Newborns with congenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (CHH) have an impaired postnatal activation of the gonadotropic axis. Substitutive therapy with recombinant gonadotropins can be proposed to mimic physiological male mini-puberty during the first months of life. The aim of this study was to compare the clinical and biological efficacy of two treatment modalities of gonadotropins administration during mini-puberty in CHH neonates.
Multicenter retrospective analytical epidemiological study comparing two treatments, pump vs injection, between 2004 and 2019.
Clinical (penile size, testis size, testicular descent) and biological parameters (serum concentrations of testosterone, anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) and Inhibin B) were compared between the two groups by multivariate analyses.
Thirty-five patients were included. A significantly higher increase in penile length and testosterone level was observed in the injection group compared to the pump group (+0.16 ± 0.02 mm vs +0.10 ± 0.02 mm per day, P = 0.002; and +0.04 ± 0.007 ng/mL vs +0.01 ± 0.008 ng/mL per day, P = 0.001). In both groups, significant increases in penile length and width, testosterone, AMH, and Inhibin B levels were observed, as well as improved testicular descent (odds ratio of not being in a scrotal position at the end of treatment = 0.97 (0.96; 0.99)).
Early postnatal administration of recombinant gonadotropins in CHH boys is effective in stimulating penile growth, Sertoli cell proliferation, and testicular descent, with both treatment modalities.