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Open access

Małgorzata Kałużna, Pola Kompf, Katarzyna Wachowiak-Ochmańska, Jerzy Moczko, Aleksandra Królczyk, Adam Janicki, Karol Szapel, Marian Grzymisławski, Marek Ruchała, and Katarzyna Ziemnicka

Background

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) encompasses endocrine, reproductive and metabolic disturbances. Abdominal pain and bowel movement disturbances are common complaints of PCOS patients. It remains uncertain whether the characteristic features of PCOS are associated with an increased incidence of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS).

Methods

In the study, 133 patients with PCOS diagnosed according to international evidence-based guidelines and 72 age- and BMI-matched eumenorrheic controls were enrolled. Anthropometric measurements and biochemical and hormonal characteristics were collected. The Rome IV criteria were used for IBS diagnosis. Quality of life (QoL) and depressive symptoms were also assessed.

Results

IBS symptom prevalence in PCOS was not significantly different than in controls. Hyperandrogenism and simple and visceral obesity did not appear to affect IBS prevalence in PCOS. There were no anthropometric, hormonal or biochemical differences between IBS-PCOS and non-IBS-PCOS patients, apart from IBS-PCOS patients being slightly older and having lower thyroid-stimulating hormone. Metabolic syndrome (MS) prevalence was higher in IBS-PCOS than non-IBS-PCOS. QoL appears to be significantly lower in IBS-PCOS compared to PCOS-only patients. The occurrence of depression was higher in IBS-PCOS vs non-IBS-PCOS patients. At least one alarm symptom was reported by 87.5% of IBS-PCOS; overall, this group experienced more alarm symptoms than the IBS-only group.

Conclusions

Since a link between PCOS and IBS comorbidity and increased MS prevalence was noted, patients presenting with both conditions may benefit from early MS diagnostics and management. The high incidence of alarm symptoms in PCOS women in this study highlights the need for differential diagnosis of organic diseases that could mimic IBS symptoms.

Open access

Xin He, Qin Yan, Chazhen Liu, Zhengyuan Wang, Ping Liao, Tong Liu, Zehuan Shi, Qi Song, Xueying Cui, Wenjing Wang, and Jiajie Zang

This study aimed to explore the relationship between thyroid function and autoimmunity and adverse birth outcomes. Serum levels of thyroid function were detected by electrochemiluminescence assay. Urine iodine concentration was detected using the acid digestion method. We used multiple linear regression to assess the correlation between thyroid function indicators and birth weight according to trimester stratification and binary logistic regression to evaluate the correlation between thyroid dysfunction and adverse birth outcomes. Reference ranges for trimester-specific thyroid hormones were established in our 2564 pregnant women cohort with mild iodine deficiency. The higher the maternal thyroid-stimulating hormone in the first trimester (B = 0.09, P  = 0.048) and total triiodothyronine (TT3) in the third trimester (B = 0.16, P  < 0.001) of TPOAbnegative women, the higher the birth weight Z-score, whereas in the second trimester, free-thyroxine of mothers with TPOAb negative was lower (B = −0.10, P  = 0.026) and the birth weight Z-score was higher. Pregnant women with overt and subclinical hyperthyroidism had a higher risk of preterm births than euthyroid women (11.9% vs 4.5%; odds ratio (OR): 2.84; P  = 0.009). Women with higher TT3 had a higher risk of preterm (17.0% vs 4.5%; OR: 4.19; P  < 0.001) and LGA (34.0% vs 11.1%; OR: 3.70; P  < 0.001) births than euthyroid women. In conclusion, thyroid function during pregnancy could affect birth weight and birth outcome.

Open access

Wang-shu Liu, Ling-yan Hua, Su-xiang Zhu, Feng Xu, Xue-qin Wang, Chun-feng Lu, Jian-bin Su, and Feng Qi

Background

The aim of the study was to explore whether plasma stromal cell-derived factor 1 (SDF-1) levels are associated with the EZSCAN score and its derived indicators in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D).

Methods

From July 2020 to December 2020, a total of 253 patients with T2D were consecutively recruited. Serum SDF-1 levels were measured by sandwich ELISA. EZSCAN test was applied to evaluate the sudomotor function of each patient, and based on the results, EZSCAN score, cardiac autonomic neuropathy risk score (CANRS) and cardiovascular risk score (CVDRS) were calculated by particular algorithms. In addition, other relevant clinical data were also collected.

Results

With increasing tertiles of serum SDF-1 levels, the CANRS and CVDRS significantly increased (both Pfor trend <0.001), while the EZSCAN score significantly decreased (Pfor trend <0.001). Moreover, serum SDF-1 levels were significantly and positively correlated with the CANRS and CVDRS (r = 0.496 and 0.510, respectively, both P  < 0.001), and negatively correlated with the EZSCAN score (r = −0.391, P  < 0.001). Furthermore, multivariate linear regression analyses were constructed, and after adjusting for other clinical covariates, serum SDF-1 levels were independently responsible for EZSCAN score (β = −0.273, t = −3.679, P  < 0.001), CANRS (β = 0.334, t = 5.110, P  < 0.001) and CVDRS (β = 0.191, t = 4.983, P  = 0.003).

Conclusions

SDF-1 levels in serum were independently associated with the EZSCAN score and its derived indicators, such as CANRS and CVDRS in patients with T2D.

Open access

Sarantis Livadas, Christina Bothou, Justyna Kuliczkowska-Płaksej, Ralitsa Robeva, Andromahi Vryonidou, Jelica Bjekic Macut, Ioannis Androulakis, Milica Opalic, Zadalla Mouslech, Andrej Milewicz, Alessandra Gambineri, Dimitrios Panidis, and Djuro Macut

Background

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is considered a risk factor for the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, which is the most appropriate way to evaluate dysglycemia in women with PCOS and who are at increased risk are as yet unclear.

Aim of the study

To determine the prevalence of T2DM, impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), and impaired fasting glucose (IFG) in PCOS women and potential factors to identify those at risk.

Subjects and methods

The oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), biochemical/hormonal profile, and ovarian ultrasound data from 1614 Caucasian women with PCOS and 362 controls were analyzed in this cross-sectional multicenter study. The data were categorized according to age and BMI.

Results

Dysglycemia (T2DM, IGT, and IFG according to World Health Organization criteria) was more frequent in the PCOS group compared to controls: 2.2% vs 0.8%, P = 0.04; 9.5% vs 7.4%, P = 0.038; 14.2% vs 9.1%, P = 0.002, respectively. OGTT was essential for T2DM diagnosis, since in 88% of them basal glucose values were inconclusive for diagnosis. The presence of either T2DM or IFG was irrespective of age (P = 0.54) and BMI (P = 0.32), although the latter was associated with IGT (P = 0.021). There was no impact of age and BMI status on the prevalence of T2DM or IFG. Regression analysis revealed a role for age, BMI, fat deposition, androgens, and insulin resistance for dysglycemia. However, none of the factors prevailed as a useful marker employed in clinical practice.

Conclusions

One-third of our cohort of PCOS women with either T2DM or IGT displayed normal fasting glucose values but without confirming any specific predictor for dysglycemic condition. Hence, the evaluation of glycemic status using OGTT in all women with PCOS is strongly supported.

Open access

Panisa Hantrakun, Rattanaporn Sekararithi, Thidarat Jaiwongkam, Sirinart Kumfu, Chatree Chai-adisaksopha, Nipon Chattipakorn, Theera Tongsong, and Phudit Jatavan

Objectives

To evaluate the effect of metformin in improving platelet dysfunction in women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM).

Patients and methods

A randomized controlled trial was conducted on pregnant women diagnosed with GDM. Singleton low-risk pregnancies meeting the inclusion criteria were randomly allocated at 27–31 weeks to receive metformin and placebo through the rest of pregnancy. Thirty-seven and 39 cases were recruited into the metformin group and the placebo group, respectively. MPVs, P-selectin, and 8-isoprostane levels were determined at the time of allocation and 6 weeks after treatment. Obstetric and neonatal outcomes were also assessed.

Results

Most baseline characteristics of the two groups were comparable. The levels of P-selectin after 6 weeks of treatment were significantly higher in the metformin group (68.9 ± 14.4 vs 60.6 ± 11.3; P-value = 0.006), indicating more platelet activation. All of the obstetric and neonatal outcomes were comparable except that birth weight was significantly lower in the metformin group (3018 ± 364 g vs 3204 ± 393 g; P-value = 0.037).

Conclusion

Metformin, in addition to diet and lifestyle modifications, does not improve or worsen oxidative stress and platelet dysfunction in women with GDM. Nevertheless, metformin significantly reduces fetal weight in women with GDM, theoretically preventing macrosomia.

Open access

Katrine M Lauritsen, Jens Hohwü Voigt, Steen Bønløkke Pedersen, Troels K Hansen, Niels Møller, Niels Jessen, Lars C Gormsen, and Esben Søndergaard

SGLT2 inhibition induces an insulin-independent reduction in plasma glucose causing increased lipolysis and subsequent lipid oxidation by energy-consuming tissues. However, it is unknown whether SGLT2 inhibition also affects lipid storage in adipose tissue. Therefore, we aimed to determine the effects of SGLT2 inhibition on lipid storage and lipolysis in adipose tissue. We performed a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled crossover design of 4 weeks of empagliflozin 25 mg and placebo once-daily in 13 individuals with type 2 diabetes treated with metformin. Adipose tissue fatty acid uptake, lipolysis rate and clearance were measured by 11C-palmitate PET/CT. Adipose tissue glucose uptake was measured by 18F-FDG PET/CT. Protein and gene expression of pathways involved in lipid storage and lipolysis were measured in biopsies of abdominal s.c. adipose tissue. Subjects were weight stable, which allowed us to quantify the weight loss-independent effects of SGLT2 inhibition. We found that SGLT2 inhibition did not affect free fatty acids (FFA) uptake in abdominal s.c. adipose tissue but increased FFA uptake in visceral adipose tissue by 27% (P  < 0.05). In addition, SGLT2 inhibition reduced GLUT4 protein (P  = 0.03) and mRNA content (P  = 0.01) in abdominal s.c. adipose tissue but without affecting glucose uptake. In addition, SGLT2 inhibition decreased the expression of genes involved in insulin signaling in adipose tissue. We conclude that SGLT2 inhibition reduces GLUT4 gene and protein expression in abdominal s.c. adipose tissue, which could indicate a rebalancing of substrate utilization away from glucose oxidation and lipid storage capacity through reduced glycerol formation.

Open access

Vita Birzniece, Teresa Lam, Mark McLean, Navneeta Reddy, Haleh Shahidipour, Amy Hayden, Howard Gurney, Glenn Stone, Rikke Hjortebjerg, and Jan Frystyk

Objective

Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT), a principal therapy in patients with prostate cancer, is associated with the development of obesity, insulin resistance, and hyperinsulinemia. Recent evidence indicates that metformin may slow cancer progression and improves survival in prostate cancer patients, but the mechanism is not well understood. Circulating insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) are bound to high-affinity binding proteins, which not only modulate the bioavailability and signalling of IGFs but also have independent actions on cell growth and survival. The aim of this study was to investigate whether metformin modulates IGFs, IGF-binding proteins (IGFBPs), and the pregnancy-associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A) – stanniocalcin 2 (STC2) axis.

Design and methods

In a blinded, randomised, cross-over design, 15 patients with prostate cancer on stable ADT received metformin and placebo treatment for 6 weeks each. Glucose metabolism along with circulating IGFs and IGFBPs was assessed.

Results

Metformin significantly reduced the homeostasis model assessment as an index of insulin resistance (HOMA IR) and hepatic insulin resistance. Metformin also reduced circulating IGF-2 (P  < 0.05) and IGFBP-3 (P  < 0.01) but increased IGF bioactivity (P  < 0.05). At baseline, IGF-2 correlated significantly with the hepatic insulin resistance (r2= 0.28, P  < 0.05). PAPP-A remained unchanged but STC2 declined significantly (P  < 0.05) following metformin administration. During metformin treatment, change in HOMA IR correlated with the change in STC2 (r2= 0.35, P  < 0.05).

Conclusion

Metformin administration alters many components of the circulating IGF system, either directly or indirectly via improved insulin sensitivity. Reduction in IGF-2 and STC2 may provide a novel mechanism for a potential metformin-induced antineoplastic effect.

Open access

Panagiotis Anagnostis, Irene Lambrinoudaki, John C Stevenson, and Dimitrios G Goulis

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is of major concern in women entering menopause. The changing hormonal milieu predisposes them to increased CVD risk, due to a constellation of risk factors, such as visceral obesity, atherogenic dyslipidemia, dysregulation in glucose homeostasis, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and arterial hypertension. However, an independent association of menopause per se with increased risk of CVD events has only been proven for early menopause (<45 years). Menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) ameliorates most of the CVD risk factors mentioned above. Transdermal estrogens are the preferable regimen, since they do not increase triglyceride concentrations and they are not associated with increased risk of venous thromboembolic events (VTE). Although administration of MHT should be considered on an individual basis, MHT may reduce CVD morbidity and mortality, if commenced during the early postmenopausal period (<60 years or within ten years since the last menstrual period). In women with premature ovarian insufficiency (POI), MHT should be administered at least until the average age of menopause (50–52 years). MHT is contraindicated in women with a history of VTE and is not currently recommended for the sole purpose of CVD prevention. The risk of breast cancer associated with MHT is generally low and is mainly conferred by the progestogen. Micronized progesterone and dydrogesterone are associated with lower risk compared to other progestogens.

Open access

Alexander A L Jorge, Thomas Edouard, Mohamad Maghnie, Alberto Pietropoli, Nicky Kelepouris, Alicia Romano, Martin Zenker, and Reiko Horikawa

Introduction

Mutations in PTPN11 are associated with Noonan syndrome (NS). Although the effectiveness of growth hormone therapy (GHT) in treating short stature due to NS has been previously demonstrated, the effect of PTPN11 mutation status on the long-term outcomes of GHT remains to be elucidated.

Methods

This analysis included pooled data from the observational American Norditropin Studies: Web-Enabled Research Program (NCT01009905) and the randomized, double-blinded GHLIQUID-4020 clinical trial (NCT01927861). Pediatric patients with clinically diagnosed NS and confirmed PTPN11mutation status were eligible for inclusion. The effectiveness analysis included patients who were GHT-naïve and pre-pubertal at GHT start. Growth outcomes and safety were assessed over 4 years of GHT (Norditropin®, Novo Nordisk A/S).

Results

A total of 69 patients were included in the effectiveness analysis (71% PTPN11 positive). The proportion of females was 32.7 and 30.0% in PTPN11-positive and negative patients, respectively, and mean age at GHT start was 6.4 years in both groups. Using general population reference data, after 4 years of GHT, the mean (s.d.) height SD score (HSDS) was −1.9 (1.1) and −1.7 (0.8) for PTPN11-positive and PTPN11-negative patients, respectively, with no statistical difference observed between groups. The mean (s.d.) change in HSDS at 4 years was +1.3 (0.8) in PTPN11-positive patients and +1.5 (0.7) in PTPN11-negative patients (no significant differences between groups). Safety findings were consistent with previous analyses.

Conclusions

GHT resulted in improved growth outcomes over 4 years in GHT-naïve, pre-pubertal NS patients, irrespective of PTPN11 mutation status.

Open access

Luca Giovanella, Maria Luisa Garo, Domenico Albano, Rainer Görges, and Luca Ceriani

Objective

In patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC), recurrences may occur in up to 20% and may have a fatal outcome in 10% of cases. Thyroglobulin doubling time (Tg-DT) values may contribute to predict response to treatment and disease recurrence in DTC patients. This study aimed to address the following questions: (1) Are Tg-DT values indicative of response to treatments in patients with DTC (i.e. ’treatment monitoring’)?; (2) Is Tg-DT predictive of 2-[18F]fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose (2-[18F]FDG) PET/CT in patients with DTC?; (3) Are Tg-DT values predictive of DTC prognosis (i.e. ‘prediction’)?

Design

Systematic review and meta-analysis.

Methods

Methodology was registered in the PROSPERO database (CRD42021257947). A systematic search was carried out in PubMed, Web Of Science, and Scopus from June to August 2021 without time and language restrictions.

Results

Eleven studies were included for a total of 1421 patients. Positive association between Tg-DT < 1 year and recurrence or disease progression was observed. Tg-DT was found to be related with (2-[18F]FDG) PET/CT results in patients with DTC. The area under the curve was 0.86 (95% CI: 0.83–0.89), sensitivity was 0.84 (0.64;0.94), specificity was 0.71 (0.35; 0.92), DOR was 13.1 (3.1; 55.0), LR+ was 2.9 (1.0; 8.1), LR− was 0.22 (0.1; 0.5). For patients with Tg-DT < 1 year (n  = 247), the survival risk ratio was 2.09 (95% CI: 1.49; 2.94).

Conclusions

Tg-DT values are valuable in predicting response to treatment and disease recurrence in patients with DTC, as well as their overall survival. In addition, Tg-DT significantly increases the detection rate of 2-[18F]-FDG PET/CT.