Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) is the most common cause of hereditary primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT). Bone disorders are considered one of the key symptoms in PHPT present with the significant reduction in bone mineral density and low-energy fractures. Previously, these bone disorders were believed to be caused solely by the increase in the level of parathyroid hormone and its subsequent effect on bone resorption. The current paradigm, however, states that the mutations in the menin gene, which cause the development of MEN1, can also affect the metabolism of the cells of the osteoid lineage. This review analyzes both the proven and the potential intracellular mechanisms through which menin can affect bone metabolism.
Anna Gorbacheva, Anna Eremkina, Daria Goliusova, Julia Krupinova, and Natalia Mokrysheva
Yi Chen, Wen Zhang, Chi Chen, Yuying Wang, Ningjian Wang, and Yingli Lu
We aimed to evaluate whether thyroid hormones, autoimmune and thyroid homeostasis status were related to bone turnover in type 2 diabetes.
The data were obtained from a cross-sectional study, the METAL study. In this study, 4209 participants (2059 men and 2150 postmenopausal women) with type 2 diabetes were enrolled. Thyroid function, thyroid antibodies and three bone turnover markers (BTMs), including a large N-mid fragment of osteocalcin (N-MID osteocalcin), β-C-terminal cross-linked telopeptides of type I collagen (β-CTX) and procollagen type I N-terminal propeptide (P1NP), were measured. Thyroid homeostasis parameters, including the sum activity of step-up deiodinases (SPINA-GD), thyroid secretory capacity (SPINA-GT), Jostel’s TSH index (TSHI) and the thyrotroph thyroid hormone resistance index (TTSI), were calculated. The associations of thyroid parameters with BTMs were analyzed using linear regression.
Free and total triiodothyronine were positively associated with N-MID osteocalcin and P1NP in both sexes and positively associated with β-CTX in postmenopausal women. Thyroid-stimulating hormone was negatively associated with β-CTX in postmenopausal women, and free thyroxine was negatively associated with N-MID osteocalcin and P1NP in men. SPINA-GD was positively associated with N-MID osteocalcin and P1NP in both sexes. There was a positive relationship of SPINA-GT with β-CTX, a negative relationship of TTSI with β-CTX, and a negative relationship of TSHI with β-CTX and P1NP in postmenopausal women.
Among men and postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes, significant associations were observed between N-MID osteocalcin, β-CTX and P1NP with thyroid function and thyroid homeostasis. Further prospective studies are warranted to understand the causal relationship and underlying mechanism.
Ewa Stogowska, Karol Adam Kamiński, Bartosz Ziółko, and Irina Kowalska
The subject of vocal changes accompanying pathological conditions, although still not well explored, seems to be promising. The discovery of laryngeal receptors for sex hormones and thyroid hormones can strongly support the hypothesis of changes in voice due to various endocrinopathies. On the other hand, the impairment of the proper function of the vocal apparatus can also be caused in the process of the microvasculature complications of diabetes mellitus. This review was a comprehensive summary of the accessible literature concerning the influence of selected endocrinopathies on subjective and objective voice parameters. We analysed a total number of 16 English-language research papers from the PubMed database, released between 2008 and 2021, describing vocal changes in reproductive disorders such as polycystic ovary syndrome and congenital adrenal hyperplasia, thyroid disorders in shape of hypo- or hyperthyroidism and type 2 diabetes mellitus. The vast majority of the analysed articles proved some changes in voice in all mentioned conditions, although the detailed affected vocal parameters frequently differed between research. We assume that the main cause of the observed conflicting results might stem from non-homogeneous methodology designs of the analysed studies.
Jennifer K Y Ko, Jinghua Shi, Raymond H W Li, William S B Yeung, and Ernest H Y Ng
Vitamin D receptors are present in the female reproductive tract. Studies on the association between serum vitamin D level and pregnancy rate of in vitro fertilization (IVF) showed inconsistent results and focused on a single fresh or frozen embryo transfer cycle. The objective of our study was to evaluate if serum vitamin D level before ovarian stimulation was associated with the cumulative live birth rate (CLBR) of the first IVF cycle.
Retrospective cohort study.
Women who underwent the first IVF cycle from 2012 to 2016 at a university-affiliated reproductive medicine center were included. Archived serum samples taken before ovarian stimulation were analyzed for 25(OH)D levels using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.
In total, 1113 had pregnancy outcome from the completed IVF cycle. The median age (25th–75th percentile) of the women was 36 (34–38) years and serum 25(OH)D level was 53.4 (41.9–66.6) nmol/L. The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency (less than 50 nmol/L) was 42.2%. The CLBR in the vitamin D-deficient group was significantly lower compared to the non-deficient group (43.9%, 208/474 vs 50.9%, 325/639, P = 0.021, unadjusted), and after controlling for women’s age, BMI, antral follicle count, type and duration of infertility. There were no differences in the clinical/ongoing pregnancy rate, live birth rate and miscarriage rate in the fresh cycle between the vitamin D deficient and non-deficient groups.
Vitamin D deficiency was prevalent in infertile women in subtropical Hong Kong. The CLBR of the first IVF cycle in the vitamin D-deficient group was significantly lower compared to the non-deficient group.
Till Ittermann, Rehman Mehmood Khattak, Marcello R P Markus, Jens-Peter Kühn, Marie-Luise Kromrey, Giovanni Targher, Antje Steveling, Matthias Nauck, and Henry Völzke
The associations of thyroid function parameters with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and hepatic iron overload are not entirely clear. We have cross-sectionally investigated these associations among 2734 participants of two population-based cross-sectional studies of the Study of Health in Pomerania. Serum levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), free tri-iodothyronine (fT3), and free thyroxine (fT4) levels were measured. Liver fat content (by proton-density fat fraction) as well as hepatic iron content (by transverse relaxation rate; R2*) were assessed by quantitative MRI. Thyroid function parameters were associated with hepatic fat and iron contents by median and logistic regression models adjusted for confounding. There were no associations between serum TSH levels and liver fat content, NAFLD, or hepatic iron overload. Serum fT4 levels were inversely associated with liver fat content, NAFLD, hepatic iron contents, and hepatic iron overload. Serum fT3 levels as well as the fT3 to fT4 ratio were positively associated with hepatic fat, NAFLD, hepatic iron contents, but not with hepatic iron overload. Associations between fT3 levels and liver fat content were strongest in obese individuals, in which we also observed an inverse association between TSH levels and NAFLD. These findings might be the result of a higher conversion of fT4 to the biologically active form fT3. Our results suggest that a subclinical hyperthyroid state may be associated with NAFLD, particularly in obese individuals. Furthermore, thyroid hormone levels seem to be more strongly associated with increased liver fat content compared to hepatic iron content.
Ann-Cathrin Koschker, Bodo Warrings, Caroline Morbach, Florian Seyfried, Nicole Rickert, Pius Jung, Andreas Geier, Ulrich Dischinger, Maike Krauthausen, Martin J Herrmann, Christine Stier, Stefan Frantz, Uwe Malzahn, Stefan Störk, Martin Fassnacht, and the WAS Study Group
Obesity is a rapidly emerging health problem and an established risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Bariatric surgery profoundly reduces body weight and mitigates sequelae of obesity. The open, randomized controlled Würzburg Adipositas Studie (WAS) trial compares the effects of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) vs psychotherapy-supported lifestyle modification in morbidly obese patients. The co-primary endpoint addresses 1-year changes in cardiovascular function (peak VO2 during cardiopulmonary exercise testing) and the quality of life (QoL) (Short-Form-36 physical functioning scale). Prior to randomization, all included patients underwent a multimodal anti-obesity treatment for 6–12 months. Thereafter, the patients were randomized and followed through month 12 to collect the primary endpoints. Afterwards, patients in the lifestyle group could opt for surgery, and final visit was scheduled for all patients 24 months after randomization. Sample size calculation suggested to enroll 90 patients in order to arrive at minimally 22 patients per group evaluable for the primary endpoint. Secondary objectives were to quantify changes in body weight, left ventricular hypertrophy, systolic and diastolic function (by echocardiography and cardiac MRI), functional brain MRI, psychometric scales, and endothelial and metabolic function. WAS enrolled 93 patients (72 women, median age 38 years, BMI 47.5 kg/m2) exhibiting a relevantly compromised exercise capacity (median peakVO2 18.3 mL/min/kg) and the QoL (median physical functioning scale 50). WAS is the first randomized controlled trial focusing on the effects of RYGB on cardiovascular function beyond hypertension. In addition, it will provide a wealth of high-quality data on the cerebral, psychiatric, hepatic, and metabolic function in obese patients after RYGB.
Fei Wu, Chaoming Mao, Xiao Mou, Chengcheng Xu, Tingting Zheng, Ling Bu, Xuan Luo, Qingyan Lu, and Xuefeng Wang
Hashimoto’s thyroiditis (HT) is a very common organ-speciﬁc autoimmune disease characterized by lymphocyte infiltration and the destruction of thyroid follicular cells (TFCs), in which IFN-γ and chemokines play pivotal roles. Moreover, β-catenin has been implicated in the regulation of T cell infiltration. However, whether β-catenin is involved in Hashimoto’s thyroiditis is unknown. Here, we examined β-catenin expression in thyroid tissues and investigated its role in the pathogenesis of HT. The results showed that β-catenin expression was markedly reduced in the thyroid tissues of HT patients; more importantly, IFN-γ treatment markedly reduced the expression of β-catenin and was accompanied by the secretion of chemokines such as CCL5, CXCL16, GRO-β, and GRO-γ in TFCs in vitro, which was attributed to GSK-3β/β-catenin signaling pathway activation. Collectively, the decreased expression of β-catenin might contribute to IFNγ-induced chemokine secretion and lymphocyte infiltration in the development of HT.
Yukari Maki, Kiyomi Horiuchi, and Takahiro Okamoto
Cancer-related fatigue is one of the most important issues for patients, but research on this topic is sparse. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of fatigue in postoperative patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) and to identify the clinical features associated with fatigue.
We conducted a cross-sectional study on 292 thyroid cancer survivors. Fatigue and quality of life were the study outcomes, measured using the Cancer Fatigue Scale (CFS) and the SF-36 version 2.0. Furthermore, correlations of demographic characteristics and hormonal data with the CFS scores were assessed by univariable and multivariable analyses.
The prevalence of fatigue was 41.8% (95% CI: 36.1, 47.5). The CFS score was significantly correlated with the free T3 level (Pearson’s r = −0.123, 95% CI: −0.234, −0.008). Multiple regression analysis revealed that the free T3 level and having a job were significant predictors of the CFS score, with unstandardized regression coefficients of −2.52 (95% CI: −4.94, −0.09) and 2.85 (95% CI: 0.49, 5.20), respectively. The median Z-scores were negative for General Health (−0.28) and Vitality (−0.15) subscales of the SF-36. The CFS score was a significant predictor of summary scores of the SF-36. The free T3 level was significantly associated with the physical component summary score with an unstandardized coefficient of 3.20 (95% CI: 0.77, 5.63).
Fatigue was prevalent and associated with poor quality of life among PTC survivors. Thyroid functional status, particularly the level of free T3, may be worth to be considered in alleviating the burden.
Michelle J Galvan, Michael J Sanchez, Andrew J McAinch, Jeffrey D Covington, Jason B Boyle, and Sudip Bajpeyi
Most US adults (54%) do not meet the minimum exercise recommendations by the American College of Sports Medicine. Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) is a novel alternate strategy to induce muscle contraction. However, the effectiveness of NMES to improve insulin sensitivity and energy expenditure is unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of 4 weeks of NMES on glucose tolerance in a sedentary overweight or obese population.
Participants (n = 10; age: 36.8 ± 3.8 years; BMI = 32 ± 1.3 kg/m2) were randomized into either control or NMES group. All participants received bilateral quadriceps stimulation (12 sessions; 30 min/session; three times/week at 50 Hz and 300 µs pulse width) altering pulse amplitude to either provide low-intensity sensory level (control; tingling sensation) or at high-intensity neuromuscular level (NMES; maximum tolerable levels with visible muscle contraction). Glucose tolerance was assessed by a 3-h oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), and substrate utilization was measured by indirect calorimetry and body composition via dual X-ray absorptiometry at baseline and after 4 weeks of NMES intervention.
Control and NMES groups had comparable fasting blood glucose, glucose tolerance, substrate utilization, and muscle mass at baseline. Four weeks of NMES resulted in a significant improvement in glucose tolerance measured by OGTT, whereas no change was observed in the control group. There was no change in substrate utilization and muscle mass in both control and NMES groups.
NMES is a novel and effective strategy to improve glucose tolerance in an at-risk overweight or obese sedentary population.
Lizhi Zhang, Jinwei He, Xiang Sun, Dongyue Pang, Jingjing Hu, and Bo Feng
We demonstrated previously that there is a correlation between glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and bone mineral density in postmenopausal women. Both GLP-1 and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide are incretins. The glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide receptor (GIPR) SNP rs10423928 has been extensively studied. However, it is not clear whether GIPR gene mutations affect bone metabolism. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between rs10423928 and bone mineral density in postmenopausal women in Shanghai. rs10423928 was detected in 884 postmenopausal women in Shanghai, and the correlation between the GIPR SNP and bone mineral density was assessed. The dominant T/T genotype of rs10423928 was found to be related to the bone mineral density of the femoral neck (P = 0.035). Overall, our findings indicate that the dominant T/T genotype of rs10423928 in postmenopausal women is significantly associated with a higher bone mineral density and that the T/T genotype exerts a bone-protective effect.