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Open access

Ning Yuan, Jianbin Sun, Xin Zhao, Jing Du, Min Nan, Qiaoling Zhang, and Xiaomei Zhang

Background

Numerous studies have found that subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) may increase adverse pregnancy outcomes; however, the benefit of levothyroxine (LT4) treatment remains controversial. The 2017 guidelines of the American Thyroid Association weakly recommended LT4 therapy for serum antithyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb)-negative women with thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) concentrations greater than the pregnancy-specific reference range and below 10.0 mU/L. Therefore, the primary goal of this study was to investigate the correlation between thyroid autoantibody-negative SCH with or without LT4 treatment and adverse pregnancy outcomes.

Methods

We prospectively enrolled 1868 consecutive pregnant women. Finally, 1344 women were involved in the study according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Assays for TSH, free thyroxine (FT4), TPOAb, anti-thyroglobulin antibody, and laboratory indicators were performed. The participants were divided into the euthyroid (ET) group (n  = 1250) and the SCH group(n  = 94). The SCH group was further divided into LT4 group (n  = 40) and non-LT4 group(n  = 54). The laboratory indicators and pregnancy outcomes were evaluated during follow-ups.

Results

Maternal age, BMI, parity, and the history of spontaneous abortion did not differ significantly between the ET group and the different SCH groups. There were no significant differences in lipid profile and homocysteine levels between ET and SCH group in the first and third trimester of pregnancy. After adjusting the confounding factors, the non-LT4 group was a risk factor for spontaneous abortion (odds ratio: 3.141, 95% CI: 1.060–9.302). Survival analysis showed that the time of abortion was different between the ET group and SCH group (log-rank P= 0.042). The spontaneous abortion in SCH, especially in non-LT4, group mainly occurred in the first trimester of pregnancy.

Conclusions

Thyroid autoantibody negative-SCH seems to be associated with increased risk of spontaneous abortions during the first trimester of pregnancy. LT4 therapy in this patient population might be beneficial to reduce adverse pregnancy outcomes.

Open access

Kirsten Davidse, Anneloes van Staa, Wanda Geilvoet, Judith Van Eck, Karlijn Pellikaan, Janneke Baan, A.c.s Hokken-Koelega, E.l.t Van den Akker, Theo C.j. Sas, Sabine E. Hannema, Aart J Van der Lely, and Laura C.g. de Graaff

Introduction: Transition from paediatric to adult endocrinology can be challenging for adolescents, their families and healthcare professionals. Previous studies have shown that up to 25% of young adults with endocrine disorders are lost to follow-up after moving out of paediatric care. This poses a health risk for young adults, which can lead to serious and expensive medical acute and long-term complications.

Methods: In order to understand and prevent dropout, we studied electronic medical records (EMRs) of patients with endocrine disorders. These patients were over 15 years old when they attended the paediatric endocrine outpatient clinic (OPC) of our hospital in 2013-2014 and should have made the transfer to adult care (AC) at the time of the study.

Results: Of 387 adolescents, 131 had an indication for adult follow up within our university hospital. Thirty-three (25%) were lost to follow up. In 24 of them (73%), the invitation for the adult OPC had never been sent. We describe the failures in logistic processes that eventually led to dropout in these patients.

Conclusion: We found a 25% dropout during transfer from paediatric to adult tertiary endocrine care. Of all dropouts, 73% could be attributed to failure of logistic steps. In order to prevent these dropouts, we provide practical recommendations for patients, paediatric and adult endocrinologists.

Open access

Johanna Öberg, Rolf Jorde, Yngve Figenschau, Per Medbøe Thorsby, Sandra Rinne Dahl, Anne Winther, and Guri Grimnes

Objective

Combined hormonal contraceptive (CHC) use has been associated with higher total 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels. Here, we investigate the relation between CHC use and vitamin D metabolism to elucidate its clinical interpretation.

Methods

The cross-sectional Fit Futures 1 included 1038 adolescents. Here, a subgroup of 182 girls with available 25(OH)D, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D), 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (24,25(OH)2D), vitamin D-binding protein (DBP) and measured free 25(OH)D levels, in addition to parathyroid hormone (PTH) and fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), was investigated. Vitamin D metabolites were compared between girls using (CHC+) and not using CHC (CHC−). Further, the predictability of CHC on 25(OH)D levels was assessed in a multiple regression model including lifestyle factors. The ratios 1,25(OH)2D/25(OH)D and 24,25(OH)2D/25(OH)D (vitamin D metabolite ratio (VMR)) in relation to 25(OH)D were presented in scatterplots.

Results

CHC+ (n  = 64; 35% of the girls) had higher 25(OH)D levels (mean ± s.d., 60.3 ± 22.2) nmol/L) than CHC- (n  = 118; 41.8 ± 19.3 nmol/L), P -values <0.01. The differences in 25(OH)D levels between CHC+ and CHC− were attenuated but remained significant after the adjustment of lifestyle factors. CHC+ also had higher levels of 1,25(OH)2D, 24,25(OH)2D, DBP and calcium than CHC−, whereas 1,25(OH)2D/25(OH)D, PTH, FGF23 and albumin were significantly lower. Free 25(OH)D and VMR did not statistically differ, and both ratios appeared similar in relation to 25(OH)D, irrespective of CHC status.

Conclusion

This confirms a clinical impact of CHC on vitamin D levels in adolescents. Our observations are likely due to an increased DBP-concentration, whereas the free 25(OH)D appears unaltered.

Open access

Gabriella Oliveira Lima, Alex Luiz Menezes da Silva, Julianne Elba Cunha Azevedo, Chirlene Pinheiro Nascimento, Luana Rodrigues Vieira, Akira Otake Hamoy, Luan Oliveira Ferreira, Verônica Regina Lobato Oliveira Bahia, Nilton Akio Muto, Dielly Catrina Favacho Lopes, and Moisés Hamoy

Low plasma levels of vitamin D causes bone mineral change that can precipitate osteopenia and osteoporosis and could aggravate autoimmune diseases, hypertension and diabetes. The demand for vitamin D supplementation becomes necessary; however, the consumption of vitamin D is not without risks, which its toxicity could have potentially serious consequences related to hypervitaminosis D, such as hypercalcemia and cerebral alterations. Thus, the present study describes the electroencephalographic changes caused by supraphysiological doses of vitamin D in the brain electrical dynamics and the electrocardiographic changes. After 4 days of treatment with vitamin D at a dose of 25,000 IU/kg, the serum calcium levels found were increased in comparison with the control group. The electrocorticogram analysis found a reduction in wave activity in the delta, theta, alpha and beta frequency bands. For ECG was observed changes with shortened QT follow-up, which could be related to serum calcium concentration. This study presented important evidence about the cerebral and cardiac alterations caused by high doses of vitamin D, indicating valuable parameters in the screening and decision-making process for diagnosing patients with symptoms suggestive of intoxication.

Open access

Maria Luisa Brandi, Stefania Bandinelli, Teresa Iantomasi, Francesca Giusti, Eleonora Talluri, Giovanna Sini, Fabrizio Nannipieri, Santina Battaglia, Riccardo Giusti, Colin Gerard Egan, and Luigi Ferrucci

Objective

This study aimed to evaluate the association between the endocrine-disrupting chemical, bisphenol A (BPA) on circulating levels of 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OD)D) and other vitamin D metabolites in an elderly population in Italy.

Methods

This was a retrospective analysis of the InCHIANTI Biobank in Italy. The association between vitamin D metabolites namely 1,25(OH)D, 25(OH)D, parathyroid hormone (PTH) and BPA levels were evaluated. Multiple regression models were used to examine the association between predictor variables with 1,25(OH)D or 25(OH)D levels.

Results

Samples from 299 individuals aged 72.8 ± 15.7 years were examined. Mean levels of BPA, 1,25(OH)D and 25(OH)D were 351.2 ± 511.6 ng/dL, 43.7 ± 16.9 pg/mL and 20.2 ± 12.1 ng/mL, respectively. One hundred eighty individuals (60.2%) were deficient (<20 ng/mL) in 25(OH)D and this population also presented higher BPA levels (527.9 ± 1289.5 ng/dL vs 86.9 ± 116.8 ng/dL, P  < 0.0001). Univariate analysis revealed that BPA levels were negatively correlated with both 1,25(OH)D (r= −0.67, P  < 0.0001) and 25(OH)D (r= −0.69, P  < 0.0001). Multivariate regression revealed that PTH (β: −0.23, 95% CI: −0.34, −0.13, P  < 0.0001) and BPA (β: −0.25, 95% CI: −0.3, −0.19, P  < 0.0001) remained significantly associated with 25(OH)D levels while BPA was also associated with 1,25(OH)D levels (β: −0.19, 95% CI: −0.22, −0.15, P  < 0.0001). Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis showed that a BPA concentration of >113 ng/dL was the best cut-off to predict individuals deficient in 25(OH)D (area under the curve: 0.87, 95% CI: 0.82–0.90, P  < 0.0001).

Conclusion

The strong negative association between BPA and vitamin D in this elderly population warrants further investigation, particularly since this population is already at greatest risk of hypovitaminosis and fracture.

Open access

Jane Fletcher, Emma L Bishop, Stephanie R Harrison, Amelia Swift, Sheldon C Cooper, Sarah K Dimeloe, Karim Raza, and Martin Hewison

Vitamin D has well-documented effects on calcium homeostasis and bone metabolism but recent studies suggest a much broader role for this secosteroid in human health. Key components of the vitamin D system, notably the vitamin D receptor (VDR) and the vitamin D-activating enzyme (1α-hydroxylase), are present in a wide array of tissues, notably macrophages, dendritic cells and T lymphocytes (T cells) from the immune system. Thus, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25D) can be converted to hormonal 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25D) within immune cells, and then interact with VDR and promote transcriptional and epigenomic responses in the same or neighbouring cells. These intracrine and paracrine effects of 1,25D have been shown to drive antibacterial or antiviral innate responses, as well as to attenuate inflammatory T cell adaptive immunity. Beyond these mechanistic observations, association studies have reported the correlation between low serum 25D levels and the risk and severity of human immune disorders including autoimmune diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease, multiple sclerosis, type 1 diabetes and rheumatoid arthritis. The proposed explanation for this is that decreased availability of 25D compromises immune cell synthesis of 1,25D leading to impaired innate immunity and over-exuberant inflammatory adaptive immunity. The aim of the current review is to explore the mechanistic basis for immunomodulatory effects of 25D and 1,25D in greater detail with specific emphasis on how vitamin D-deficiency (low serum levels of 25D) may lead to dysregulation of macrophage, dendritic cell and T cell function and increase the risk of inflammatory autoimmune disease.

Open access

Julie Wulf Christensen, Karin Folmer Thøgersen, Lars Thorbjørn Jensen, Martin Krakauer, Bent Kristensen, Finn Noe Bennedbæk, and Bo Zerahn

Objective

The extent of symptoms due to primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) depends on the population being studied. PHPT is mainly discovered incidentally through routine laboratory findings. Less is known about patient-experienced improvement following successful parathyroidectomy. The aim of our study was to assess the changes in the quality of life (QoL) after successful surgery using an SF-36 questionnaire.

Design

This is a prospective cohort study based on questionnaires.

Methods

Forty consecutive patients diagnosed with PHPT were prospectively administered an SF-36 questionnaire before and 6 months after successful parathyroidectomy. A subgroup of 18 patients answered the questionnaire at 1 and 3 months after surgery. Successful surgery was based on biochemistry and pathology reports as confirmed by an endocrinologist. Results of each SF-36 subcategory were compared to the results at baseline in order to detect changes in patient-reported QoL after successful surgery.

Results

There were significant improvements in six of eight SF-36 subcategories: vitality (P = 0.0001), physical functioning (P = 0.04), general health perception (P = 0.004), physical role functioning (P = 0.04), social role functioning (P = 0.004), and mental health perception (P = 0.0001). Changes appeared within a month after surgery with no further significant changes at later time points.

Conclusions

Parathyroidectomy significantly improves QoL as measured by a decrease in SF-36 scores as early as 1 month after successful parathyroidectomy. The SF-36 QoL questionnaire is suitable for monitoring changes in patient well-being after successful parathyroidectomy.

Open access

Thorben Hoffmann, Yousef Ashraf Tawfik Morcos, Ruth Janoschek, Eva-Maria Turnwald, Antje Gerken, Annette Müller, Gerhard Sengle, Jörg Dötsch, Sarah Appel, and Eva Hucklenbruch-Rother

Objective

Asprosin is a recently discovered hormone associated with obesity and diabetes mellitus. Little is known about asprosin’s role during pregnancy, but a contribution of asprosin to pregnancy complications resulting from maternal obesity and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is conceivable. We assessed the potential effects of obesity, GDM and other clinical parameters on maternal and fetal umbilical plasma asprosin concentrations and placental asprosin expression.

Design

The Cologne-Placenta Cohort Study comprises 247 female patients, from whom blood and placentas were collected at the University Hospital Cologne.

Methods

We studied the maternal and fetal umbilical plasma and placentas of pregnant women with an elective, primary section. Sandwich ELISA measurements of maternal and fetal umbilical plasma and immunohistochemical stainings of placental tissue were performed to determine the asprosin levels. Also, the relation between asprosin levels and clinical blood parameters was studied.

Results

There was a strong correlation between the maternal and fetal plasma asprosin levels and both increased with GDM in normal-weight and obese women. Asprosin immunoreactivity was measured in cultivated placental cells and placental tissue. BMI and GDM were not but pre-pregnancy exercise and smoking were correlated with maternal and/or fetal asprosin levels. Placental asprosin levels were associated with maternal but not with fetal plasma asprosin levels and with BMI but not with GDM. Placental asprosin was related to maternal insulin levels and increased upon insulin treatment in GDM patients.

Conclusions

Asprosin could potentially act as a biomarker and contribute to the clinical manifestation of pregnancy complications associated with maternal obesity.

Open access

Jing Li, Xuejie Yi, Tao Li, Tingting Yao, Dongyang Li, Guangxuan Hu, Yongqi Ma, Bo Chang, and Shicheng Cao

Background

Obesity is a growing problem worldwide, and newer therapeutic strategies to combat it are urgently required. This study aimed to analyze the effect of diet and exercise interventions on energy balance in mice and elucidate the mechanism of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma co-activator-1-alpha-IRISIN-uncoupling protein-1 (PGC-1α-IRISIN-UCP-1) pathway in the beigeization of white adipose tissue.

Methods

Four-week-old male C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into normal (NC) and high-fat diet (HFD) groups. After 10 weeks of HFD feeding, obese mice were randomly divided into obesity control (OC), obesity diet control (OD), obesity exercise (OE), and obesity diet control exercise (ODE) groups. Mice in OE and ODE performed moderate-load treadmill exercises: for OD and ODE, the diet constituted 70% of the food intake of the OC group for 8 weeks.

Results

Long-term HFD inhibits white adipose tissue beigeization by downregulating PGC-1α-IRISIN-UCP-1 in the adipose tissue and skeletal muscles. Eight weeks of exercise and dietary interventions alleviated obesity-induced skeletal muscle, and adipose tissue PGC-1α-IRISIN-UCP-1 pathway downregulation promoted white adipose tissue beigeization and reduced body adipose tissue. The effects of the combined intervention were better than those of single interventions.

Conclusions

Diet and exercise intervention after obesity and obesity itself may affect the beigeization of WAT by downregulating/upregulating the expression/secretion of skeletal muscle and adipose PGC-1α-IRISIN, thereby influencing the regulation of bodyweight. The effects of the combined intervention were better than those of single interventions.

Open access

Violeta Iotova, Jerome Bertherat, George Mastorakos, Olaf Hiort, and Alberto M Pereira