Neonatal screening for congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) faces many specific challenges. It must be done using a performant analytical approach that combines sensitivity and specificity to capture the potential causes of mortality during the first week of life, such as salt wasting and glucocorticoid deficiency. Here, we confirm that maternal inhaled corticosteroid intake during pregnancy is a possible cause of missed CAH diagnosis. Thanks to liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis, we were able to quantify endogenous steroid metabolites and also detect the presence of exogenous steroids in the dried blood spot of a newborn. Adding LC-MS/MS analysis as second-tier test, especially one that includes both 17-hydroxyprogesterone and 21-deoxycortisol measurements, would probably improve CAH diagnosis. In familial neonatal screening one could also look for maternal corticosteroid therapies that are hidden to prevent false-negative tests.
Muriel Houang, Thao Nguyen-Khoa, Thibaut Eguether, Bettina Ribault, Séverine Brabant, Michel Polak, Irène Netchine, and Antonin Lamazière
Paola Parra Ramírez, Patricia Martín Rojas-Marcos, Miguel Paja Fano, Marga González Boillos, Eider Pascual-Corrales, Ana García-Cano, Jorge Gabriel Ruiz-Sanchez, Almudena Vicente, Emilia Gómez-Hoyos, Rui Ferreira, Iñigo García Sanz, Mònica Recasens, Begoña Pla Peris, Rebeca Barahona San Millan, María José Picón César, Patricia Díaz Guardiola, Juan Jesús García González, Carolina Perdomo, Laura Manjón, Rogelio García-Centeno, Juan Carlos Percovich, Ángel Rebollo Román, Paola Gracia Gimeno, Cristina Robles Lázaro, Manuel Morales, Felicia Hanzu, and Marta Araujo-Castro
To compare the presentation and evolution of primary aldosteronism (PA) in the elderly (≥65 years) and young patients (<65 years).
A retrospective multicenter study was performed in 20 Spanish hospitals of PA patients in follow-up between 2018 and 2021.
Three hundred fifty-two patients with PA <65 years and 88 patients ≥65 years were included. Older PA patients had a two-fold higher prevalence of type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, and cerebrovascular disease, but these differences disappeared after adjusting for hypertension duration. At diagnosis, diastolic blood pressure was lower than in young patients (83.3 ± 11.54 vs 91.6 ± 14.46 mmHg, P < 0.0001). No differences in the rate of overall correct cannulation (56.5% vs 42.3%, P = 0.206) or the diagnosis of unilaterality (76.9% vs 62.5%, P = 0.325) in the adrenal venous sampling (AVS) was observed between the elderly and young groups. However, there was a lower proportion of PA patients who underwent adrenalectomy in the elderly group than in the younger group (22.7% (n = 20) vs 37.5% (n = 132), P = 0.009). Nevertheless, no differences in the rate of postsurgical biochemical (100% (n = 14) vs 92.8% (n = 90), P = 0.299) and hypertension cure (38.6% (n = 51) vs 25.0% (n = 5), P = 0.239) were observed between both groups.
Older patients with PA have a worse cardiometabolic profile than young patients with PA that it is related to a longer duration of hypertension. However, the results of the AVS, and adrenalectomy are similar in both groups. Therefore, the management of elderly patients with PA should be based not only on age, but rather on the overall medical, physical, social, and mental characteristics of the patients.
Melody Lok-Yi Chan, Sammy Wing-Ming Shiu, Ching-Lung Cheung, Anskar Yu-Hung Leung, and Kathryn Choon-Beng Tan
The inducible degrader of low-density lipoprotein receptor (IDOL) is an E3 ubiquitin ligase involved in the post-transcriptional regulation of LDL receptor (LDLR). Statins lower plasma LDL by activating transcription of hepatic LDLR expression, and we have determined whether statins modulate IDOL expression and influence LDLR protein abundance. IDOL expression in monocytes and serum IDOL level was determined in statin-treated familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) patients and compared with control subjects. Serum IDOL level was also evaluated in a group of untreated FH patients before and after the initiation of statin. The mechanism underlying the inhibitory effect of statin on IDOL expression was investigated in vitro. In statin-treated FH patients, serum IDOL level and its expression in monocytes was reduced compared with control (P < 0.05). In contrast, untreated FH patients had higher serum levels of IDOL and proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexintype 9 (PCSK9) than control (P < 0.05), and serum IDOL level decreased after statin therapy (P < 0.05) whereas an increase was observed in PCSK9 level (P < 0.01). In vitro, atorvastatin significantly decreased IDOL abundance in a dose-dependent manner in cultured macrophages and hepatocytes with a concomitant increase in LDLR expression. The transcription of IDOL was restored by adding either an LXR agonist T0901317 or oxysterol 22(R)-hydroxycholesterol, indicating that statin inhibited IDOL expression by reducing LXR activation. The LXR-IDOL-LDLR axis can be modulated by statins in vitro and in vivo. Statins inhibit IDOL expression by reducing LXR activation and upregulate LDLR, and statins exert the opposite effect on IDOL and PCSK9.
Judith Gebauer and Claire E Higham
Eleftherios E Deiktakis, Eleftheria Ieronymaki, Peter Zarén, Agnes Hagsund, Elin Wirestrand, Johan Malm, Christos Tsatsanis, Ilpo T Huhtaniemi, Aleksander Giwercman, and Yvonne Lundberg Giwercman
During androgen ablation in prostate cancer by the standard gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist treatment, only luteinizing hormone (LH) is permanently suppressed while circulating follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) rebounds. We explored direct prostatic effects of add-back FSH, after androgen ablation with GnRH antagonist, permanently suppressing both gonadotropins.
The effects of recombinant human (rFSH) were examined in mice treated with vehicle (controls), GnRH antagonist degarelix (dgx), dgx + rFSH, dgx + flutamide, or dgx + rFSH + flutamide for 4 weeks. Prostates and testes size and expression of prostate-specific and/or androgen-responsive genes were measured. Additionally, 33 young men underwent dgx-treatment. Seventeen were supplemented with rFSH (weeks 1–5), and all with testosterone (weeks 4–5). Testosterone, gondotropins, prostate-specific antigen (PSA), and inhibin B were measured.
In dgx and dgx + flutamide treated mice, prostate weight/body weight was 91% lower than in controls, but 41 and 11%, respectively, was regained by rFSH treatment (P = 0.02). The levels of seminal vesicle secretion 6, Pbsn, Nkx3.1, beta-microseminoprotein, and inhibin b were elevated in dgx + rFSH-treated animals compared with only dgx treated (all P < 0.05). In men, serum inhibin B rose after dgx treatment but was subsequently suppressed by testosterone. rFSH add-back had no effect on PSA levels.
These data provide novel evidence for the direct effects of FSH on prostate size and gene expression in chemically castrated mice. However, in chemically castrated men, FSH had no effect on PSA production. Whether FSH effects on the prostate in humans also require suppression of the residual adrenal-derived androgens and/or a longer period of rFSH stimulation, remains to be explored.
Marília D’Elboux Guimarães Brescia, Karine Candido Rodrigues, André Fernandes d’Alessandro, Wellington Alves Filho, Willemijn Y van der Plas, Schelto Kruijff, Sergio Samir Arap, Sergio Pereira de Almeida Toledo, Fábio Luiz de Menezes Montenegro, and Delmar Muniz Lourenço Jr
Potential influences of parathyroidectomy (PTx) on the quality of life (QoL) in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1-related primary hyperparathyroidism (HPT/MEN1) are unknown.
Short Form 36 Health Survey Questionnaire was prospectively applied to 30 HPT/MEN1 patients submitted to PTx (20, subtotal; 10, total with autograft) before, 6 and 12 months after surgery. Parameters that were analyzed included QoL, age, HPT-related symptoms, general pain, comorbidities, biochemical/hormonal response, PTx type and parathyroid volume.
Asymptomatic patients were younger (30 vs 38 years; P = 0.04) and presented higher QoL scores than symptomatic ones: Physical Component Summary score (PCS) 92.5 vs 61.2, P = 0.0051; Mental Component Summary score (MCS) 82.0 vs 56.0, P = 0.04. In both groups, QoL remained stable 1 year after PTx, independently of the number of comorbidities. Preoperative general pain was negatively correlated with PCS (r = −0.60, P = 0.0004) and MCS (r = −0.57, P = 0.0009). Also, moderate/intense pain was progressively (6/12 months) more frequent in cases developing hypoparathyroidism. The PTx type and hypoparathyroidism did not affect the QoL at 12 months although remnant parathyroid tissue volume did have a positive correlation (P = 0.0490; r = 0.3625) to PCS 12 months after surgery. Patients with one to two comorbidities had as pre-PTx PCS (P = 0.0015) as 12 months and post-PTx PCS (P = 0.0031) and MCS (P = 0.0365) better than patients with three to four comorbidities.
A variable QoL profile was underscored in HPT/MEN1 reflecting multiple factors associated with this complex disorder as comorbidities, advanced age at PTx and presence of preoperative symptoms or of general pain perception. Our data encourage the early indication of PTx in HPT/MEN1 by providing known metabolic benefits to target organs and avoiding potential negative impact on QoL.
Carole Morin, Keo-Morakort Benedetto, Agathe Deville, Laurent Milot, Aurélie Theillaumas, Valérie Hervieu, Mathieu Pioche, Gilles Poncet, Julien Forestier, Laurent François, Francoise Borson-Chazot, Mustapha Adham, Catherine Lombard-Bohas, and Thomas Walter
To improve neuroendocrine neoplasm (NEN) management, the European Neuroendocrine Tumor Society (ENETS) recognised 62 Centers of Excellence (CoE). This retrospective study compares conformity of patients’ initial management within vs outside an ENETS CoE with clinical practice guidelines (CPGs).
Patients diagnosed with a NEN between August 2018 and July 2020 and presented in the Lyon-CoE Multidisciplinary Tumour Board (MDT) were included. Factors potentially associated with the conformity of initial management (work-up and first treatment) to CPG underwent univariate and multivariate analyses.
Among the 615 included patients, 170 (27.6%) were initially managed in the CoE and 445 (72.4%) were only presented at the CoE-MDT. Patients in the CoE group more often had intestinal or pancreatic primaries, metastatic disease (61.8% vs 33%), hereditary syndrome, and a functioning tumour. Work-up conformity was 37.1% in the CoE (vs 29.9%, P = 0.09); this was 95.8% for the first treatment (vs 88.7%, P = 0.01). After multivariate analysis, CPG conformity was significantly higher for patients managed in the CoE, for younger patients, for those having a grade 1–2 tumour, and a genetic syndrome. Pancreatic and small intestinal (SI) NET surgeries performed in the CoE had a higher splenic preservation rate during left pancreatectomy, better detection of multiple tumours in SI surgeries, and higher number of resected lymph nodes.
Given the widespread observance of CPG, not all patients require management in the CoE. Referral should be considered for more complex cases such as metastatic diseases, G2 tumours, or carcinoid syndromes. Finally, we should encourage the centralization of NET surgery.
Nidan Qiao, Haixia Cheng, Zhaoyun Zhang, Hongying Ye, Ming Shen, Xuefei Shou, Xiaoyun Cao, Hong Chen, Xiang Zhou, Yongfei Wang, and Yao Zhao
Most studies reporting posterior pituitary tumors (PPTs) are small case series or single cases.
Patients with a histological diagnosis of PPT from January 2010 to December 2021 in a tertiary center were identified. We reported clinical symptoms, endocrine assessments, radiological and pathological features, and surgical outcomes of PPTs.
A total of 51 patients (23 males, 51.3 ± 10.3 years old) with PPT were included in this study. Major symptoms were visual defects, headache, and hypopituitarism, while diabetes insipidus was uncommon (9.8%). The typical radiological feature was homogeneous enhancement (84.3%) of a regular-shaped mass on T1 contrast imaging without cystic change, calcification, or cavernous sinus invasion. We achieved gross total resection in 38/51 patients (74.5%). Pathologically, all tumors showed thyroid transcription factor 1 immunoreactivity. Among 29 patients with suprasellar PPTs, postoperative hemorrhage due to tumor residue was encountered in 2/15 cases in the transcranial group and 0/14 in the endoscopy group. Patients with spindle cell oncocytoma (SCO) were more likely to be surgically treated (25% vs 0%, P = 0.018), harbor a higher Ki-67 index (16.7% vs 0% > 5% P = 0.050), and present a lower 2-year recurrence-free survival rate (67.5% vs 90.9%) compared with patients with pituicytoma or granular cell tumor.
PPTs should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with sellar and suprasellar masses with a regular lesion with homogeneous enhancement. SCOs had high proliferation activity and risk of recurrence.
Anna C van der Burgh, Samer R Khan, Sebastian J C M M Neggers, Ewout J Hoorn, and Layal Chaker
Testosterone might mediate sex differences in kidney function and chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, few studies analyzing the association between testosterone and kidney function showed conflicting results. Therefore, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Six electronic databases were searched from inception to March 4, 2020, for studies that investigated the association of (i) testosterone status with kidney function in the general population or (ii) testosterone status with clinical outcomes (kidney function decline, kidney failure, cardiovascular (CV) events, and cardiovascular and all-cause mortality) in CKD patients. We used random and fixed-effect models to obtain pooled effect estimates with 95% confidence intervals (CIs).
No randomized–controlled trials that met the inclusion criteria were identified. One study was conducted in the general population and reported an increased risk of incident CKD with low vs normal testosterone (hazard ratio (HR): 1.38, 95% CI: 1.05;1.80). Seven studies were conducted in men with CKD and included testosterone as determinant, of which six could be meta-analyzed. Low testosterone was associated with an increased risk of all-cause mortality and CV events (pooled HR: 1.98, 95% CI: 1.36;2.89; pooled HR of 2.40, 95% CI: 1.22;4.71, respectively). Two studies showed an increased risk of all-cause mortality with decreased dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) in men with CKD; results regarding CV events were conflicting.
Although literature is scarce, evidence suggests that lower testosterone may increase CKD risk in the general population and risk of all-cause mortality and CV events in men with CKD. Whether testosterone supplementation could prevent these potential detrimental outcomes should be determined in future intervention studies.
Wenhao Lin, Jun Dai, Jialing Xie, Jiacheng Liu, Fukang Sun, Xin Huang, Wei He, Chen Fang, Juping Zhao, and Danfeng Xu
To externally validate the performance of the S-GRAS score and a model from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database in a Chinese cohort of patients with adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC).
We first developed a model using data from the SEER database, after which we retrospectively reviewed 51 ACC patients hospitalized between 2013 and 2018, and we finally validated the model and S-GRAS score in this Chinese cohort.
Patient age at diagnosis, tumor size, TNM stage, and radiotherapy were used to construct the model, and the Harrell’s C-index of the model in the training set was 0.725 (95% CI: 0.682–0.768). However, the 5-year area under the curve (AUC) of the model in the validation cohort was 0.598 (95% CI: 0.487–0.708). The 5-year AUC of the ENSAT stage was 0.640 (95% CI: 0.543–0.737), but the Kaplan–Meier curves of stages I and II overlapped in the validation cohort. The resection status (P = 0.066), age (P=0.68), Ki67 (P = 0.69), and symptoms (P = 0.66) did not have a significant impact on cancer-specific survival in the validation cohort. In contrast, the S-GRAS score group showed better discrimination (5-year AUC: 0.683, 95% CI: 0.602–0.764) than the SEER model or the ENSAT stage.
The SEER model showed favorable discrimination and calibration ability in the training set, but it failed to distinguish patients with various prognoses in our institution. In contrast, the S-GRAS score could effectively stratify patients with different outcomes.