Browse

You are looking at 61 - 70 of 1,234 items for

  • Refine by Access: All content x
Clear All
Open access

Danielle Christine Maria van der Kaay, Anne Rochtus, Gerhard Binder, Ingo Kurth, Dirk Prawitt, Irène Netchine, Gudmundur Johannsson, Anita C S Hokken-Koelega, Miriam Elbracht, and Thomas Eggermann

The implementation of high-throughput and deep sequencing methods in routine genetic diagnostics has significantly improved the diagnostic yield in patient cohorts with growth disturbances and becomes increasingly important as the prerequisite of personalized medicine. They provide considerable chances to identify even rare and unexpected situations; nevertheless, we must be aware of their limitations. A simple genetic test in the beginning of a testing cascade might also help to identify the genetic cause of specific growth disorders. However, the clinical picture of genetically caused growth disturbance phenotypes can vary widely, and there is a broad clinical overlap between different growth disturbance disorders. As a consequence, the clinical diagnosis and therewith connected the decision on the appropriate genetic test is often a challenge. In fact, the clinician asking for genetic testing has to weigh different aspects in this decision process, including appropriateness (single gene test, stepwise procedure, comprehensive testing), turnaround time as the basis for rapid intervention, and economic considerations. Therefore, a frequent question in that context is ‘what to test when’. In this review, we aim to review genetic testing strategies and their strengths and limitations and to raise awareness for the future implementation of interdisciplinary genome medicine in diagnoses, treatment, and counselling of growth disturbances.

Open access

Xiaowen Zhang, Chen Han, Hongwei Wang, Xinghong Sun, Xin Dou, Xueying He, Di Wu, Shanmei Shen, Dalong Zhu, Xinlin Zhang, and Yan Bi

Thyroid eye disease (TED) is the major extrathyroidal manifestation of Graves’ disease (GD). Treatment choice is based on clinical activity and severity of TED, as evaluated with clinical activity score (CAS) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. We aimed to determine the relationship between neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), a readily available indicator of systemic inflammation, and clinical and MR imaging parameters in TED patients. Eighty-seven consecutive TED patients were included. The average signal intensity ratio (SIR), average extraocular muscle (EOM) diameter, and proptosis of the study eye were extracted from MR images. A baseline NLR ≥ 2.0 was recorded in 37 (42.5%) patients and NLR < 2.0 in 50 (57.5%) patients. TED patients with NLR ≥ 2.0 were older, had a higher CAS, average SIR, average EOM diameter and proptosis, and a lower serum thyrotrophin receptor antibody level than patients with NLR < 2.0 (all P < 0.05). All MR parameters showed significant correlation with CAS (P < 0.05). NLR correlated significantly with CAS (P = 0.001), average SIR (P = 0.004), average EOM diameter (P = 0.007), and proptosis (P = 0.007). Multiple regression revealed a significant correlation between NLR and CAS (P = 0.001), average SIR (P = 0.029), and proptosis (P = 0.037). Cox regression analysis showed that a high NLR at baseline was associated with a worse clinical outcome of TED (hazard ratio 3.7, 95% CI 1.22–11.2, P = 0.02), at a median follow-up of 25 months. In conclusion, NLR was correlated with CAS and MR imaging parameters and was associated with a worse clinical outcome of TED at follow-up in patients with TED. Additional prospective studies are needed to validate our findings.

Open access

E K White, I V Wagner, C van Beuzekom, V Iotova, S F Ahmed, O Hiort, and A M Pereira

In 2017, the European Commission installed 24 European Reference Networks (ERNs) for different categories of rare and complex conditions to facilitate cross-border health care via virtual case consultations in a secure Clinical Patient Management System (CPMS). The ERN for rare endocrine conditions (Endo-ERN) previously reviewed the CPMS, in which they detailed the difficulties physicians encountered with the system and proposed solutions to these that should enable the system to be used to a greater extent. This paper will further the endeavor of the first by performing a critical evaluation of the CPMS, assessing how these suggested improvements have been implemented, and if these have affected the usage of the system. The evaluation involves an assessment of CPMS usage statistics since its conception that takes into consideration the technical updates and the external factors that may have affected these, including data from a review survey following a training workshop for our new healthcare providers (HCPs) added in January 2022. It appears that the improvements made to the system since the first review, in particular the implementation of the Operational Helpdesk, have had a positive effect in increasing CPMS membership; however, the regular usage of the system continues to fluctuate. Several suggestions are made on how to further facilitate the use of CPMS by our members both individually and network-wide, by integrating CPMS activities with other network initiatives and further integrating these into national health care systems as well as looking for ways to measure patient satisfaction from the CPMS discussions outcomes.

Open access

Silvia Ciancia, Vanessa Dubois, and Martine Cools

Both in the United States and Europe, the number of minors who present at transgender healthcare services before the onset of puberty is rapidly expanding. Many of those who will have persistent gender dysphoria at the onset of puberty will pursue long-term puberty suppression before reaching the appropriate age to start using gender-affirming hormones. Exposure to pubertal sex steroids is thus significantly deferred in these individuals. Puberty is a critical period for bone development: increasing concentrations of estrogens and androgens (directly or after aromatization to estrogens) promote progressive bone growth and mineralization and induce sexually dimorphic skeletal changes. As a consequence, safety concerns regarding bone development and increased future fracture risk in transgender youth have been raised. We here review published data on bone development in transgender adolescents, focusing in particular on differences in age and pubertal stage at the start of puberty suppression, chosen strategy to block puberty progression, duration of puberty suppression, and the timing of re-evaluation after estradiol or testosterone administration. Results consistently indicate a negative impact of long-term puberty suppression on bone mineral density, especially at the lumbar spine, which is only partially restored after sex steroid administration. Trans girls are more vulnerable than trans boys for compromised bone health. Behavioral health measures that can promote bone mineralization, such as weight-bearing exercise and calcium and vitamin D supplementation, are strongly recommended in transgender youth, during the phase of puberty suppression and thereafter.

Open access

Zhiyan Yu, Yueyue Wu, Rui Zhang, Yue Li, Shufei Zang, and Jun Liu

Background

This study aimed to investigate the association of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and liver fibrosis with osteoporosis in postmenopausal women and men over 50 years of age with type 2 diabetes (T2DM).

Methods

In this study, 1243 patients with T2DM (T2DM with coexistent NAFLD, n  = 760; T2DM with no NAFLD, n  = 483) were analysed. Non-invasive markers, NAFLD fibrosis score (NFS) and fibrosis index based on four factors (FIB-4), were applied to evaluate NAFLD fibrosis risk.

Results

There was no significant difference in bone mineral density (BMD) between the NAFLD group and the non-NAFLD group or between males and females after adjusting for age, BMI and gender. In postmenopausal women, there was an increased risk of osteoporosis (odds ratio (OR): 4.41, 95% CI: 1.04–18.70, P = 0.039) in the FIB-4 high risk group compared to the low risk group. Similarly, in women with high risk NFS, there was an increased risk of osteoporosis (OR: 5.98, 95% CI: 1.40–25.60, P = 0.043) compared to the low risk group. Among men over 50 years old, there was no significant difference in bone mineral density between the NAFLD group and the non-NAFLD group and no significant difference between bone mineral density and incidence of osteopenia or osteoporosis among those with different NAFLD fibrosis risk.

Conclusion

There was a significant association of high risk for NAFLD liver fibrosis with osteoporosis in postmenopausal diabetic women but not men. In clinical practice, gender-specific evaluation of osteoporosis is needed in patients with T2DM and coexistent NAFLD.

Open access

Ya Zhang, Xiaoqiu Chu, Yuling Liu, Yueting Zhao, Xue Han, Xin Hu, Pingping Xiang, Guofang Chen, Chao Liu, and Shuhang Xu

Objective

To compare the efficacy and safety of ethanol ablation (EA) and microwave ablation (MWA) in the treatment of cystic or predominantly cystic thyroid nodules.

Methods

Patients with cystic or predominantly cystic thyroid nodules intervened with EA or MWA were retrospectively enrolled and divided into EA group (n  = 30) and MWA group (n  = 31). The volume and volume reduction rate (VRR) of thyroid nodules before ablation, and at 3 and 12 months after ablation were compared between the two groups. The effective rate (ER) and incidence of adverse events in both groups were recorded.

Results

The median VRR and ER at 3 months after ablation were significantly higher in EA group than in MWA group (81.30% vs 75.76%, P = 0.011; 76.67% (23/30) vs 51.61% (16/31), P = 0.040), while no significant difference was detected at 12 months (93.39% vs 88.78%, P = 0.141; 86.67% (26/30) vs 87.10% (27/31), P = 0.960). The median VRR of small nodules in EA group was significantly higher than that in MWA group (81.30% vs 71.18%, P = 0.006; 93.40% vs 83.14%, P = 0.032). There was no significant difference of median VRR in medium nodules at final follow-up between MWA and EA group (93.01% vs 89.68%, P = 0.482). Serious adverse events were not reported in both groups.

Conclusion

EA and MWA are both effective and safe in the treatment of cystic or predominantly cystic thyroid nodules. EA is more cost-effective and effective than MWA for small nodules, but it requires more cycles of treatment and may pose a higher risk of postoperative pain compared with MWA.

Open access

Wei Liu, Yunke Ma, Xiaoling Cai, Yu Zhu, Mingxia Zhang, Juan Li, Jing Chen, Dawei Shi, and Linong Ji

Objective

To explore the relationship between C-peptide secretion and time in range (TIR) in adult patients with type 1 diabetes.

Methods

From December 2018 to December 2020, 76 type 1 diabetes participants were enrolled from the Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism of Peking University People’s Hospital. All participants wore intermittently scanned continuous glucose monitoring (isCGM), and insulin dosage was adjusted according to standardized clinical procedures. Subjects were divided into low C-peptide group (<10 pmol/L) and preserved C-peptide group (10–200 pmol/L) based on fasting serum C-peptide levels. Differences of TIR, metrics related to glucose variability and hypoglycemic events were compared.

Results

A total of 94,846 isCGM values obtained from 39 male and 37 female participants were analyzed. Individuals with preserved C-peptide secretion had shorter diabetes duration (2.0 (0.5, 10.0) vs 10.0 (3.0, 18.3) years, P = 0.002). TIR was higher in the individuals with preserved C-peptide than those with decreased C-peptide (67.1% (54.2, 75.8) vs 45.5% (33.9, 56.1), P < 0.001), and time above range was significantly lower in those with preserved C-peptide (28.0% (15.6, 42.4) vs 49.4% (39.1, 64.2), P < 0.001). Preserved C-peptide was associated with lower glucose variability, as defined by s.d. (3.0 mmol/L (2.6, 3.4) vs 3.8 mmol/L (3.2, 4.3), P < 0.001) and interquartile range (4.3 mmol/L (3.1, 4.8) vs 5.3 mmol/L (4.5, 6.3), P < 0.001). Metrics related to hypoglycemia were not different between the two groups.

Conclusion

Preserved C-peptide secretion was associated with higher TIR and lower glucose variability in Chinese type 1 diabetes adults.

Open access

Arnaud Lagarde, Grégory Mougel, Lucie Coppin, Magalie Haissaguerre, Lauriane Le Collen, Amira Mohamed, Marc Klein, Marie-Françoise Odou, Antoine Tabarin, Hedia Brixi, Thomas Cuny, Brigitte Delemer, Anne Barlier, and Pauline Romanet

Purpose

Mosaicism is a feature of several inherited tumor syndromes. Only a few cases of mosaicism have been described in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1). Next-generation sequencing (NGS) offers new possibilities for detecting mosaicism. Here, we report the first study to systematically look for MEN1 mosaicism, using blood DNA, in MEN1-suspected patients but without MEN1 pathogenic variants (PV) in a heterozygous state.

Methods

Digital targeted NGS, including unique molecular identifiers (UMIs), was performed in routine practice, and the analytic performance of this method was verified.

Results

Among a cohort of 119 patients harboring from 2 to 5 MEN1 lesions, we identified 3 patients with MEN1 mosaic PVs. The allele frequencies ranged from 2.3 to 9.5%. The detection rate of MEN1 mosaicism in patients bearing at least 3 MEN1 lesions was 17% (3/18). No cases were detected in patients with two lesions.

Conclusion

We report here three new cases with MEN1 mosaicism. This study examined the performance of UMI in the diagnosis of MEN1 mosaicism in routine practice, and our results underline that the frequency of mosaicism is probably underestimated in patients with suspected MEN1.

Open access

Martin Wiegand, David J Halsall, Sarah L Cowan, Kevin Taylor, Robert J B Goudie, Jacobus Preller, and Mark Gurnell

Objective

Previous studies have reported conflicting findings regarding aldosterone levels in patients hospitalised with COVID-19. We therefore used the gold-standard technique of liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LCMSMS) to address this uncertainty.

Design

All patients admitted to Cambridge University Hospitals with COVID-19 between 10 March 2020 and 13 May 2021, and in whom a stored blood sample was available for analysis, were eligible for inclusion.

Methods

Aldosterone was measured by LCMSMS and by immunoassay; cortisol and renin were determined by immunoassay.

Results

Using LCMSMS, aldosterone was below the limit of detection (<70 pmol/L) in 74 (58.7%) patients. Importantly, this finding was discordant with results obtained using a commonly employed clinical immunoassay (Diasorin LIAISON®), which over-estimated aldosterone compared to the LCMSMS assay (intercept 14.1 (95% CI −34.4 to 54.1) + slope 3.16 (95% CI 2.09–4.15) pmol/L). The magnitude of this discrepancy did not clearly correlate with markers of kidney or liver function. Solvent extraction prior to immunoassay improved the agreement between methods (intercept −14.9 (95% CI −31.9 to −4.3) and slope 1.0 (95% CI 0.89–1.02) pmol/L) suggesting the presence of a water-soluble metabolite causing interference in the direct immunoassay. We also replicated a previous finding that blood cortisol concentrations were often increased, with increased mortality in the group with serum cortisol levels > 744 nmol/L (P = 0.005).

Conclusion

When measured by LCMSMS, aldosterone was found to be profoundly low in a significant proportion of patients with COVID-19 at the time of hospital admission. This has likely not been detected previously due to high levels of interference with immunoassays in patients with COVID-19, and this merits further prospective investigation.

Open access

Nobuo Matsuura, Tadashi Kaname, Norio Niikawa, Yoshihide Ooyama, Osamu Shinohara, Yukifumi Yokota, Shigeyuki Ohtsu, Noriyuki Takubo, Kazuteru Kitsuda, Keiko Shibayama, Fumio Takada, Akemi Koike, Hitomi Sano, Yoshiya Ito, and Kenji Ishikura

Objective

This study aimed to report on 15 Japanese patients with acrodysostosis and pseudohypoparathyroidism (PHP) and analyze them using the newly proposed classification of the EuroPHP network to determine whether this classification system is suitable for Japanese patients.

Design

We divided the patients into three groups based on hormone resistance, the number of fingers with short metacarpals, the existence of cone-shaped epiphyses and gene defects.

Methods

We carried out clinical, radiological and genetic evaluations of two patients in group A (iPPSD5), six patients in group B (iPPDS4) and seven patients in group C (iPPSD2).

Results

Group A consisted of two siblings without hormone resistance who had the most severe bone and physical developmental delays. PDE4D gene defects were detected in both cases. Group B consisted of six patients who showed hormone resistance without hypocalcemia. Short metacarpal bones with corn-shaped epiphyses were observed in all patients. In two cases, PRKAR1A gene defects were detected; however, their clinical and radiological features were not identical. The facial dysmorphism and developmental delay were less severe and PRKAR1A gene defects were detected in case B-3. Severe facial dysmorphism and deformity of metacarpal bones were observed, but no gene defect was detected in case B-1. Group C consisted of seven patients with PHP1a, four of whom had maternally inherited heterozygous inactivating mutations in one of the GNAS genes. The clinical and radiological features of the patients in group C were not identical either.

Conclusions

The newly proposed classification is suitable for Japanese patients; however, heterogeneities still existed within groups B and C.