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Open access

Eleftherios E Deiktakis, Eleftheria Ieronymaki, Peter Zarén, Agnes Hagsund, Elin Wirestrand, Johan Malm, Christos Tsatsanis, Ilpo T Huhtaniemi, Aleksander Giwercman, and Yvonne Lundberg Giwercman

Objective

During androgen ablation in prostate cancer by the standard gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist treatment, only luteinizing hormone (LH) is permanently suppressed while circulating follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) rebounds. We explored direct prostatic effects of add-back FSH, after androgen ablation with GnRH antagonist, permanently suppressing both gonadotropins.

Methods

The effects of recombinant human (rFSH) were examined in mice treated with vehicle (controls), GnRH antagonist degarelix (dgx), dgx + rFSH, dgx + flutamide, or dgx + rFSH + flutamide for 4 weeks. Prostates and testes size and expression of prostate-specific and/or androgen-responsive genes were measured. Additionally, 33 young men underwent dgx-treatment. Seventeen were supplemented with rFSH (weeks 1–5), and all with testosterone (weeks 4–5). Testosterone, gondotropins, prostate-specific antigen (PSA), and inhibin B were measured.

Results

In dgx and dgx + flutamide treated mice, prostate weight/body weight was 91% lower than in controls, but 41 and 11%, respectively, was regained by rFSH treatment (P = 0.02). The levels of seminal vesicle secretion 6, Pbsn, Nkx3.1, beta-microseminoprotein, and inhibin b were elevated in dgx + rFSH-treated animals compared with only dgx treated (all P < 0.05). In men, serum inhibin B rose after dgx treatment but was subsequently suppressed by testosterone. rFSH add-back had no effect on PSA levels.

Conclusions

These data provide novel evidence for the direct effects of FSH on prostate size and gene expression in chemically castrated mice. However, in chemically castrated men, FSH had no effect on PSA production. Whether FSH effects on the prostate in humans also require suppression of the residual adrenal-derived androgens and/or a longer period of rFSH stimulation, remains to be explored.

Open access

Marília D’Elboux Guimarães Brescia, Karine Candido Rodrigues, André Fernandes d’Alessandro, Wellington Alves Filho, Willemijn Y van der Plas, Schelto Kruijff, Sergio Samir Arap, Sergio Pereira de Almeida Toledo, Fábio Luiz de Menezes Montenegro, and Delmar Muniz Lourenço Jr

Background

Potential influences of parathyroidectomy (PTx) on the quality of life (QoL) in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1-related primary hyperparathyroidism (HPT/MEN1) are unknown.

Method

Short Form 36 Health Survey Questionnaire was prospectively applied to 30 HPT/MEN1 patients submitted to PTx (20, subtotal; 10, total with autograft) before, 6 and 12 months after surgery. Parameters that were analyzed included QoL, age, HPT-related symptoms, general pain, comorbidities, biochemical/hormonal response, PTx type and parathyroid volume.

Results

Asymptomatic patients were younger (30 vs 38 years; P = 0.04) and presented higher QoL scores than symptomatic ones: Physical Component Summary score (PCS) 92.5 vs 61.2, P = 0.0051; Mental Component Summary score (MCS) 82.0 vs 56.0, P = 0.04. In both groups, QoL remained stable 1 year after PTx, independently of the number of comorbidities. Preoperative general pain was negatively correlated with PCS (r = −0.60, P = 0.0004) and MCS (r = −0.57, P = 0.0009). Also, moderate/intense pain was progressively (6/12 months) more frequent in cases developing hypoparathyroidism. The PTx type and hypoparathyroidism did not affect the QoL at 12 months although remnant parathyroid tissue volume did have a positive correlation (P = 0.0490; r = 0.3625) to PCS 12 months after surgery. Patients with one to two comorbidities had as pre-PTx PCS (P = 0.0015) as 12 months and post-PTx PCS (P = 0.0031) and MCS (P = 0.0365) better than patients with three to four comorbidities.

Conclusion

A variable QoL profile was underscored in HPT/MEN1 reflecting multiple factors associated with this complex disorder as comorbidities, advanced age at PTx and presence of preoperative symptoms or of general pain perception. Our data encourage the early indication of PTx in HPT/MEN1 by providing known metabolic benefits to target organs and avoiding potential negative impact on QoL.

Open access

Carole Morin, Keo-Morakort Benedetto, Agathe Deville, Laurent Milot, Aurélie Theillaumas, Valérie Hervieu, Mathieu Pioche, Gilles Poncet, Julien Forestier, Laurent François, Francoise Borson-Chazot, Mustapha Adham, Catherine Lombard-Bohas, and Thomas Walter

Purpose

To improve neuroendocrine neoplasm (NEN) management, the European Neuroendocrine Tumor Society (ENETS) recognised 62 Centers of Excellence (CoE). This retrospective study compares conformity of patients’ initial management within vs outside an ENETS CoE with clinical practice guidelines (CPGs).

Methods

Patients diagnosed with a NEN between August 2018 and July 2020 and presented in the Lyon-CoE Multidisciplinary Tumour Board (MDT) were included. Factors potentially associated with the conformity of initial management (work-up and first treatment) to CPG underwent univariate and multivariate analyses.

Results

Among the 615 included patients, 170 (27.6%) were initially managed in the CoE and 445 (72.4%) were only presented at the CoE-MDT. Patients in the CoE group more often had intestinal or pancreatic primaries, metastatic disease (61.8% vs 33%), hereditary syndrome, and a functioning tumour. Work-up conformity was 37.1% in the CoE (vs 29.9%, P  = 0.09); this was 95.8% for the first treatment (vs 88.7%, P  = 0.01). After multivariate analysis, CPG conformity was significantly higher for patients managed in the CoE, for younger patients, for those having a grade 1–2 tumour, and a genetic syndrome. Pancreatic and small intestinal (SI) NET surgeries performed in the CoE had a higher splenic preservation rate during left pancreatectomy, better detection of multiple tumours in SI surgeries, and higher number of resected lymph nodes.

Conclusions

Given the widespread observance of CPG, not all patients require management in the CoE. Referral should be considered for more complex cases such as metastatic diseases, G2 tumours, or carcinoid syndromes. Finally, we should encourage the centralization of NET surgery.

Open access

Nidan Qiao, Haixia Cheng, Zhaoyun Zhang, Hongying Ye, Ming Shen, Xuefei Shou, Xiaoyun Cao, Hong Chen, Xiang Zhou, Yongfei Wang, and Yao Zhao

Introduction

Most studies reporting posterior pituitary tumors (PPTs) are small case series or single cases.

Methods

Patients with a histological diagnosis of PPT from January 2010 to December 2021 in a tertiary center were identified. We reported clinical symptoms, endocrine assessments, radiological and pathological features, and surgical outcomes of PPTs.

Results

A total of 51 patients (23 males, 51.3 ± 10.3 years old) with PPT were included in this study. Major symptoms were visual defects, headache, and hypopituitarism, while diabetes insipidus was uncommon (9.8%). The typical radiological feature was homogeneous enhancement (84.3%) of a regular-shaped mass on T1 contrast imaging without cystic change, calcification, or cavernous sinus invasion. We achieved gross total resection in 38/51 patients (74.5%). Pathologically, all tumors showed thyroid transcription factor 1 immunoreactivity. Among 29 patients with suprasellar PPTs, postoperative hemorrhage due to tumor residue was encountered in 2/15 cases in the transcranial group and 0/14 in the endoscopy group. Patients with spindle cell oncocytoma (SCO) were more likely to be surgically treated (25% vs 0%, P = 0.018), harbor a higher Ki-67 index (16.7% vs 0% > 5% P = 0.050), and present a lower 2-year recurrence-free survival rate (67.5% vs 90.9%) compared with patients with pituicytoma or granular cell tumor.

Conclusion

PPTs should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with sellar and suprasellar masses with a regular lesion with homogeneous enhancement. SCOs had high proliferation activity and risk of recurrence.

Open access

Anna C van der Burgh, Samer R Khan, Sebastian J C M M Neggers, Ewout J Hoorn, and Layal Chaker

Objective/design

Testosterone might mediate sex differences in kidney function and chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, few studies analyzing the association between testosterone and kidney function showed conflicting results. Therefore, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Methods

Six electronic databases were searched from inception to March 4, 2020, for studies that investigated the association of (i) testosterone status with kidney function in the general population or (ii) testosterone status with clinical outcomes (kidney function decline, kidney failure, cardiovascular (CV) events, and cardiovascular and all-cause mortality) in CKD patients. We used random and fixed-effect models to obtain pooled effect estimates with 95% confidence intervals (CIs).

Results

No randomized–controlled trials that met the inclusion criteria were identified. One study was conducted in the general population and reported an increased risk of incident CKD with low vs normal testosterone (hazard ratio (HR): 1.38, 95% CI: 1.05;1.80). Seven studies were conducted in men with CKD and included testosterone as determinant, of which six could be meta-analyzed. Low testosterone was associated with an increased risk of all-cause mortality and CV events (pooled HR: 1.98, 95% CI: 1.36;2.89; pooled HR of 2.40, 95% CI: 1.22;4.71, respectively). Two studies showed an increased risk of all-cause mortality with decreased dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) in men with CKD; results regarding CV events were conflicting.

Conclusions

Although literature is scarce, evidence suggests that lower testosterone may increase CKD risk in the general population and risk of all-cause mortality and CV events in men with CKD. Whether testosterone supplementation could prevent these potential detrimental outcomes should be determined in future intervention studies.

Open access

Wenhao Lin, Jun Dai, Jialing Xie, Jiacheng Liu, Fukang Sun, Xin Huang, Wei He, Chen Fang, Juping Zhao, and Danfeng Xu

Purpose

To externally validate the performance of the S-GRAS score and a model from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database in a Chinese cohort of patients with adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC).

Methods

We first developed a model using data from the SEER database, after which we retrospectively reviewed 51 ACC patients hospitalized between 2013 and 2018, and we finally validated the model and S-GRAS score in this Chinese cohort.

Results

Patient age at diagnosis, tumor size, TNM stage, and radiotherapy were used to construct the model, and the Harrell’s C-index of the model in the training set was 0.725 (95% CI: 0.682–0.768). However, the 5-year area under the curve (AUC) of the model in the validation cohort was 0.598 (95% CI: 0.487–0.708). The 5-year AUC of the ENSAT stage was 0.640 (95% CI: 0.543–0.737), but the Kaplan–Meier curves of stages I and II overlapped in the validation cohort. The resection status (P = 0.066), age (P=0.68), Ki67 (P = 0.69), and symptoms (P = 0.66) did not have a significant impact on cancer-specific survival in the validation cohort. In contrast, the S-GRAS score group showed better discrimination (5-year AUC: 0.683, 95% CI: 0.602–0.764) than the SEER model or the ENSAT stage.

Conclusion

The SEER model showed favorable discrimination and calibration ability in the training set, but it failed to distinguish patients with various prognoses in our institution. In contrast, the S-GRAS score could effectively stratify patients with different outcomes.

Open access

Francesca Marini, Francesca Giusti, Teresa Iantomasi, Federica Cioppi, and Maria Luisa Brandi

Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) is a rare, inherited cancer syndrome characterized by the development of multiple endocrine and non-endocrine tumors. MEN1 patients show a reduction of bone mass and a higher prevalence of early onset osteoporosis, compared to healthy population of the same age, gender, and ethnicity. During the monitoring and follow-up of MEN1 patients, the attention of clinicians is primarily focused on the diagnosis and therapy of tumors, while the assessment of bone health and mineral metabolism is, in many cases, marginally considered. In this study, we retrospectively analyzed bone and mineral metabolism features in a series of MEN1 patients from the MEN1 Florentine database. Biochemical markers of bone and mineral metabolism and densitometric parameters of bone mass were retrieved from the database and were analyzed based on age ranges and genders of patients and presence/absence of the three main MEN1-related endocrine tumor types. Our evaluation confirmed that patients with a MEN1 diagnosis have a high prevalence of earlyonset osteopenia and osteoporosis, in association with levels of serum and urinary markers of bone turnover higher than the normal reference values, regardless of their different MEN1 tumors. Fifty percent of patients younger than 26 years manifested osteopenia and 8.3% had osteoporosis, in at least one of the measured bone sites. These data suggest the importance of including biochemical and instrumental monitoring of bone metabolism and bone mass in the routine medical evaluation and follow-up of MEN1 patients and MEN1 carriers as important clinical aspects in the management of the syndrome.

Open access

Sara Ahmadi, Alexandra Coleman, Nathalie Silva de Morais, Iñigo Landa, Theodora Pappa, Alex Kang, Matthew I Kim, Ellen Marqusee, and Erik K Alexander

Background

Planar scintigraphy has long been indicated in patients receiving I-131 therapy for thyroid cancer to determine the anatomic location of metastases. We studied our experience upon implementing additional single-photon emission (SPECT)-CT scanning in these patients.

Method

We performed a retrospective study of consecutive adult patients with newly diagnosed thyroid cancer treated with I-131 between 2011 and 2017. Radiologic findings detected with planar scintigraphy alone vs those identified with SPECT-CT scanning were primary endpoints.

Result

In this study, 212 consecutive patients with thyroid cancer were analyzed in two separate cohorts (107 planar scintigraphy alone and 105 planar scintigraphy with SPECT-CT). The addition of SPECT-CT resulted in more findings, both thyroid-related and incidental. However, we identified only 3 of 21 cases in which SPECT-CT provided an unequivocal additional benefit by changing clinical management beyond planar scintigraphy alone. No difference in the detection of distant metastatic disease or outcome was identified between cohorts.

Conclusion

Synergistic SPECT-CT imaging in addition to planar nuclear scintigraphy adds limited clinical value to thyroid cancer patients harboring a low risk of distant metastases, while frequently identifying clinically insignificant findings. These data from a typical cohort of patients receiving standard thyroid cancer care provide insight into the routine use of SPECT-CT in such patients.

Open access

Xiaoya Zheng, Heng Xiao, Jian Long, Qiang Wei, Liping Liu, Liping Zan, and Wei Ren

Objective

Programmed cell death protein-1 (PD-1) inhibitors are widely used for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Thyroid dysfunction is common in patients treated with this therapy, although the dynamic changes in thyroid function and sonographic features remain unclear.

Methods

We analyzed 38 patients with HCC who received anti-PD-1 therapy at our hospital. Demographic, clinical, laboratory, and ultrasound data were extracted from electronic medical records. The grading of thyroid nodules was based on the American College of Radiology Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System classification. Statistical analyses were performed using GraphPad Prism 5.0.

Results

Fifteen patients (40%) had hypothyroidism, among which six had hypothyroidism at baseline, three had overt hypothyroidism, and six had subclinical hypothyroidism after anti-PD1 therapy. The proportion of patients with euthyroid function and thyroid antibody positivity was significantly lower than that of patients with thyroid dysfunction (10% vs 39%, P  < 0.05). Nine patients (24%) had irregular echo patterns on sonographic imaging, six of whom had irregular echo patterns present during the treatment, but only one had them persist until the end of treatment. At baseline, the classification of most thyroid nodules was grade 3, with a significant increase in grade 4A and 4B classifications during treatment, though most nodules remained grade 3 at the end of treatment. There were no significant differences in survival rates between the euthyroid and thyroid dysfunction groups.

Conclusion

Anti-PD-1 therapy-induced thyroid dysfunction was accompanied by changes in thyroid function, antibodies, and ultrasonography. Therefore, in patients receiving anti-PD-1 therapy, close, dynamic monitoring of thyroid function, antibodies, and ultrasonographic characteristics is necessary.

Open access

Brendan J Nolan, Aviva S Frydman, Shalem Y Leemaqz, Meg Carroll, Mathis Grossmann, Jeffrey D Zajac, and Ada S Cheung

Objective

The role of micronised progesterone in hormone regimens for transgender individuals undergoing feminising hormone therapy remains uncertain. We aimed to determine the effect of oral micronised progesterone on sleep quality, psychological distress, and breast development in transgender individuals undergoing feminising hormone therapy.

Design

Prospective case–control study. Twenty-three transgender individuals on stable oestradiol treatment newly commencing 100 mg oral progesterone (n = 23) and controls continuing standard care (n = 19) were assessed over 3 months.

Methods

Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Kessler psychological distress scale (K10), and Tanner stage to assess breast development were assessed at 0 and 3 months. Non-parametric analysis of covariance was used to compare differences between groups.

Results

Compared with controls over 3 months, there was no difference in PSQI (P = 0.35), K10 (P = 0.64), or Tanner stage (P = 0.42). There was no significant difference in the proportion of individuals with clinically significant improvement in PSQI (25% vs 22%, P = 0.84). One individual had a significant deterioration in psychological distress that improved following the cessation of progesterone.

Conclusions

Low-dose progesterone was not associated with changes in sleep quality, psychological distress, or breast development over 3 months follow-up, though there was significant inter-individual variability. Larger, placebo-controlled trials are required to further evaluate different doses of progesterone in feminising hormone therapy regimens.