.505, 95% CI: 0.179; 0.830, P = 0.002; ß quadratic = –0.153, 95% CI: –0.269; -0.038, P = 0.009). Older adults showed weaker effects of 25-OHD levels on grip strength than younger adults (ß 25OHDxAge = –0.309, 95% CI: –0.594; –0.024, P = 0.033).
Our findings highlight the importance of sufficient 25-OHD levels for optimal muscle function across the adult life span. However, vitamin D supplementation should be closely monitored to avoid detrimental effects.
Maria Luisa Garo, Désirée Deandreis, Alfredo Campennì, Alexis Vrachimis, Petra Petranovic Ovcaricek, and Luca Giovanella
Current staging and risk-stratification systems for predicting survival or recurrence of patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma may be ineffective at predicting outcomes in individual patients. In recent years, nomograms have been proposed as an alternative to conventional systems for predicting personalized clinical outcomes. We conducted a systematic review to evaluate the predictive performance of available nomograms for thyroid cancer patients.
Design and methods
PROSPERO registration (CRD42022327028). A systematic search was conducted without time and language restrictions. PICOT questions: population, patients with papillary thyroid cancer; comparator prognostic factor, single-arm studies; outcomes, overall survival, disease-free survival, cancer-specific survival, recurrence, central lymph node metastases, or lateral lymph node metastases; timing, all periods; setting, hospital setting. Risk of bias was assessed through PROBAST tool.
Eighteen studies with a total of 20 prognostic models were included in the systematic review (90,969 papillary thyroid carcinoma patients). Fourteen models were at high risk of bias and four were at unclear risk of bias. The greatest concerns arose in the analysis domain. The accuracy of nomograms for overall survival was assessed in only one study and appeared limited (0.77, 95% CI: 0.75–0.79). The accuracy of nomograms for disease-free survival ranged from 0.65 (95% CI: 0.55–0.75) to 0.92 (95% CI: 0.91–0.95). The C-index for predicting lateral lymph node metastasis ranged from 0.72 to 0.92 (95% CI: 0.86–0.97). For central lymph node metastasis, the C-index of externally validated studies ranged from 0.706 (95% CI: 0.685–0.727) to 0.923 (95% CI: 0.893–0.946).
Our work highlights the extremely high heterogeneity among nomograms and the critical lack of external validation studies that limit the applicability of nomograms in clinical practice. Further studies ideally using commonly adopted risk factors as the backbone to develop nomograms are required.
Nomograms may be appropriate tools to plan treatments and predict personalized clinical outcomes in patients with papillary thyroid cancer. However, the nomograms developed to date are very heterogeneous, and their results seem to be closely related to the specific samples studied to generate the same nomograms. The lack of rigorous external validation procedures and the use of risk factors that sometimes appear to be far from those commonly used in clinical practice, as well as the great heterogeneity of the risk factors considered, limit the ability of nomograms to predict patient outcomes and thus their current introduction in clinical practice.
Jan W Eriksson, Reem A Emad, Martin H Lundqvist, Niclas Abrahamsson, and Maria C Kjellsson
This study aimed to characterize how the dysregulation of counter-regulatory hormones can contribute to insulin resistance and potentially to diabetes. Therefore, we investigated the association between insulin sensitivity and the glucose- and insulin-dependent secretion of glucagon, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), and cortisol in non-diabetic individuals using a population model analysis. Data, from hyperinsulinemic–hypoglycemic clamps, were pooled for analysis, including 52 individuals with a wide range of insulin resistance (reflected by glucose infusion rate 20–60 min; GIR20–60min). Glucagon secretion was suppressed by glucose and, to a lesser extent, insulin. The GIR20–60min and BMI were identified as predictors of the insulin effect on glucagon. At normoglycemia (5 mmol/L), a 90% suppression of glucagon was achieved at insulin concentrations of 16.3 and 43.4 µU/mL in individuals belonging to the highest and lowest quantiles of insulin sensitivity, respectively. Insulin resistance of glucagon secretion explained the elevated fasting glucagon for individuals with a low GIR20–60min. ACTH secretion was suppressed by glucose and not affected by insulin. The GIR20–60min was superior to other measures as a predictor of glucose-dependent ACTH secretion, with 90% suppression of ACTH secretion by glucose at 3.1 and 3.5 mmol/L for insulin-sensitive and insulin-resistant individuals, respectively. This difference may appear small but shifts the suppression range into normoglycemia for individuals with insulin resistance, thus, leading to earlier and greater ACTH/cortisol response when the glucose falls. Based on modeling of pooled glucose-clamp data, insulin resistance was associated with generally elevated glucagon and a potentiated cortisol-axis response to hypoglycemia, and over time both hormonal pathways may therefore contribute to dysglycemia and possibly type 2 diabetes.