Cardiovascular risk factors could be present in mild adrenal autonomous cortisol secretion (MACS). However, the most frequent cardiovascular risk factors in MACS have not been established. The aim of the presseent study was to analyse the difference in cardiovascular risk factors in patients with MACS in comparison to those with non-functioning adrenal tumour (NFAT). A total of 295 patients with adrenal incidentaloma were included in this retrospective study. We divided our group into those who showed suppression in 1 mg overnight dexamethasone suppression test (DST) (NFAT) (serum cortisol level ≤1.8 μg/dL) and those who did not show suppression in the DST (MACS) (serum concentration of cortisol > 1.8 μg/dL and ≤5 μg/dL). In the studied groups, we analysed the presence of cardiovascular risk factors, such as obesity, prediabetes, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), hypertension, hyperlipidaemia, chronic kidney disease and cardiovascular events. In our study, 18.9% of patients were defined as MACS. Importantly, T2DM was diagnosed in 41% of MACS vs 23% of NFAT (P < 0.01) and higher frequency of occurrence of hyperlipidaemia in NFAT (72.4%) vs MACS (53.6%) (P = 0.01) was observed. We did not observed differences in the frequency of obesity, hypertension, chronic kidney disease, prediabetes, atrial fibrillation, stroke, ST and non-ST elevation myocardial infarction and coronary angioplasty between patients with MACS and NFAT (all P > 0.05; respectively). In MACS, T2DM is more prevalent than in NFAT; hyperlipidaemia is more prevalent in NFAT. Accordingly, no differences were found in the incidence of obesity, hypertension, prediabetes, chronic kidney disease between studied groups as well as cardiovascular events.
Agnieszka Adamska, Vitalii Ulychnyi, Katarzyna Siewko, Anna Popławska-Kita, Małgorzata Szelachowska, Marcin Adamski, Angelika Buczyńska, and Adam Jacek Krętowski
Shu-Meng Hu, Yang-Juan Bai, Ya-Mei Li, Ye Tao, Xian-Ding Wang, Tao Lin, Lan-Lan Wang, and Yun-Ying Shi
Tertiary hyperparathyroidism (THPT) and vitamin D deficiency are commonly seen in kidney transplant recipients, which may result in persistently elevated fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) level after transplantation and decreased graft survival. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of vitamin D supplementation on THPT, FGF23-alpha Klotho (KLA) axis and cardiovascular complications after transplantation.
Materials and methods
Two hundred nine kidney transplant recipients were included and further divided into treated and untreated groups depending on whether they received vitamin D supplementation. We tracked the state of THPT, bone metabolism and FGF23–KLA axis within 12 months posttransplant and explored the predictors and risk factors for intact FGF23 levels, KLA levels, THPT and cardiovascular complications in recipients.
Vitamin D supplementation significantly improved FGF23 resistance, THPT and high bone turnover status, preserved better graft function and prevented coronary calcification in the treated group compared to the untreated group at month 12. The absence of vitamin D supplementation was an independent risk factor for THPT and a predictor for intact FGF23 and KLA levels at month 12. Age and vitamin D deficiency were independent risk factors for coronary calcification in recipients at month 12.
Vitamin D supplementation effectively improved THPT, FGF23 resistance and bone metabolism, preserved graft function and prevented coronary calcification after transplantation.
Fidéline Bonnet-Serrano, Maxime Barat, Anna Vaczlavik, Anne Jouinot, Lucas Bouys, Christelle Laguillier-Morizot, Corinne Zientek, Catherine Simonneau, Etienne Larger, Laurence Guignat, Lionel Groussin, Guillaume Assié, Jean Guibourdenche, Ioannis Nicolis, Marie-Claude Menet, and Jérôme Bertherat
Large response of steroid precursors, including 17-hydroxyprogesterone, to adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) has been described in adrenocortical tumors, suggesting the existence of intra-tumoral enzymatic deficiencies. This study aimed to compare steroidogenesis enzymes activity in unilateral and bilateral benign tumors using serum steroid profiling in liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in the basal state and after ACTH 1-24 stimulation.
Design and methods
A serum profile of seven consecutive adrenal steroids was determined in LC-MS/MS in the basal state (T0) and after ACTH 1-24 stimulation (T60) in 35 patients with bilateral adrenocortical tumors (BL), 38 patients with unilateral tumors (UL) and 37 control subjects (CT). Response amplitude of each individual steroid was evaluated by T60/T0 ratio, whereas enzymatic activity was assessed by the downstream/upstream steroid ratio. Adrenal volume was quantified by a semi-automatic segmentation method.
For the seven steroids assayed, the amplitude of response to ACTH was higher in BL than in UL and in CT. The difference between BL and UL persisted even after matching patients on adrenal volume. On glucocorticoids pathway, enzymatic activity of CYP11B1 was significantly decreased in BL (78.3 (43.1-199.4)) in comparison to both UL (122.7 (13.8-228.4), P = 0.0002) and CT (186.8 (42.1-1236.3), P < 0.0001). On mineralocorticoids and androgens pathways, the enzymatic activity of CYP11B2 and CYP17A1-17,20 lyase was also lower in BL than UL and CT.
Decreased activity of distal steroidogenesis enzymes CYP11B1, CYP11B2 and CYP17A1-17,20 lyase, responsible for an explosive response to ACTH of upstream precursors in bilateral tumors, limits the synthesis of bioactive steroids, in particular cortisol, despite the increase in adrenal mass.
Activity of distal steroidogenesis enzymes (CYP11B1, CYP11B2 and CYP17A1 on glucocorticoids, mineralocorticoids and androgens pathways, respectively) is decreased in adrenocortical benign tumors. This decrease is more pronounced in bilateral lesions and seems to depend more on the nature of the lesion than on the increase in adrenal volume. It is responsible for the explosive response to ACTH of steroid precursors located upstream of these enzymes. It probably allows bioactive steroids, particularly cortisol, to stay in the normal range for a long time despite the increase in adrenal mass.
Huifei Sophia Zheng, Jeffrey G Daniel, Julia M Salamat, Laci Mackay, Chad D Foradori, Robert J Kemppainen, Satyanarayana R Pondugula, Ya-Xiong Tao, and Chen-Che Jeff Huang
Glucocorticoids have short- and long-term effects on adrenal gland function and development. RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) was performed to identify early transcriptomic responses to the synthetic glucocorticoid, dexamethasone (Dex), in vitro and in vivo. In total, 1711 genes were differentially expressed in the adrenal glands of the 1-h Dex-treated mice. Among them, only 113 were also considered differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in murine adrenocortical Y-1 cells treated with Dex for 1 h. Gene ontology analysis showed that the upregulated DEGs in the adrenal gland of the 1-h Dex-treated mice were highly associated with the development of neuronal cells, suggesting the adrenal medulla had a rapid response to Dex. Interestingly, only 4.3% of Dex-responsive genes in the Y-1 cell line under Dex treatment for 1 h were differentially expressed under Dex treatment for 24 h. The heatmaps revealed that most early responsive DEGs in Y-1 cells during 1 h of treatment exhibited a transient response. The expression of these genes under treatment for 24 h returned to basal levels similar to that during control treatment. In summary, this research compared the rapid transcriptomic effects of Dex stimulation in vivo and in vitro. Notably, adrenocortical Y-1 cells had a transient early response to Dex treatment. Furthermore, the DEGs had a minimal overlap in the 1-h Dex-treated group in vivo and in vitro.
Elizabeth J de Koster, Olga Husson, Eveline W C M van Dam, G Sophie Mijnhout, Romana T Netea-Maier, Wim J G Oyen, Marieke Snel, Lioe-Fee de Geus-Oei, Dennis Vriens, and
This study assessed the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in patients undergoing 2-[18F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG)-PET/CT for an indeterminate (Bethesda III/IV) thyroid nodule. FDG-PET/CT accurately rules out malignancy and prevents 40% of futile diagnostic surgeries in these nodules.
Secondary analyses of HRQoL data from a randomised controlled multicentre trial (NCT02208544) in 126 patients from 15 hospitals in the Netherlands were done.
Longitudinal HRQoL assessment was performed using the EuroQol 5-dimension 5-level (EQ-5D-5L), the RAND 36-item Health Survey v2.0 (RAND-36), and the Thyroid Patient-Reported Outcome (ThyPRO) questionnaire on baseline, 3, 6, and 12 months, relative to the date of the FDG-PET/CT scan.
Patients who were randomised to active surveillance following an FDG-negative nodule instead of diagnostic surgery reported stable HRQoL scores throughout the year. Univariate analysis indicated better HRQoL for patients undergoing surveillance than surgical patients with benign histopathology on multiple physical and psychosocial domains. Univariate within-group analysis suggested both temporary and continued HRQoL deteriorations in patients with benign histopathology over time. Multivariate within-group analysis demonstrated no significant longitudinal HRQoL changes in patients undergoing active surveillance. In contrast, in patients with benign histopathology, worse HRQoL was observed with regard to ThyPRO cognitive impairment (P = 0.01) and cosmetic complaints (P = 0.02), whereas goitre symptoms (P < 0.001) and anxiety (P = 0.04) improved over time. In patients with malignant histopathology, anxiety also decreased (P = 0.05).
The reassurance of a negative FDG-PET/CT resulted in sustained HRQoL throughout the first year of active surveillance. Diagnostic surgery for a nodule with benign histopathology resulted in more cognitive impairment and physical problems including cosmetic complaints, but improved goitre symptoms and anxiety. Anxiety was also reduced in patients with malignant histopathology.
Giovanni Fanni, Petros Katsogiannos, Bipasha Nandi Jui, Magnus Sundbom, Susanne Hetty, Maria J Pereira, and Jan W Eriksson
In patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) leads to beneficial metabolic adaptations, including enhanced incretin secretion, beta-cell function, and systemic insulin sensitivity. We explored the impact of RYGB on pituitary, pancreatic, gut hormones, and cortisol responses to parenteral and enteral nutrient stimulation in patients with obesity and T2DM with repeated sampling up to 2 years after intervention.
We performed exploratory post hoc analyses in a previously reported randomized trial. Levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), cortisol, growth hormone (GH), glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP), peptide YY (PYY), ACTH, insulin, and glucagon were measured in 13 patients with T2DM and obesity at four different visits: before and 4, 24, and 104 weeks after RYGB; and in three sequential conditions on the same day: fasting, intravenous arginine challenge, and OGTT.
RYGB surprisingly induced a rise in ACTH, cortisol, and GH levels upon an oral glucose load, together with enhanced GLP-1 and PYY responses. Fasting and post-arginine GH levels were higher after RYGB, whereas insulin, glucagon, GLP-1, GIP, and cortisol were lower. These endocrine adaptations were seen as early as 4 weeks after surgery and were maintained for up to 2 years.
These findings indicate adaptations of glucose sensing mechanisms and responses in multiple endocrine organs after RYGB, involving the gut, pancreatic islets, the pituitary gland, the adrenals, and the brain.
J Van Schaik, M Burghard, M H Lequin, E A van Maren, A M van Dijk, T Takken, L B Rehorst-Kleinlugtenbelt, B Bakker, L Meijer, E W Hoving, M Fiocco, A Y N Schouten-van Meeteren, W J E Tissing, and H M van Santen
Children with suprasellar brain damage are at risk of hypothalamic dysfunction (HD). HD may lead to decreased resting energy expenditure (REE). Decreased REE, however, is not present in all children with HD. Our aim was to assess which children suspect for HD have low REE, and its association with clinical severity of HD or radiological hypothalamic damage.
Patients and methods
A retrospective cohort study was performed. Measured REE (mREE) of children at risk of HD was compared to predicted REE (pREE). Low REE was defined as mREE <90% of predicted. The mREE/pREE quotient was associated to a clinical score for HD symptoms and to radiological hypothalamic damage.
In total, 67 children at risk of HD (96% brain tumor diagnosis) with a mean BMI SDS of +2.3 ± 1.0 were included. Of these, 45 (67.2%) had low mREE. Children with severe HD had a significant lower mean mREE/pREE quotient compared to children with no, mild, or moderate HD. Mean mREE/pREE quotient of children with posterior hypothalamic damage was significantly lower compared to children with no or anterior damage. Tumor progression or tumor recurrence, severe clinical HD, and panhypopituitarism with diabetes insipidus (DI) were significant risk factors for reduced REE.
REE may be lowered in children with hypothalamic damage and is associated to the degree of clinical HD. REE is, however, not lowered in all children suspect for HD. For children with mild or moderate clinical HD symptoms, REE measurements may be useful to distinguish between those who may benefit from obesity treatment that increases REE from those who would be better helped using other obesity interventions.
Avinaash Maharaj, Ruth Kwong, Jack Williams, Christopher Smith, Helen Storr, Ruth Krone, Debora Braslavsky, Maria Clemente, Nanik Ram, Indraneel Banerjee, Semra Çetinkaya, Federica Buonocore, Tülay Güran, John C Achermann, Louise Metherell, and Rathi Prasad
Sphingosine-1-phosphate lyase (SGPL1) insufficiency syndrome (SPLIS) is an autosomal recessive multi-system disorder, which mainly incorporates steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome and primary adrenal insufficiency. Other variable endocrine manifestations are described. In this study, we aimed to comprehensively annotate the endocrinopathies associated with pathogenic SGPL1 variants and assess for genotype–phenotype correlations by retrospectively reviewing the reports of endocrine disease within our patient cohort and all published cases in the wider literature up to February 2022. Glucocorticoid insufficiency in early childhood is the most common endocrine manifestation affecting 64% of the 50 patients reported with SPLIS, and a third of these individuals have additional mineralocorticoid deficiency. While most individuals also have nephrotic syndrome, SGPL1 variants also account for isolated adrenal insufficiency at presentation. Primary gonadal insufficiency, manifesting with microphallus and cryptorchidism, is reported in less than one-third of affected boys, all with concomitant adrenal disease. Mild primary hypothyroidism affects approximately a third of patients. There is paucity of data on the impact of SGPL1 deficiency on growth, and pubertal development, limited by the early and high mortality rate (approximately 50%). There is no clear genotype–phenotype correlation overall in the syndrome, with variable disease penetrance within individual kindreds. However, with regards to endocrine phenotype, the most prevalent disease variant p.R222Q (affecting 22%) is most consistently associated with isolated glucocorticoid deficiency.To conclude, SPLIS is associated with significant multiple endocrine disorders. While endocrinopathy in the syndrome generally presents in infancy, late-onset disease also occurs. Screening for these is therefore warranted both at diagnosis and through follow-up.
Yan-yu Zhang, Xian Zhang, Shao-yang Bu, Wei-wei Zhang, Tian-xiu Li, De-cai Zheng, Ze-xiang Huang, and Qian Wang
Kisspeptin system was shown to be a key factor in mediating social stress and reproduction. Yellowtail clownfish, Amphiprion clarkii, is a hermaphrodite fish, whose sex determination and gonadal development are affected by the social status of individuals. The yellowtail clownfish is a fantastic animal model to explore sex determination, but the social status and precise distribution of kiss mRNAs in the brain of this species are unknown. Hererin, a novel in situ hybridization technique, RNAscope, was used to investigate the distribution of kiss1 and kiss2 expressions in the brain of yellowtail clownfish. The coronal planes of brain showed that the kiss1 signal was mainly present in dorsal habenular nucleus (NHd) and kiss2 mRNA was widely expressed in telencephalon, midbrain, and hypothalamus, especially in dorsal part of the nucleus of the lateral recess (NRLd). Additionally, kiss1 and kiss2 signals have sexually dimorphic distribution. The kiss1 mRNA was distributed in NHd, the telencephalon, and lateral part of the diffuse nucleus of the inferior lobe (NDLIl) of females but in NHd and NDLIl of males. kiss2 signals were stronger in females than that in males. The distribution of kiss1 and kiss2 neurons in NHd of habenula and NRLd of hypothalamus may suggest that kiss genes associate environmental signaling and reproductive function in yellowtail clownfish.
Milou Cecilia Madsen, Martin den Heijer, Claudia Pees, Nienke R Biermasz, and Leontine E H Bakker
Testosterone therapy is the cornerstone in the care of men with hypogonadism and transgender males. Gel and intramuscular injections are most frequently used and are registered and included in the international guidelines. The specific preparation should be selected according to the patient’s preference, cost, availability, and formulation-specific properties. As the majority of men with hypogonadism and transgender males require lifelong treatment with testosterone, it is important to utilize a regimen that is effective, safe, inexpensive, and convenient to use with optimal mimicking of the physiological situation. This systematic review reviews current literature on differences between the three most used testosterone preparations in adult men with hypogonadism and transgender males. Although it appeared hardly any comparative studies have been carried out, there are indications of differences between the preparations, for example, on the stability of testosterone levels, hematocrit, bone mineral density, and patient satisfaction. However, there are no studies on the effects of testosterone replacement on endpoints such as cardiovascular disease in relation to hematocrit or osteoporotic fractures in relation to bone mineral density. The effect of testosterone therapy on health-related quality of life is strongly underexposed in the reviewed studies, while this is a highly relevant outcome measure from a patient perspective. In conclusion, current recommendations on testosterone treatment appear to be based on data primarily from non-randomized clinical studies and observational studies. The availability of reliable comparative data between the different preparations will assist in the process of individual decision-making to choose the most suitable formula.